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Full text of "Dictionary of Southern African Place Names"

Dictionary of Southern African Place Names 

P E Raper 

Head, Onomastic Research Centre, HSRC 



CONTENTS 

Preface 

Abbreviations ix 
Introduction 

1. Standardization of place names 

1.1 Background 

1.2 International standardization 

1.3 National standardization 

1.3.1 The National Place Names Committee 

1.3.2 Principles and guidelines 

1.3.2.1 General suggestions 

1.3.2.2 Spelling and form 
A Afrikaans place names 
B Dutch place names 

C English place names 

D Dual forms 

E Khoekhoen place names 

F Place names from African languages 

2. Structure of place names 

3. Meanings of place names 

3.1 Conceptual, descriptive or lexical meaning 

3.2 Grammatical meaning 



3.3 Connotative or pragmatic meaning 

4. Reference of place names 

5. Syntax of place names 
Dictionary 

Place Names 
Bibliography 



Preface 

Onomastics, or the study of names, has of late been enjoying a greater measure 
of attention all over the world. Nearly fifty years ago the International 
Committee of Onomastic Sciences (ICOS) came into being. This body has held 
fifteen triennial international congresses to date, the most recent being in 
Leipzig in 1984. With its headquarters in Louvain, Belgium, it publishes a 
bibliographical and information periodical, Onoma, an indispensable aid to 
researchers. 

Since 1967 the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names 
(UNGEGN) has provided for co-ordination and liaison between countries to 
further the standardization of geographical names. To date eleven working 
sessions and four international conferences have been held. 

In most countries of the world there are institutes and centres for onomastic 
research, official bodies for the national standardization of place names, and 
names societies. 

South Africa has not been lagging behind in this regard. Since 1939 a Place 
Names Committee (now the National Place Names Committee or NPNC) has 
seen to the standardization of official place names, while since 1970 the 
Onomastic Research Centre of the Human Sciences Research Council has 
undertaken, stimulated and helped to co-ordinate research into names. The 



Names Society of Southern Africa was founded in 1981 and has held three 
national congresses to date. At universities in Southern Africa research into 
names has been and is being undertaken, particularly at post-graduate level. As 
a result of all of these onomastic activities, publications have proliferated. 
However, most of them have been of a specialist nature. Furthermore, general 
works on names such as C Pettman's South African Place Names Past and 
Present (1931, reprinted by Lowry Publishers in 1985) and P J Nienaber's Suid- 
Afrikaanse Pleknaam woordeboek (1963, reprinted for the HSRC by Tafelberg 
in 1972) either do not contain names given during the past fifty years, or are out 
of print. 

This book seeks to provide a semi-popular guide to the major place names in 
Southern Africa: names of cities, towns, villages, mountains, rivers, 
promontories, bays, and other cultural and natural features In its compilation the 
recommendations of the United Nations on Geographical Names and the 
requirements of the National Place Names Committee have been taken into 
account, while at the same time an attempt has been made to provide accurate, 
interesting and valuable data for the use of travellers, tourists, cartographers, 
researchers, and everyone interested in Southern African place names. The 
introductory chapters are intended not as comprehensive treatises on all aspects 
of place names, but as brief glimpses into some of the fascinating problems 
which have occupied linguists, philosophers and onomasticians over the years. 



Finally, thanks are extended to all who were involved in the compilation of this 
work, particularly to Mrs P F Nel and Mrs S S Smit for their assistance with the 
proof-reading, and to Mrs Smit for helping to compile the bibliography. 



Bop 


Bophuthatswana 


Bots 


Botswana 


C 


Cape Province 


Cis 


Ciskei 


Escom 


Electricity Supply Commission 


HSCR 


Human Sciences Research Council 


Iscor 


(South African) Iron and Steel Corporation 


Km 


kilometre(s) 


Les 


Lesotho 


m 


metre(s) 


Moc 


Mozambique 


N 


Natal 


NASA 


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) 


n.d. 


not dated 


O 


Orange Free State 


RGN 


Raad vir Geestes wetenskaplike Navorsing 


S 


South-West Africa/Namibia 


SWA 


Swaziland 


T 


Transvaal 


Trsk 


Transkei 


Ven 


Venda 



Introduction 

1. Standardization of place names 

1.1 Background 

The place names of Southern Africa present fascinating and intriguing 
linguistic, cultural, sociological and psychological patterns. The oldest names 
are those of the San (Bushmen) and Khoekhoen (Hottentots), probably the true 
indigenous peoples of the country, and those of the African peoples. From the 
second half of the 15th century, Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, German 
and other names were given. The evolution of Afrikaans further enriched the 
geographical nomenclature. Settlement, colonization and immigration, 
particularly as a result of the exploitation of metal and mineral resources, and of 
urban and industrial development, added names from Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
Italian, Indian and other languages. 

As may be expected, cultural and language contact between these peoples is 
reflected in the place names of the country. Older names were altered, adapted, 
translated (wholly or in part), and supplanted. Hybrid forms, with part of the 
name in one language and another part in a different language, came into being. 
It also happened that many names were spelt in different ways by different 
people and at different times. Moreover, some individual places came to bear 
more than one name, bestowed by different language groups. 



The variety of forms and spellings resulted in a measure of confusion and some 
problems in communication, with a concomitant wastage of time, expense and 
energy. 

These and similar problems are, of course, not unique to Southern Africa, but 
occur world-wide, with greater or lesser ramifications, depending on the 
linguistic and other relevant conditions applying in the various countries. 

1.2 International standardization 

Efforts towards the international standardization of geographical names date 
from as early as 1820, when attempts were made to develop a script or alphabet 
which could be used world-wide to write place names. Since then, various 
national and international organizations have given attention to the problem of 
international standardization, inter alia the International Committee of 
Onomastic Sciences, the International Civil Aviation Association, the Pan 
American Institute of Geography and History, and similar organizations. In 
1953 the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations requested the 
Secretary-General to draft a framework of a programme aimed at maximum 
uniformity of writing geographical names, and to set up a small group of 
consultants to deal with the matter. 

In 1960 the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names 
(UNGEGN) came into being. Since that date eleven sessions of the UNGEGN 



have been held, as well as four international Conferences on the standardization 
of geographical names. 

The UNGEGN comprises experts in the fields of cartography and linguistics 
designated by governments of states at the invitation of the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations. Experts participating in the sessions of the UNGEGN serve 
in their personal capacities as individuals of recognized competence and 
experience in their respective fields. In 1984 the Permanent South African 
Mission to the United Nations in New York designated Dr P E Raper to 
represent the Republic of South Africa in the UNGEGN. 

The UNGEGN has the task of providing for continuous coordination and liaison 
between countries to further the standardization of geographical names. 

One of the fundamental guidelines for the international standardization of 
geographical names is that it be based on national standardization. 

1.3 National standardization 

1.3.1 The National Place Names Committee 

As early as 1936 it was realized that a measure of standardization of place 
names in South Africa was necessary, and a committee was appointed by the 
then Minister of the Interior to investigate the situation. At the recommendation 
of this committee, a Place Names Committee, later to become the National Place 
Names Committee (NPNC), was appointed in 1939. Comprising experts in the 



various languages of the country, onomasticians, and representatives of state 
departments and academic institutions, this committee has a mandate which 
includes 

(a) the gradual correction of the spelling of all geographical names in the 
Republic of South Africa; 

(b) the approval or rejection of all proposed new place names; 

(c) the consideration of all cases where a change of name is desired; 

(d) the compilation of dictionaries of geographical names; and 

(e) the standardization of foreign place names in Afrikaans. 

The work of the NPNC has led to the publication of Official Place Names in the 
Union and South-West Africa (1951), and Official Place Names in the Republic 
of South Africa and in South-West Africa (1978), as well as a Manual for the 
Giving of Place Names (1979). A list of official place names approved between 
1978 and 1985 is currently in preparation, while from 1986 the official names 
approved will be published annually. 

All of the above publications, however, deal with official place names, that is, 
names of cities, towns, townships, post offices, railway stations, sidings, 
airports, stopping places of South African Transport Services buses, etc. 



The compilation of dictionaries of geographical proper names has been 
entrusted to the Onomastic Research Centre of the Human Sciences Research 
Council. Since these dictionaries are to include names of cultural entities as well 
as those of geographical features, and since these names originate in all the 
various languages spoken in the country, it is clear that the compilation of these 
dictionaries must be based on intensive scientific research, and that this is a 
long term undertaking. 

The present publication may be regarded as a first step towards the final work. 
It includes the names of the most important cities, towns, townships, villages, 
regions, mountains, rivers, lakes, forests, and other features. Where such names 
have been approved by the NPNC, they have been marked with an asterisk. 

1.3.2 Principles and guidelines 

One of the primary functions of the NPNC is the recommendation for the 
approval or rejection of proposed new official place names. In order to facilitate 
matters for organizations and persons wishing to propose such names, the NPNC 
has formulated a number of principles and guidelines. These read as follows: 

1.3.2.1 General suggestions 

1. The following names should be avoided: 

(a) Names already existing in the Republic or in South-West Africa; 



(b) names of well-known places in other countries; 

(c) names having the same or almost the same spellings or having the same 
pronunciations as or very similar pronunciations to existing names: this 
would eliminate unnecessary confusion, e.g. in the postal, telegraph or 
telephone services; 

(d) names that are blasphemous, indecent, obscene, vulgar or unaesthetic; 

(e) names that are discriminatory or derogatory in regard to race, colour, 
religion, sex, political affiliation or other social factors; 

(f) names that are too long, clumsily compounded or impractical (more 
especially in view of the limited space available for such names on post 
office or municipal date-stamps, on railway tickets, on station name boards, 
etc.); 

(g) names that consist of no more than the name of a person and are therefore 
likely to cause confusion between place and person; 

(h) names that are too easily translated and may therefore lead to dual forms; 

(i) names that may be interpreted as advertising a specific firm or product. 

2. Existing names that are satisfactory and acceptable should not be changed 
without good reason. 



3. Where there is a clear connection between a proposed name and the specific 
place, e.g., where a motorbus halt is given the name of the farm on which it 
is situated, or where a post office is given the name of the suburb in which 
it is situated, the spelling of the new name should be the same as that of the 
place from which the name has been derived. 

4. New names should not be used on name-boards, in advertisements, etc., 
unless they have been approved by the Committee. 

5. It is a known fact that almost any name given to a place will in time, by 
association or otherwise, become firmly attached to that place. However, for 
aesthetic reasons, and considering factors such as the population group 
preponderating in a place or locality, it is advisable for a name with a more 
appropriate connection with the place or locality concerned to be given right 
from the start. This can be done by choosing names that are descriptive of 
local geographical features: names associated with rock formations or the 
flora and fauna which are or have been characteristic of the locality; names 
connected with historical figures and/or events; or names associated with 
the traditions, way of life and background of the local inhabitants, etc. 1 



See the Introduction to Official Place Names in the Republic of South Africa and in South West 
Africa, compiled by the Place Names Committee (Pretoria, Government Printer, 1978); summarized in 
Raper, P.E., Nienaber, G.S. and Marais, J.S.B. Manual for the Giving of Place Names (Pretoria, 
HSRC, 1979). Quotes are from the latter publication, but have been adapted. 



1.3.2.2 Spelling and form 
The NPNC has laid down that 

(a) The recognized spelling and forms of writing of the language from which 
the name is derived should be adhered to as far as possible. 

(b) Diacritical signs should be used in accordance with the requirements of the 
language. 

A. Afrikaans place names 

(1) Simplexes 

Names consisting of a simplex should not cause any problems. 

(2) Compound names 

Compound names are normally written as one word. The following two 
types will serve as examples. 

(i) Boesmankop, Bultfontein, Klawerkuil, Koedoedraai, Each of these names 
consists of two parts which in a non-onomastic context are two nouns. 
Sometimes the two parts are also linked with an -s, for example in 
Boesmanskraal, Broedersput, Klawershoek. Note: (i) Sometimes there is 
uncertainty as to which one a of the following pairs is admissible: laagte or 
leegte, rand or rant, olien or oliewen, wilge or wilger, et cetera. It is 



suggested that local custom should decide the issue. However, this freedom 
of choice no longer exists in the case of -stat and -stad. The form -stat is 
now retained only in Dingaanstat, in all other cases the form -stad is used, 
(ii) Names of the following kind are also written as one word: Brugo (from 
Bruwer and Hugo), Krudoring (from Kruger and doring), Palfon (from 
Palmiet/bntez'n); also letter names such as Eljeesee (L.J.C.) and syllable 
names such as Delmyn (from delwery and mynbou), et cetera, 
(ii) Diepkloof, Nuweland, Swartrand, Warmbad. These, and most names 
compounded of an adjective plus a noun, are written as one word. 

(a) Hyphens 

The hyphen is used in combinations with contrasting or distinguishing 
additions, such as Agter, Voor, Groot, Klein; Nuwe, Ou; Bo, Onder; Noord, 
Suid, Oos, Wes. They occur before or after a place-name, for example 
Agter -Sneeub erg, Groot-Brakrivier, Nuwe-Mosbank, Noord-Rand, Somerset- 
Oos, Riebeek-Wes. In an ordinary word which is not a distinguishing place- 
name, such additions are normally affixed to the ordinary word without a 
hyphen. In this way one finds BoTautesberg, but Boplaas; Groot- 
Drakenstein, but Grootvloer; Wes-Transvaal, but Weskoppies. Note: Where 
certain vowels occur together in such combinations, a hyphen is used to 
facilitate legibility, for example Bo-erf (instead of Boerf), Perde-eiland 
(instead of Perdeeiland), et cetera. Hyphens are also used in place-names 



consisting of two words linked by en, for example Haak-en-Steek, Rus-en- 
Vrede, Hoog-en-Droog. 

(b) Compound names that are written separately 

Cases do occur in which parts of a compound place-name are written 
separately. 

We write Jan Smuts lug haw e. All compounds consisting of a Christian name and 
a surname are treated in this manner. The Christian name or names are written 
separately, the surname is dealt with according to the rule, and in this case it is 
joined to the next component. Initials are dealt with in the same manner as 
Christian names, in other words they are also written separately from the 
surname, e.g. J. G. Strijdomtonnel. 

(ii) We write De Clerqville, Du Toitskloof, Le Rouxsrivier, Van Blerkskraal, Van 
der Merwesrus; in other words, when a place name consists of a surname of 
the type beginning with De, Du, Van, Van den, Van der, the prefixed parts in 
the place-name are also written separately. Note: There used to be a tendency 
to write names of this kind all as one word, for example Dewetsdorp, 
Vanderbijlpark, Vanwyksvlei. Where this form of writing has become 
traditional it must be retained. 

(iii) Ou is written separately when it precedes a personal name or nickname in 
place names such as Ou Thomas se Loop, or where the Ou no longer has any 



distinguishing or contrast value, for example Ou Handelspos. Note: Compare 
this to what was said under "hyphen" above. 

(iv) Place-names consisting of combinations with the possessive se between the 
words are written separately, for example Beck se Plaas, Booi se Kraal, Lof 
se Dam, and many others. 

(v) Where the definite article Die forms the first word in a place-name, it is 
written separately, and there is a tendency for the words following it to be 
written separately as well, for example Die Hollandse Saal, Die Onderste 
Aar, Die Ou Elands, Die Ou Vaal. 

(vi) The components of place-names consisting of a numeral plus a noun used in 
the plural form are written separately; for example Drie Susters, Veertien 
Strome, Twee Riviere, each element beginning with a capital letter. If the 
numeral is followed by a noun in the singular form, the elements are written 
as one word: Driefontein, Tweespruit, Vyfhoek. 

(vii) Place-names comprising phrases such as Agter die Berg, Hoek van die 
Berg, Koppie Alleen, Op die Tradou, are written separately. In these cases 
only the main words begin with capitals. 

(viii) Place-names consisting of two verbs such as Aanhou Hoop, Help Soek, 
Kom Kyk are written as separate words. 



B. Dutch place names 

Historically there is a fairly large number of geographical names derived from 
Netherlandic. 

The Committee maintains the general principle of giving an Afrikaans form to 
certain names that are submitted in the Dutch form, for example Blouberg, 
Noupoort, Seekoeivlei and Sondagsrivier. Dutch names are retained where the 
Dutch spelling has become the accepted form and is being used as such. For 
example, we write De Dooms, Franschhoek, Volksrust, Zeerust. This rule 
normally applies to important places. The Dutch spelling can also be retained if 
a post office or siding, et cetera, is named after the farm on which it is situated 
and the farm name has a registered Dutch spelling and the Place Names 
Committee is requested to retain the old spelling. Each case is decided on merit. 

C. English place names 

English names already existing overseas that are given to places in South Africa 
in most cases retain their original spelling and form. English names that were 
formed and given in this country, however, may differ in spelling and form from 
the "imported" names. 

(1) Simplex names 

There should be no problems in regard to the spelling of simplex names. 



(2) Compound names 

It is not easy to provide guidelines for the spelling of compound English 
place-names. In practice a certain degree of irregularity is found in the 
writing of such place-names. For example, names ending in crest, end, gate, 
hill, view, may be written either as one word or as two. Thus are encoun- 
tered Wavecrest but Leisure Crest; Teaksend but Flats End; Westgate but 
North Gate; Foxhill but Calf Hill; Redhouse but Blue House; Aloeridge 
but Gravel Ridge; Bayview but Mountain View. The Place Names 
Committee has studied the written form of English place-names in South 
Africa. An analysis of certain types of word combinations has indicated that 
in some cases a pattern, or at least a tendency, can be discerned in the 
writing of English place-names. 

(a) Names that are written separately 

The following types of place-names are normally written as separate words: 

(i) most names of which the first part is one of the following adjectives: Bonny, 
Golden, Lower, Old, et cetera; New, Rocky, Sweet, et cetera. Examples are 
Bonny Rest, Golden Grove, Lower Adamson, Old Place; New Centre, Rocky 
Hill, Sweet Hope; 



(ii) names in which the generic term is still strongly felt as a common noun, e.g. 
Amatole Basin, Algoa Bay, Brighton Beach, Nagle Dam, Albert Falls, Cape 
Flats, Bretby Mine, Table Mountain, Sand River, Berg River Valley; 

(iii) most names of which the second part is a plural noun, e.g. Birch Acres, 
Beecham Woods, Broken Slopes; 

(iv) names with Crown, Fort, Loch, Mount and Port as the first part, e.g. Crown 
Reefs, Fort Beaufort, Loch Maree, Mount Frere and Port Alfred; 

(v) names of which the second part indicates the situation, e.g. Beaufort West, 
Boksburg North, Modder East, Randfontein South; 

(vi) names consisting of a numeral plus a noun, e.g. Four Pines, Three Sisters, 
Twenty Four Rivers; 

(vii) names consisting of Glen plus a personal name, e.g. Glen Karen, Glen 
Lynden; 

(viii) phrases used as place names, e.g. Ascot on Vaal, Henley on Klip, Ebb and 
Flow, The Hole in the Wall; 

(ix) names of which the first part is written with an apostrophe, e.g. Davey's Halt, 
Gordon's Bay, Eagle's Crag, Lion's Head; 

(x) names consisting of the abbreviation St plus a proper name, e.g. St Andrew's, 
St Mark's. 



(b) Names written as one word 

The following kinds of place-names are normally written as one word: 

Names ending in bourne, bury, combe, dene, hurst, lea, leigh, mere, wick, et 
cetera. For example Ashbourne, Woodbury, Ashcombe, Forestdene, 
Meadhurst, Birchleigh, Buttermere, Thornwick, et cetera; 

(ii) names beginning with Broad, Cross, Gay or Middle, e.g. Broadlands, 
Crossmoor, Gayridge, Middlebrook; 

(iii) names beginning with Bal, Brae, Clan, Craig, Dal, Holm, Pen, Sel, Strath, et 
cetera. For example Balcraig, Braeview, Clanville, Craigend, Dalview, 
Holmleigh, Pendale, Selcourt, Strathcona, et cetera; 

(iv) names composed of syllables or parts of names or words, such as Atcem from 
(Atlas Cement Company), (Coronation Brick), Navex (Navarro Exploration), 
Soweto (South Western Townships). 

D. Dual forms 

In South Africa where English and Afrikaans are the official languages, one may 
expect a large number of place-names that are used in the one language also to be 
used in a translated form in the other language. In the course of time dual forms of 
names have established themselves for the same places. 

Three kinds of translations can be differentiated, viz. 



(a) names of which all the parts are translated, e.g. Bloedrivier - Blood River; 
Coffee Bay - Koffiebaai; Drieankerbaai - Three Anchor Bay, et cetera; 

(b) names of which both parts are ordinary words in the language concerned, but 
only the second part is translated, e.g. Bergrivier - Berg River; Melkbosrand - 
Melkbos Ridge, et cetera; 

(c) names of which the first part is a personal name and the second a generic 
term, e.g. Boshoffweg - Boshoff Road; Caledonplein - Caledon Square. 

In terms of the country's policy of bilingualism the members of each 
language group have the right to insist on the form they use in the natural 
context of their own language. For official purposes, however, precedence 
may be given to one form, that is, the "first of the two equals". This 
precedence is based on the derivation and linguistic composition of the name, 
its age, the population group preponderating in the locality concerned, et 
cetera. 

We write Brighton North, but Randfontein-Suid. In combinations of this kind 
the precedence form in the first type is normally English, and in the second, 
Afrikaans. In the first type the main word is derived from English, in the 
second from Afrikaans. The part of the name which indicates the name type 
or the point of the compass, or which constitutes a descriptive addition will 
be indicated in the same language as the main word in the precedence form. 
Thus we write Bay Road (Bayweg), Bergrivier (Berg River), Oos-Rand (East 



Rand). The precedence form is given in italics. Combinations of which the 
first part is a word derived from an indigenous language are written as one 
word if the second part is Afrikaans, and as two words if the second part is 
English, e.g. Gamtoosrivier, Kaya Fort. 

E. Khoekhoen (Hottentot) place names 

The Khoekhoen languages have become virtually extinct within the borders of 
the Republic. The possibilities of these languages producing any new place- 
names are therefore very slight. There is, however, a large number of farms and 
other places with Khoekhoen names of which some may be submitted to the 
National Place Names Committee for approval as official names. The following 
principles will apply in such cases. 

(a) Khoekhoen place names are normally written as one word. 

(b) Diacritical signs to indicate pitch, nasalization, et cetera, are not rendered in 
writing. 

(c) Clicks are not indicated. 

(d) Established forms of spelling, such as Henkries, Kango, Knysna, are left 
unchanged. 

(e) Spelling should be changed as little as possible except that at the end of a 
name: 



(i) -p may be standardized as -b; 

(ii) -bep/-beb/-bes, -beep/-beeb/-bees, -biep/-bieb/-bies may be standardized as - 
bib/-bis; 

(iii) -sep/-seb/-ses/-sieb/-sies, et cetera, can be normalized as -sib/-sis; -rep/-res as 
-rib/-ris, et cetera. 

(f) The sound (x) is represented by ch, except in cases where it has already 
become established, e.g. Gamka, Khorixas. Compounds of which one element 
is Khoekhoen and the other Afrikaans, or English, are dealt with according to 
the principles applying to Afrikaans or English place names. We therefore 
write Gouritsrivier, Congo Caves, Kei Mouth, Naab se Berg. Khoekhoen 
place-names that have been taken over via an African language and have 
been Europeanized, are dealt with according to the principles applying to 
place names from African languages. 

F. Place names from African languages 

When place-names from Bantu or African languages are given to places in a 
White area, the spelling of the names may be adapted to the pronunciation of the 
White language concerned. Thus we find Kyalami instead of iKhayalami ("my 
home") ; Silkaatsnek from the Europeanized Silkaats which is Moselekatse in 
Sotho and uMzilikazi in Zulu. 



Firmly established or traditionally adapted African language place-names in 
White areas remain unchanged, e.g. Congella, Illovo, Isando, Umbogintwini, et 
cetera. 

Names of places in self-governing territories and in urban areas inhabited by 
Blacks are written in accordance with the officially recognized orthography of the 
language concerned. The diacritical signs of the languages are also written in 
place-names in these areas. Personal names and surnames used in or as place- 
names are also spelled in accordance with the recognized orthography. 

In the Nguni languages the locative prefixes; o-, ku-, ko-, and kwa- are joined to 
the component following. Likewise the "subject" prefixes z- and u- are joined to 
the following component. The initial consonant of the component is always 
written with a capital letter. If the name is in isolation, or at the start of a 
sentence, then the first letter (be it vowel or consonant) is also written with a 
capital letter. Thus we find the following situation: 

Isolation/ Within sentence 
Start of sentence 

Eduleni eDuleni 

Empangeni eMpangeni 

UMthatha/Emthatha uMthata/eMthatha 

KwaJoj o kwaJoj o 

IGoli/EGoli etc. iGoli/eGoli etc 



Ga and Ha in the Sotho languages are written as one word with the following 
component; both the Ga/Ha and the next component begin with capital letters, for 
example GaDikgale, GaRankuwa. 

In Tsonga Ka and eka and the component following them are written as separate 
words, for example eka Mpofu, eka Mhinga. 

In Venda Ha and the personal name following it are written as one word. The Ha 
begins with a capital letter and the personal name with a small letter, e.g. 
Hamasia, Hamakuya. 

Kwa in the Sotho languages is regularly omitted before place names. 

When a place-name consists of a contraction or an abridgement of more than one 
word, it is written as one word, e.g. Thabatshweu, iNtabankulu. 

2. Structure of place names 

Generally speaking, it may be stated that the structure of place names varies 
according to the language of origin of the names. Khoekhoen names, for instance, 
are characterized by masculine endings -b or -p and feminine endings -s, thus 
Goab, Neip, Goms. In addition, they may include locative morphemes such as -se, 
-si, -re, -ri, -te, -ti, -be, -bi, -bee, etc, which generally occur in the penultimate 
position, as in Nababeep, Komtes, Gobabis, Gobaseb. 



Toponyms from the African languages are characterized by locative prefixes such 
as Sotho Ga (GaDikgale), Nguni Kwa (KwaMashu), Venda Ha (Hamasia), 
Tsonga eKa (eKa Mhinga), or by prefixes and suffixes, such as Nguni o-ini 
(Otobotim), e-ni (Edulini), o-eni (Obenjeni), etc. 

What seems to be a universal feature of place names is that some are 
compounded, consisting of more than one element, while others are non- 
compounded, consisting of one element. Examples are Springs as opposed to 
Table Mountain. Compounded names apparently preponderate. By and large, too, 
names of natural features seem more often to be descriptive and consequently 
lexically transparent, while names of cultural features are more often derived 
from personal names, inversions, acronyms, anagrams, etc. 

Compounded names generally consist of a term indicating the type of feature to 
which the name refers (mountain, river, etc.), and a term which describes, 
qualifies or modifies it. The former is known as the generic term (or generic) and 
the latter the specific term (or specific). 

An analysis of place names has indicated that the generic term usually refers to 
elevations and depressions, the presence of water, or settlement, demarcation, 
allocation or division of land. Thus occur names such as Attakwas Mountains, 
Enselsberg, Girinaris, Thaba Bosiu; Bonnievale, Gamkaskloof, Otjikoto, 
Tsubgaos; Albert Falls, Bronkhorstspruit, Nossob, Manzimnyama; Bellville, 
Boland, Nuhub, Roggeveld, Windhoek. 



Specific terms are usually of a more varied character. They may be descriptive of 
colour (Blouberg, Heigariep), size (Great Fish River, Klein-Karoo), or shape 
(Gouib, Spitskop, Table Mountain); they may refer to fauna or flora encountered 
there (Crocodile River, Gamka, Taung; Knysna, Umhlume, Wilge River); they 
may be descriptive of the type of soil or rock (Duineveld, Kalk Bay, Modder 
River); they may refer to climatological conditions (Cold Bokkeveld, Noagore, 
Terra dos Bramidos); they may refer to people in authority (Colesberg, Land van 
Waveren) or to owners of land (Adendorp, Odendaalsrus) or someone who had a 
link with the place (Daveyton, Trappe's Valley). 

Because the original lexical meaning is irrelevant in toponyms, a generic term is 
sometimes not regarded as a word with meaning, and another, different generic 
may be added to the name; or else a new generic may be added to an existing 
name to indicate an extended entity. Thus names occur such as Breede River 
Valley, Karkloofrivier, Fairmount Ridge. 

Hybrid place names are those in which elements from more than one language 
occur, eg Hout Bay, Kei Mouth, Buffalo Nek. Sometimes a generic term from a 
specific language is added to an existing name already containing a generic. In 
such instances tautology may occur, eg Cheridouws Poort, Nossob River, 
Heidelberg Hills, Waterkloof Glen. 



The converse may, of course, also happen, namely that the generic term is 
omitted altogether, eg The Dargle (River), Knights (Station), Warden (Town). In 
such cases the names are said to display a zero generic term. 

It will be noted that in most cases, and in most languages, the specific term 
precedes the generic, as in Piketberg, Soetap, Westville. Examples of names in 
which the generic term precedes the specific are Amanzimtoti, Lake Mentz, Mount 
Frere, Ntababovu, Port Beaufort, Thabatshweu. 

3. Meanings of place names 

3.1 Conceptual, descriptive or lexical meaning 

A cursory glance at any reasonably comprehensive list of place names will 
probably indicate a number of things. Firstly, it will be noted that each name 
consists of a word, or of more than one word. Secondly, some of the names will 
immediately be 'understandable', or apparently semantically transparent, while 
others will be semantically opaque. Thirdly, each name will be the appellation of 
a particular place or geographic entity. 

Several comments on these observations may be in order. Place names, or 
'toponyms', as they are also called, are proper names. As is the case with 
common names, or common nouns, each consists of a spoken or written form and 
an internal content, sense or meaning. A name also refers to, or denotes, an extra- 
linguistic entity. 



There may be a number of reasons why the 'meaning' of a name is not readily 
discernible. The name, or a part of the name, may be in an unknown language; the 
name may be so old that the word(s) from which it is derived is or are no longer 
in current use; or the name may have been so greatly adapted (some say 
'corrupted') that it is no longer recognizable. 

In addition to the fact that there are names which do not have a readily discernible 
meaning, there are also names the meanings of which are not relevant to the 
entities, eg geographical names used for cultural features. These and similar 
considerations have prompted linguists, philosophers and others to ask the 
question whether names have meaning at all. Some scholars maintain that proper 
names, including place names, have no meaning, while others aver that names are 
the most meaningful of all words. 

Names are an integral part of language, and a primary function of language is to 
communicate. It would therefore seem to be unreasonable to assume that names 
have no meaning at all. Yet some clearly do not appear to 'mean' very much, 
except to indicate what a particular place is called. The solution to the problem 
seems to lie in what is meant by 'meaning'. 

Normally the meaning of a common name may be determined by consulting a 
dictionary. Thus the Concise Oxford Dictionary (6th edn, 1980, p 712) gives the 
meaning of mountain as, inter alia, 'large natural elevation of earth's surface, 
large or high or steep hill, esp. one over 1 000 ft. high'. This definition will hold 



for every mountain, and a mountain can be defined in terms of these characteris- 
tics, which are applicable to all members of the class of mountain. No such 
definition is possible for a proper name. Rietfontein may appear to mean 'reedy 
fountain', but when it is the name of a suburb of Pretoria, or of a post office, that 
is not, or no longer, its meaning. 

In the above cases what is meant by 'meaning' is dictionary meaning, also termed 
logico-semantic, lexical, descriptive or conceptual meaning. Most scholars today 
maintain that proper names do not have current lexical meaning. Yet Table 
Mountain immediately calls to mind the idea of a mountain in some way 
resembling a table, namely being flat on top; Blue Lagoon obviously refers to the 
colour of such a feature. If, on the other hand, current lexical value were a 
prerequisite or defining characteristic of a name, Congo, Namib, Nossob, Parys 
and others would not qualify as such. 

The problem may be solved by distinguishing between synchronic and diachronic 
meaning. Synchronic meaning is that which is discernible in the name at a (the 
present) point in time, diachronic meaning that which may be discerned by 
viewing the name through the course of time. Synchronically, names are 
generally regarded as being devoid of lexical or conceptual meaning. 
Diachronically, when a name is viewed as being derived from (a) descriptive 
common noun(s), the etymological meaning may be either discerned or traced. 
Thus an apparently transparent name is homonymous with its appellative 
counterpart. For place names such as these, which have counterparts which are 



common nouns or appellatives (Table Mountain as opposed to 'table mountain'), 
the terms appellative name or semi-appellative name have been coined. At which 
stage a common noun like '(the) pine grove' becomes a proper name like 
Pinegrove, cannot always be determined. But when it does attain this status of a 
proper name, the dictionary meaning becomes irrelevant. Thus a name like 
Coldstream, originally applied to a brook in which there is cold water, is also 
applied to a post office and a town. Rietfontein, originally 'a fountain at which 
reeds grow', has also become a residential suburb, a farm, a hospital, and so forth. 

In the course of time the lexical or dictionary meanings of the common nouns 
underlying the place names may become forgotten, but the name itself survives. 
Thus there are place names still existing derived from languages which have died 
out, and of which even the peoples who spoke these languages no longer exist. In 
such cases research is necessary to trace the etymology. 

The determination of that etymology has been described as only the first step in 
onomastic investigation. Yet it is often an indispensable step. Too often have 
name scholars fallen into the trap of assuming that a name means what it seems to 
mean. Take a name like Koppies, for example. Patently derived from Afrikaans, 
this name could mean 'hillocks', 'little heads' or 'cups'. Since Koppies is a geo- 
graphical name, one would presume the meaning to be 'hillocks'. One would be 
wrong. Referring to a place in the Northern Cape, the name Koppies is derived 
from a San or Khoekhoen word meaning 'wild sage' (Tarchonanthus 
camphoratus). 



Similarly, an obviously English name such as The Coombs is not English at all, 
but Khoekhoen; it means 'river of wild olive trees' (Olea africana). 

Thus the examples could proliferate. Armoed is not derived from Afrikaans, nor is 
Koringhuis, Aap se Kloof or Katjiesberg. Goodhouse is not English. Any 
onomastician who takes a name at face value runs the risk of talking or writing 
nonsense. Onomastics is not a guessing game. 

A lovely example of misunderstanding is the following. In the Northern Cape is a 
hill with the Khoekhoen name Goariep. This name has correctly been explained 
in English as 'granite boss'. Not being familiar with the word boss in the sense of 
'protuberance', the editor of an Afrikaans publication has translated it as 'graniet- 
baas', literally 'granite master', from a homonym of bossl 

Meaningless words are alien to language, and the human mind when confronted 
with sounds which seem familiar, will imbue those sounds with what it conceives 
to be the correct and appropriate content or meaning. Thus folk-etymological 
adaptations of names such as those above come into being, and thus incorrect 
etymologies of names are sometimes given. 

In this publication the etymologies have been furnished as encountered in various 
sources. Some of them, such as those of the Khoekhoen and Zulu names, are 
based on research and may be regarded as reliable. In other cases the most likely 
or most acceptable etymology (or the only one available) has been given. 



Sometimes more than one possibility has been mentioned. It is trusted that this 
publication will serve as the basis for further toponymical study. 

3.2 Grammatical meaning 

If lexical or descriptive meaning is absent in place names, grammatical meaning, 
which involves such aspects as number, case and gender, is only peripherally 
present. It has been stated that names are always definite. Definiteness is linked to 
existence of the referent, not existence in reality, but existence in the realm of 
interpretation of speaker and hearer. Thus a place name like Xanadu or Jurie 
Steyn 's Post Office is just as valid as Pretoria or Zeerust. 

The notion of definiteness implies that a name cannot be used, for example, with 
an indefinite article. If one speaks of 'a Johannesburg', 'another Vrededorp', and 
so forth, the notion behind these utterances concerns the characteristics of the 
entities bearing the name. It has been said that in such phrases the proper names 
are being used as common names. 

A second aspect of place names is that they are always inherently singular or, to 
be more specific, each proper name selects and identifies, in a particular context, 
an individual member of a discrete set. Apparent plurals, such as Die Spitskoppe, 
The Crags and so forth, are felt to be collectives and therefore singular. 



3.3 CONNOTATIVE OR PRAGMATIC MEANING 

As has been stated above, some authorities maintain that names are the most 
meaningful of all words. If, as has been shown, names generally contain virtually 
no descriptive or lexical meaning, something else must be meant. That something 
is connotative meaning, that is, the connotations that come to mind when a name 
is heard or read. These associations attach themselves to the name via the feature 
to which the name refers, the extra-linguistic entity bearing the name. This 
connotative or associative meaning is subjective, being dependent on one's 
knowledge of the place. Thus the name Durban may call to mind an experience in 
a particular hotel, the beach and all its attractions, the Bluff, the Esplanade, the 
rickshas, the milling crowds, shark-nets, oil-polluted shores, a honeymoon, or 
whatever. To someone who does not know the place, it will have as little meaning 
as, say, Muressa. To this category of meaning belong such factors as social 
standing (it is 'better' to live in Houghton than in Mayfair), stigma (Watergate), 
and so forth. 

Thus, depending on one's background knowledge of a place, the name of that 
place may have an infinite number of connotations differing from speaker to 
speaker, though in the case of better-known entities some of these associations 
may be shared. 



4. Reference of place names 

The most important function of a place name is to refer to an entity; that is, to 
select one particular entity from a host of others of a similar or different nature, 
and to identify it and distinguish it from others. 

If the name Stellenbosch is used in a particular context, speaker and listener will 
normally both realize that the university town 48 km east of Cape Town, famous 
for its wine estates and oak trees, is being referred to. This use of place names to 
refer to one specific, unique entity in a particular context led some scholars to 
speak of a name as referring individually or uniquely. These terms were later 
misunderstood; it was thought that what was meant was that a name can have 
only one referent, such as Popocatepetl is supposed to have. In actual fact few, if 
any, names have only one referent and, if that were to happen, there is nothing 
preventing that name from being bestowed on another entity and destroying its 
uniqueness. 

What is meant by referring individually or uniquely, is that, in a specific context, 
only one entity is referred to when a particular name is used. Thus no matter how 
many places there are with the name, say, of Nooitgedacht, when this name is 
used, it will refer to only one specific place within that particular context. 



5. Syntax of place names 

When speaking of the syntax of names, a distinction should be made between 
internal and external syntax. By the former is meant the grammatical relationships 
embedded in the name itself. Thus the internal syntax of Cisiqua would be 
something like 'river, the water of which has a salty flavour', ie 'salt(y) river'; 
that of Champagne Castle would be 'mountain with a shape reminiscent of a 
castle, on which an altercation arose over a bottle of champagne'. It is clear from 
these examples that the internal syntax of place names differs widely from that of 
common nouns, and that it presents an intriguing field of study. 

By the external syntax of place names is meant the relationship between these 
names and other items in the same utterance, sentence or construction. The 
criteria most often proposed as appertaining to place names are 

(i) that they are not used in the plural; 

(ii) that they do not accept modifying restrictive relative clauses; and 

(iii) that they do not occur with the range of articles available to common nouns. 

As regards the first of these statements it has been argued that, because place 
names are inherently definite, they must always be singular. Most names, indeed, 
have a singular form, eg Krugersdorp, Randfontein, Table Mountain. They may, 
however, have a plural form, eg Springs, Twenty-four Rivers. In such instances, 



however, it has been pointed out that the name is a collective plural, a pluralia 
tantum. Springs, originally the term for a number of fountains, has become the 
name of a town; Twenty-four Rivers is the name of a single river with a number of 
channels, also used for other features; Outeniqua Mountains refers to a mountain 
range. In a statement such as 'There are four hundred Rietfonteins in Transvaal', 
Rietfonteins is not a plural name; what is meant is 'There are four hundred places 
called Rietfontein in Transvaal'. 

The second thesis, namely that place names do not accept modifying restrictive 
relative clauses, has been the object of some contention. At this juncture it would 
seem that place names differ to a considerable extent from, for instance, personal 
names in this respect, and that any conclusions would have to be based on an 
analysis of a representative body of information. Factors such as the occurrence 
of names including the definite article (eg The Heads) would need to be taken 
into account, since the syntactical use of such names may be different in certain 
instances from that of names which do not contain a definite article. The 
behaviour of place names in conjunction with adjectives or restrictive phrases, 
too, promises to yield interesting results. 

The question of articles used in conjunction with place names is a complex one. 
In a number of instances the definite article is part of the name, eg The Coombs, 
in other cases the definite article is expressed as a zero article; in other words, it 
does not appear in speech or writing. However, in certain syntactic constructions 
the definite article may be explicit, particularly when modifiers are employed; 



compare 'the Mayfair I remember', 'the beautiful Orange Free State', 'the fairest 
Cape in all the world'. 

It is generally accepted that place names do not take indefinite articles, because 
place names are inherently definite. In utterances such as a Benoni, a different 
Vrededorp, the place names are said to be employed as common nouns, ie 
referring to characteristics of the entity bearing the name. 

This particular distinction is a very nebulous one, however, and the last word on 
the subject has still to be spoken. 

From what has been said above, it will be clear that the various aspects of place 
names are intricately interwoven. For many years scholars have studied them and 
made certain pronouncements. In a number of cases a measure of clarity has been 
achieved; in other instances the confusion and fuzzy thinking persists or has been 
aggravated. It has not been my intention to solve problems here, but to highlight a 
number of salient features in the hope that interest may be stimulated and our own 
place names studied with the intensity names in other countries have enjoyed. 



Dictionary 

1. Notes on the entries 

The entries take the following form. 

1.1 Names appear in bold characters. Officially approved names are preceded by 
an asterisk. Names printed bold within the text are dealt with at the relevant 
alphabetical place and may be referred to. 

1.2 Situation of the entity or feature to which the name refers appears in brackets. 

(a) The letter or abbreviation reference indicates administrative division - see 
Abbreviations. 

(b) The four-figure reference indicates latitude and longitude. Thus 2829 means 
28°S., 29°E. The reference is always to the north-western corner of the one- 
degree square. 



(c) The following letter, or two letters, indicates the quarter or sixteenth of the 
relevant degree square and is determined as follows: The degree square is 
divided into four and each quarter is labelled A, B, C, D (see Fig 1). 



29° 
i 










w 












A 


B 






C 


D 










Fig 


I 


• 



Each of these quarters is again divided into four and numbered A, B, C, D (see 

Fig 2). 



29° 

i 
I 

I 



28° 



A I B 

A 



A B 
C — 



A B 
D 



Fig 2 



For example reference 2829 AA means that the relevant feature is situated in the 
large block A, and in the smaller block A of that block; 2829 DB means the 
feature is in the large block D and in the smaller block B within the block D. The 
alphabetical reference is thus to the quarter-degree block (30'), and then to the 
sixteenth-degree block (15'). 

This method of indicating the situation serves another purpose as well. The 
various official map-sheets compiled by the Directorate of Surveys and Mapping 
are referred to in terms of degree square. Thus reference numbers for 1:50 000 
maps are, for example, 2728 AA Elandskop, 2729 CC Hopedale, etc. The location 
indicator given between brackets thus also serves as a guide to the map-sheet on 
which the name of the feature can be found. References without the alphabetical 
indicators (eg 2728) are to larger-scale maps (1:250 000 Topographical and Topo- 
cadastral). 

1.3 Description of feature, that is, indication of the topographic category such as 

city, island, mountain, river, township, village, etc. 
1,.4 Description of the location in terms of distance and direction from other 

entities. 

1.5 In the case of cultural or man-made features, such as cities, towns, etc, a brief 
account of establishment, official status, historical highlights, etc. 

1.6 Language of origin of the name'(if other than English). 

1.7 Meaning and (if known) origin of the name. 



2. Pronunciation of place names 

2.1 When geographical names are spoken, they tend to be pronounced as though 
they belonged to the language of the speaker or to the language in the context 
of which they are being used. Thus Afrikaans names would be anglicized 
when spoken by English-speaking persons, and English names pronounced as 
though they were Afrikaans when pronounced by Afrikaners. 

2.2 This tendency is particularly strong in the case of Khoekhoen since the 
Khoekhoen languages are no longer extant in the Republic of South Africa. 
Thus not only are the suction consonants or clicks omitted, but the original 
pitch (high, middle, and low) is ignored, and the names are pronounced as 
though they were Afrikaans or English. This phonological adaptation is 
sometimes reflected in the orthography. 

2.3 Geographical names derived from the various African languages, too, are 
adapted phonologically (and orthographically) to Afrikaans and English. 

2.4 In view of the complexity of the phonological situation, it has been deemed 
advisable to dispense with an indication of pronunciation of place names at 
this stage. 



3. Translation of generic terms 

The translation of Afrikaans generic terms is sometimes not given in the text. 
Thus, for example, Van Wyksvlei is explained as having been named after a 
farmer with the surname Van Wyk. For a fuller understanding of such names, the 
reader is referred to the following list of Afrikaans generics with their 
approximate translations. 

A word of caution is in order, however. Because the topography and climate of 
Southern Africa differ from those elsewhere in the world, the terms used to 
explain the Afrikaans generics are not precise. A vlei, for example, is actually a 
hollow in which water may collect during rainy seasons, but the term may also be 
used for a marsh, swamp or bog. The designation 'swamp' for Dronkvlei, for 
example, does thus not necessarily signify a permanent swamp. 

aar underground watercourse 

akker field, plot of land 

baai bay 

bad bath, (mineral) spring 

bank shelf 

berg mountain 

bron spring 

bult hillock, ridge, rise 



burg 


castle, (hence) town 


dal 


dale, dell, glen 


dam 


dam, reservoir 


deel 


part, portion 


dorp 


town 


drif 


ford 


eiland 


island 


fontein 


fountain, spring 


fort 


fort, stronghold 


gat 


hole 


grot 


cave, grotto 


heuwel 


hill 


hof 


court, garden 


hoogte 


height, prominence 


huis 


house, home 


kamp 


camp, paddock 


kasteel 


castle 


klip 


stone, rock 


kloof 


gorge, ravine 


kolk 


eddy, pool 


kom 


basin, bowl 



kraal 


corral, kraal, village 




krans 


cliff, precipice 




kruin 


crown, summit, crest 




kuil 


pool 




laagte 


depression, dip, valley 




land 


land, field 




leegte 


depression, dip, valley 




loop 


watercourse 




ghawe 


airport 




meer 


lake 




mond 


mouth 




myn 


mine 




nek 


neck, col 




neus 


promontory, shoulder (of 


mountain) 


oog 


fountain(head) 




oord 


place, resort 




pan 


pan, basin, hollow 




pas 


(mountain) pass 




plaas 


farm, place 




Poel 


pool 




Poort 


gateway, defile 





pos 


post 


punt 


point 


put(s) 


well 


Rand 


edge, rim 


Rant 


ridge, range of hills 


Rif 


reef 


rivier 


river 


rug 


ridge, hill 


rus(t) 


rest, repose 


sloot 


ditch, furrow, gully 


spits 


peak, summit 


spruit 


creek, stream, tributary 


stad 


city 


stasie 


station 


stroom 


stream 


val 


fall(s) 


vallei 


valley 


veld 


field, pasture 


vlakte 


plain, flat(s) 


vlei 


Marsh, moor, swamp 


Vliet 


brook, rivulet 


Wal 


bank, embankment, wall of dam waterval 



woud forest, wood 



Place Names 



Abel Erasmus Pass (T 2430 DA). 
Mountain pass some 11 km long 
between Hoedspruit and Ohrigstad. 
Named after a well-known farmer 
and civil servant from the days of the 
Transvaal Republic. The J G 
Strijdom Tunnel forms part of the 
pass. 

*Abenab (S 1918 AC). Village some 
32 km north of Grootfontein. It came 
into being in 1921 to serve a mine 
producing lead, vanadium and zinc, 
which closed down in 1958. Of 
Khoekhoen origin, the name is said 
to mean 'climbing river'. 

*Aberdeen (C 3224 AC). Town 
some 55 km south-east of Graaff- 
Reinet, 155 km east-south-east of 



Beaufort West, 32 km south of the 
Camdebo Mountains. Laid out on the 
farm Brakkefontein as a settlement 
of the Dutch Reformed Church in 
1856, it became a municipality in 
1858. It is named after Aberdeen in 
Scotland, birthplace of the Reverend 
Andrew Murray of Graaff-Reinet, 
relieving minister. 

Abna (C 3421). Khoekhoen name for 
the Vals River, tributary of the 
Gourits River. The Afrikaans name, 
meaning 'false river', is a direct 
translation. 

Acacia Park see Akasiapark 

*Acornhoek (T 2431 CA). Village 
some 29 km south-east of Hoedspruit 
and 165 km north-west of Komati- 
poort. The name is variously 
explained as being an adaptation of 
Eekhoornhoek ('squirrel corner'); 



derived from the German surname 
Eichhorn, and named after the acorn- 
like fruits of the mabula tree. 

*Adams Mission (N 3030 BB). 
Settlement west of Amanzimtoti and 
south of Durban, in the Umlazi 
district. Established in 1836, it was 
destroyed by Dingaan but rebuilt in 
1839. Named after the American 
missionary Dr Newton Adams who 
arrived in Natal in 1835 and who 
played a prominent role in respect to 
this mission. Adams Mission is an 
important educational institution. 

*Addo (C 3325). Region east of the 
Sundays River, some 72 km north- 
east of Port Elizabeth. In 1931 about 
680 ha were enclosed to form the 
Addo Elephant National Park. The 
name is also borne by a railway sta- 
tion, post office and bridge. Of 



Khoekhoen origin, the name proba- 
bly means 'euphorbia ravine'. 

*Adelaide (C 3226 CB). Town some 
22 km east of Bedford, 37 km west 
of Fort Beaufort and 91 km north of 
Grahamstown. Founded as a military 
post in 1834, it gradually developed 
until it achieved municipal status in 
1896. It was named after Queen 
Adelaide, wife of William IV of 
England. 

Adendorp (C 3224 BC). Village 
some 8 km south of Graaff-Reinet, in 
the Sundays River Valley. Named 
after the former owner of the farm, N 
J Adendorff, who sub-divided it into 
smallholdings in about 1858. Muni- 
cipal status was attained in 1878. 

Agter-Bruintjieshoogte (C 3226). 
Region north of Bruintjieshoogte, 
embracing the upper reaches of the 



Little Fish River. Named after Nic de 
Bruyn, or De Bruin, former heem- 
raad of Swellendam. 

Agterwitsenbergkom (C 3319). 
Region in the Ceres district, meaning 
'basin behind the Witsenberg'. See 
Witsenberg. 

Aguada de Sao Bras (C 3422). 
Portuguese name of Mossel Bay, 
given by Vasco da Gama on 26 
November 1497. 'The watering-place 
of St Blaize', so called because Da 
Gama filled his casks with fresh 
water there on the name-day of St 
Blaize. Cape St Blaize takes its name 
from this bay. 

Agulhas (C 3420 CC). Coastal resort 
near Cape Agulhas, some 32 km 
south of Bredasdorp. Portuguese for 
'needle', the name is said to have 
been given to the cape because the 



compass-needle was seen to point 
due north, that is, with no magnetic 
deviation. The Agulhas Bank is 
reputed to be the richest fishing area 
in the Southern Hemisphere. 

Agulhas, Cape see Cape Agulhas 

Aiab (S 2417/2517). Khoekhoen 
name of the Lewer rivier, 'liver 
river', which is a direct translation. 

*Ai-Ais (S 2717 DC). Holiday resort 
with hot mineral springs, in the bed 
of the Fish River, some 128 km west 
of Karasburg and 224 km south-west 
of Keetmanshoop. From Khoekhoen 
/Ae-/aes, 'firefire', ie 'hot as fire'. 

Aigams (S 2217 CA). Nama name 
for Windhoek. From /ae, 'fire', 
//gams, 'water', the name refers to 
the hot springs there. 



Aigams (S 2818 BD). Nama name of 
Warmbad. From lael/gams, 'fire 
(hot) water', the name refers to the 
hot springs there. 

Airob (S 2417/2517). Khoekhoen 
name of Lewer rivier, 'liver river', a 
translation. 

Akasiapark (C 3318 DC). Residen- 
tial area for civil servants, members 
of Parliament and railway officials, 
laid out on part of Wingfield, a 
former naval aerodrome. Named 
Sassar from 1947 to 1 December 
1959, then Acacia Park, after the 
Port Jackson willows (Acacia 
cyanophylla) growing there. 

Albania (C 2824). Region bounded 
by the Orange River in the south, the 
Vetberg line in the north, the Vaal 
River in the west and the Rama- 



Belmont line in the east. Named after 
Albany. 

Albany (C 3325). Region established 
on 7 January 1814 by Sir John 
Cradock (1762-1811), Governor of 
the Cape Colony from 1811 to 1812. 
Bounded by the Great Fish River in 
the north, Bruintj eshoogte in the 
south, the Bosberg in the west and 
the Suurberg in the east. Named in 
honour of the Duke of York. 
Formerly this was the Suurveld. 

Albasini Dam (T 2330 AA). Dam at 
the foot of the Soutpansberg, named 
after Joao Albasini (?-1885), head of 
the Magwamba tribe, Vice-Consul 
for Portugal and superintendent of 
the African peoples in the Soutpans- 
berg under the ZAR. 

Albert (C 3026). Region between the 
Stormberg and the Orange River, 



embracing approximately the present 
districts of Albert, Wodehouse and 
Aliwal North. Named after the 
consort of Queen Victoria. 

*Albert Falls (N 2930 AD). Water- 
fall in the Umgeni River, 22 km 
north-east of Pietermaritzburg and 
13 km west-south-west of New Han- 
over. Probably named after the 
consort of Queen Victoria. It is also 
the name of a railway station 30 km 
from Pietermaritzburg. 

*Albertinia (C 3421 BA). Village 
50 km west of Mossel Bay. It was 
laid out in 1900 on the farm Groot- 
fontein and became a municipality in 
1920. The name is derived from the 
surname of Johannes Rudolph 
Albertyn (1847-1920), the first 
Dutch Reformed minister to serve 
the community. 



*Alberton (T 2628 AA). Town 6 km 
south-west of Germiston and 11 km 
south-east of Johannesburg. It was 
laid out on the farm Elandsfontein in 
1904 and attained municipal status in 
1939. Named after General Hendrik 
Abraham Alberts, chairman of a 
syndicate which purchased the estate 
in 1904. 

*Alexander Bay (C 2816 CB-DA). 

Cove on the west coast, 7 km south 
of the mouth of the Orange River, in 
the Namaqualand district. Named 
after Sir James Edward Alexander 
(1803-1885), British officer and 
explorer. 

*Alexandra (T 2628 AA). Township 
some 13 km north-east of Johannes- 
burg. Presumably named after Queen 
Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII 
of England. 



*Alexandria (C 3326 AB). Town 
some 112 km north-east of Port 
Elizabeth. Originally Olifantshoek, 
the name was changed in 1873 to 
Alexandria, after Alexander Smith, a 
Scottish minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in Uitenhage. 

Alfred County (N 3029). Region 
bounded by the districts of Mount 
Currie, Umzimkulu, Ixopo, Port 
Shepstone and Bizana. Named after 
Prince Alfred, son of Queen Victoria, 
who visited Natal in 1860. 

Algoa Bay (C 3325 DD). Large inlet 
on the Indian Ocean, between Cape 
Padrone and Cape Recife, on which 
Port Elizabeth is situated. Named 
Angra da Roca by Bartolomeu Dias 
in 1488, subsequently renamed Bahia 
da Lagoa, which was corrupted to 
Algoa Bay. Of Portuguese origin, the 
name means 'marsh bay', 



*Alice (Cis 3226 DD). Town on the 
Tyume River, some 120 km north- 
west of East London. It was named 
in 1847 by the Governor, Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, after Princess 
Alice, the second daughter of Queen 
Victoria. Municipal status was 
attained in 1852. 

*Alicedale (C 3326 AC). Village in 
the Albany district, some 42 km west 
of Grahamstown. Named after Alice 
Slessor (nee Dale), wife of the engi- 
neer who constructed the railway. 

Aliwal North (C 3026 DA). Town 
on the banks of the Orange River, 
some 195 km from Bloemfontein, on 
the road to East London. It was 
founded in 1849 and named by the 
Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir 
Harry Smith (1847-1852), to comme- 
morate his decisive victory over the 
Sikhs under Runjeet Singh at Aliwal 



in India on 28 January 1846. Munici- 
pal status was achieved in 1882. 

Aliwal South (C 3422 AA). Alterna- 
tive name about 1850 for Mossel 
Bay. 

*Alkmaar (T 2,530 BD). Hamlet on 
the Crocodile River, some 18 km 
west of Nelspruit. Named after a 
town in the Netherlands, 32 km 
north-north-west of Amsterdam. 

*Allanridge (O 2726 DC). Gold- 
mining town 14 km north of Oden- 
daalsrus and 34 km north of 
Welkom. It was founded in 1950 and 
is administered by a village manage- 
ment board. Named after Allan 
Roberts who interested himself in 
prospecting for gold in the OFS. 

*Amajuba (N 2729 BD). Also 
Majuba; mountain 14 km south-west 
of Volksrust and 32 km north of 



Newcastle; the scene of an historic 
battle in the First Anglo-Boer War. 
The name is derived from Zulu and 
means 'hill of many doves'. It has 
given its name to the post office 
Amajuba and the railway station 
Majuba. 

*Amalienstein (C 3321 AD). Former 
mission station of the Berlin 
Missionary Society, 22 km east of 
Ladismith, on the road to Calitzdorp. 
Named after Amalie von Stein, bene- 
factress of German missions. 

Amandelboom (C 3120 BD). Origi- 
nal name of Williston. Afrikaans for 
'almond tree', it refers to the 
situation of the Rhenish mission 
station from which the town devel- 
oped, and was used from 1845 to 
1919. 



*Amanzimtoti (N 3030 BB). Town 
and holiday resort on the South 
Coast, 29 km south-west of Durban. 
It was founded in 1928, proclaimed a 
township in 1939 and became a 
borough in 1952. In 1961 Amanzim- 
toti, Isipingo Beach and Isipingo Rail 
were amalgamated into a. single 
municipality. Named after the 
Manzimtoti River; the name is 
derived from Zulu and means 'sweet 
water' or 'the water is sweet'. 

Amatikulu (N 2931 BA). Town 
some 130 km north-east of Durban, 
near Gingindlovu. Named after the 
Matigulu, also spelt Amatikulu, 
River. From Lala or Zulu, probably 
'large water', ie 'large river'. The 
approved form is aMatikulu. 

*Amatole (Cis 3227 DB). Mountain 
range, subsidiary of the Winterberg 
range, 15 km north-east of Alice and 



between Seymour and Stutterheim, 
extending westwards to the Great 
Fish River. The name is of Xhosa 
origin and means 'weaned calves'. 

Ameis (S 2718 CB). Khoekhoen 
name of Grunau, which is a trans- 
lation: 'green surface', 'green face'. 

*Amersfoort (T 2729 BB). Town 
56 km south of Ermelo and 72 km 
south-east of Bethal, on the banks of 
the Schulpspruit. It was founded in 
1876 and proclaimed in 1888. 
Named after the city Amersfoort in 
the Netherlands by its founder, F 
Lion Cachet. 

Amphlett (N 2929 AB). Hill on the 
ridge leading to Cathkin Peak, 50 km 
west of Estcourt. Named after G T 
Amphlett, president of the local 
mountain club in 1908. 



Amstel (C 3418 AA). Name applied 
until 1657 to the Liesbeek River, 
after the canal flowing through 
Amsterdam in Holland. 

Amsterdam (O 2728 CD). Original 
name of Reitz. 

*Amsterdam (T 2630 DA). Town 
some 77 km east of Ermelo. Part of a 
Scottish settlement established by 
Alexander McCorkindale, it was 
proclaimed a town in June 1881. At 
first called Roburnial the name was 
changed on 5 July 1882 to Amster- 
dam, after the Dutch city where the 
State Secretary, Eduard Bok, was 
born, and out of gratitude for Dutch 
sympathy during the First Anglo- 
Boer War (1880-1881). 

Amsterdam Flats (C 3325). Region 
between the Swartkops and Coega 
rivers, near Port Elizabeth. Named 



after the Dutch East India Company 
ship Amsterdam which was wrecked 
on 15 December 1817. The settle- 
ment Amsterdamhoek was also 
named after that ship. 

Andalusia (C 2724 DD). Former 
name of Jan Kempdorp. Named after 
Andalusia in Spain. 

Anenousberg (C 2917 BC). Moun- 
tain some 56 km north of Springbok, 
in the Namaqualand district. Derived 
from Khoekhoen !Nani #nus, 'the 
side of the mountain'. 
*Anerley (N 3030 CB). Holiday 
resort some 111 km south-west of 
Durban and 10 km north-east of Port 
Shepstone. Said to be named after a 
district in the south-east of London. 

Angra da Roca (C 3325). Bay now 
known as Algoa Bay, thus named in 
1488 by Bartolomeu Dias. 



Angra das Vaccas (C 3421 BD). 
Old name for Vleesbaai. Named after 
the cows the Portuguese mariners 
saw grazing there. 

Angra das Voltas (S 2615 CA). 
Former name of Luderitz Bay. Por- 
tuguese for 'bay of tacks', the name 
was given in 1488 by the Portuguese 
mariner Bartolomeu Dias because 
contrary winds caused them to make 
many tacks there. 

Angra dos Ilheos (S 2615 CA). Now 
Luderitzbucht. 'Bay of little 
islands', named by Dias; subse- 
quently Angra Pequena, 'penguin 
harbour' and Luderitzbucht. 

Angra dos Vaqueiros (C 3421 BD). 
Now Mossel Bay. 'Bay of herds- 
men'; thus named by Dias because 
he saw many cattle on the shore. 
Renamed Aguada de Sao Bras 



('watering-place of St Blaize') by 
Vasco da Gama in 1497 and Mossel- 
baai by Paulus van Caerden in 1601. 

Angra Pequena (S 2615 CA). Now 
Liideritzbucht. 'Small bay'. 

Anhalt-Schmidt (C 3323 CB). Sta- 
tion of the Berlin Missionary Society 
in the Uniondale district. Named 
after the missionary Schmidt who in 
1737 began to work among the 
Hottentots, and his birthplace in 
Moravia, Anhalt. 

Anis (S 2317 AC). Nama name of 
Rehoboth, meaning 'smoke', from 
the steam seen at the hot springs on 
winter mornings. 

*Anysberg (C 3219-3320). Moun- 
tain range west of the Little Swart- 
berg, forming portion of the northern 
boundary of the Ladismith district. 
Named either after aniseed (Pimp- 



inella anisum), 'anys' in Afrikaans, 
or after an anise-scented buchu 
(Diosma vulgaris). 

*Apiesrivier (T 2528). River which 
has its source in the Fountains 
Valley and flows through Pretoria. 
Said to have been named after the 
large numbers of vervet monkeys 
which lived in the trees on its banks 
between Daspoort and the Fountains 
Valley. An alternative derivation is 
that it takes its name from Tshwana 
('the little monkey'), son of and 
successor to Musi, chief of a branch 
of the Nguni tribe which settled in 
the Transvaal some 350 years ago at 
the time of the Nguni migration to 
Natal. The Ndebele name is Enzwa- 
buklunga, Enzwabuhlungu or 
Entsabotluku, from en Zubuh- 
lungu, 'the one that hurts', 'painful', 
after the sharpness of the stones. 



*Aranos (S 2419 AA). Village in 
the Gibeon district, on the banks of 
the Nossob, some 176 km from 
Mariental. Supplanted the name 
Arahoab owing to confusion with 
Aroab. Derived from Arahoab and 
Nossob. 

*Ariamsvlei (S 2819 BB). Village 
with post office and railway station, 
between Keetmanshoop and 

Upington, 16 km west of Nakop. 
The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen, # ari am, 'raisin-bush 
(Grewia) fountain'. 

Armoedsweiding (C 3421). Region 
abutting on the Vals River, probably 
where Weltevreden is now situated. 
Thus named on 26 January 1689 by 
Isaq Schrijver. 'Poor grazing', 
'pasturage of poverty'. 



Arniston (C 3420 CA). Village 
officially known as Waenhuis- 
krans, named after the British 
troopship Arniston which was 
wrecked in Marcus Bay some 40 km 
north-east of Cape Agulhas on 30 
May 1815 with the loss of 372 lives, 
and with 6 survivors. 

*Aroab (S 2619 DC). Village some 
170 km east of Keetmanshoop. The 
name is derived from Khoekhoen # 
aro (Zizyphus mucranatus) and lab, 
'river', after this type of thorn -tree 
growing on the banks. 

Arthur, Lake see Lake Arthur 

Artjesvlei (C 3419). Region in the 
Hermanus district, bounded by the 
Babilonstoring range in the north 
and the Kleinrivierberge in the 
south. Named after the wild peas 
growing there, the name was used 



from about 1870. Also Atchasvlei, 
now Ertjiesvlei. 

*Asab (S 2517 BD). Settlement 
some 100 km south of Mariental. 
Derived from Khoekhoen, the name 
means 'new place'. 

Asbestos Mountains (C 2823). Moun- 
tains in the Hay district, formerly 
known as Rooiberge, a term now only 
applied to the hills north of Tsineng. 
Known, in Afrikaans as Asbesberge, 
which has the same meaning. 

Asherville (N 2930 DD). Township 
some 8 km north-west of Durban city 
hall. Named after a former city 
councillor, Mrs Mary Asher, who was 
particularly interested in the welfare of 
the Indian population. 

*Ashton (C 3320 CC). Town at the 
foot of the Langeberg, 10 km south- 
west of Montagu and 19 km east- 



south-east of Robertson. It was 
established in 1897 on the farm 
Roodewal and attained municipal 
status in January 1956. Named after 
the first station-master. 

*Asrivier (O 2828 AD). River some 
8 km south-east of Bethlehem which 
flows into Loch Lomond. Afrikaans 
for 'axle river', the name was given 
because the axle of a wagon broke at a 
ford here during the Great Trek, 
causing some delay. 

Attaquas Kloof (C 3321 DD). Ravine 
some 43 km north-west of Mossel 
Bay. Named after the Attaqua group of 
Khoekhoen. Variants of the name 
include Atquaskloof, Attakwaskloof, 
Artaquas and Hartequaskloof. There 
is also an Attaquaskloof 23 km south- 
west of Caledon (C 3419 AC-AD). 



Attaquas Mountains (C 3321). 
Mountain range between George and 
Mossel Bay. Named after the Attaqua 
group of Khoekhoen, it is also 
encountered as Attakwasberge. 

*Atteridgeville (T2528 CA). Town- 
ship 11 km west of Church Square in 
Pretoria, established in 1939 and 
named after Mrs M P Atteridge, 
Chairman of the City Council's 
Committee for Non-European Affairs 
at that time. 

Auas Mountains (S 2217 CA). Range 
some 56 km long, part of the Damara- 
land Highlands, in the Windhoek 
district. Derived from Khoekhoen, the 
name is said to refer to a type of tree 
growing there which bears small, 
hard, red berries. 

Augrabies Falls (C 2820 CB). 
Waterfall in the Orange River, 



40 km north-west of Kakamas, 
88 km west of Upington. From 
Khoekhoen (Korana), probably 
'hollow place'. Formerly the names 
King George's Cataract and 
Hercules Falls were given but did 
not survive. The Afrikaans form 
Augrabieswaterval has been 
approved. 

*Augrabieswaterval 
see Augrabies Falls 

*Auob (S 2418-2620). Tributary of 
the Nossob, which it joins at Twee 
Rivieren at the Botswana border 
after 'flowing' south-east for some 
560 km past Stampriet, Gochas, 
Eindpaal and Mata Mata. The name 
is of Khoekhoen origin and means 
'bitter river'. 

*Aurora (C 3218 CB). Town 43 km 
north-west of Piketberg and 29 km 



south of Redelinghuys. Established 
in 1906, it was named after the 
Roman goddess of dawn. 

Aurora Peak (C 3127). Slightly 
east of the Drakensberg. After the 
Roman goddess of dawn, it is said to 
be so named because of its situation 
in the Eastern Cape, and because it 
is one of the first peaks to catch the 
rays of the rising sun. 

*Aus (S 2616 CB). Village some 
125 km east of Luderitz and 114 km 
west of Konkiep (Goageb). The 
name is derived from Khoekhoen 
and probably means 'snake 
fountain', 'place of snakes'. Aus 
became a municipality in 1949. 

*Avontuur (C 3323 CA). Town 
some 13 km south-east of Union- 
dale. Afrikaans for 'adventure', the 
origin of the name is obscure. The 



river from which the town takes its 
name was known thus in 1778. 



B 

*Babanango (N 2831). Mountain 
38 km north-west of Melmoth. Said 
to have been named after an incident 
in which the child of a Zulu chief of 
the Buthelezi tribe was lost in the 
mist. He was found by his brother 
who called 'Baba nango!' - 'Father, 
there he is!' An alternative explana- 
tion is that the name is derived from 
that of a tree or shrub, ibabanango, 
but existing dictionaries list no such 
word. The name is also borne by a 
stream. 

*Babanango (N 2831 AC). Town 
some 58 km north-west of Melmoth. 
Founded in 1904, it probably takes 
its name from the geographical 
features nearby, the stream and the 
mountain. 



Babilonstoring (C 3318 DB). 

Mountain at the entrance to the 
Paarl Valley, between Stellenbosch 
and Paarl. The name, bestowed prior 
to 1690 and also encountered as 
Babylons Toren, means 'tower of 
Babel'; the reference is to its height. 

*Badplaas (T 2530 DC). Health 
resort with hot sulphur springs near 
the Buffelspruit, 48 km east of 
Carolina on the road to Barberton. 
Known to the indigenous people as 
Emanzana, 'healing waters'. Dis- 
covered in 1876, it was proclaimed 
state property on 6 November 1893. 
In December 1947 it was proclaimed 
a township. The name is Afrikaans, 
derived from Dutch, and means 
'bathing place', 'spa'. 

Bahia de Sao Francisco (C 3425 
AA). 'Bay of St Francis', now St 
Francis Bay. This Portuguese name 



was given by Perestrelo to Golfo 
dos Pastores, 'bay of the shepherds'. 

Bahia dos Vaqueiros (C 3421 BD). 
Former name of Fish Bay; given by 
Bartolomeu Dias in February 1488, 
meaning 'bay of the cowherds'. 

Bahia Formosa (C 3423 AB). Now 
Plettenberg Bay. Meaning 'beautiful 
bay', it was given this name in 1576 
by the Portuguese navigator Manuel 
de Mesquita Perestrelo. 

Bain's Kloof Pass (C 3319 CA). 
Mountain pass over the Drakenstein 
range 29 km west-north-west of 
Worcester, between the Breede 
River Valley and Wellington. 
Started in 1849 and opened in Sep- 
tember 1853. Named after its 
builder, Andrew Geddes Bain (?- 
1864), road engineer, explorer and 
geologist. 



*Bain's Vlei (0 2926 AA). Settle- 
ment on the road to Kimberley, situ- 
ated 8 km west of Bloemfontein, 
Named after the owner, Andrew 
Hudson Bain, who bought it in 
1849. 

Bakens River (C 3325 CD). River 
near Port Elizabeth. Afrikaans, 
originally Dutch; 'beacon river', so 
called because Ensign August 
Beutler erected a beacon at its 
mouth when demarcating the terri- 
tory of the Dutch East India 
Company in 1752. It also served as 
a beacon for sailors seeking the 
landing-place. The spellings Baak- 
ens, Baaker and Baker are also 
encountered. 

Bakoven (C 3418 AB). Settlement 
on the west coast of the Cape 
Peninsula, south of Camps Bay. 
'Baking oven', possibly after an off- 



shore rock of that shape; the name is 
Dutch in origin. 

Balelasberg (N 2730). Branch of 
the Drakensberg, named after an 
Amahlubi chief, Langalibalela, who 
lived there, 'The scorching (libalele) 
sun (langa)' . 

*Balfour (C 3226 DA). Village at 
the foot of the Katberg. Established 
as a station of the Glasgow Mission- 
ary Society in 1828 by John Ross 
and McDiarmid, and named after 
Robert Balfour, first Secretary of 
the Society. 

*Balfour (T 2628 DA). Town and 
post office, some 80 km southeast of 
Johannesburg, Established on the 
farms Vlakfontein No. 101 and No. 
108 which belonged to Frederick 
Stuart McHattie, and named 
McHattiesburg after him in 1897. 



Proclaimed on 16 February 1898, it 
was renamed Balfour on 15 
February 1905, after Arthur James 
Balfour, Prime Minister of Great 
Britain, 1902-1905, who visited 
South Africa in that year. 

Bamboesberg (C 3126). Mountain 
range south-east of Steynsburg and 
north-east of Hofmeyr; an extension 
westward of the Stormberg Range. 
'Bamboo mountain', probably from 
the Cape bamboo (Arundinaria 
tesselata) growing in the ravines, 
used in former times for whip 
handles. 

*Bandelierkop (T 2329 BD). 
Village some 35 km south-west of 
Louis Trichardt, on the route from 
Pietersburg to Beit Bridge. 
Afrikaans for 'bandolier hill"; said 
to have been named after an incident 
in which a burgher, Jan du Preez, 



was sent back to fetch the bandolier 
he had left behind when the 
commando struck camp. 

*Banghoek (C 3318 DD). Mountain 
glen near Helshoogte. Said to have 
been so named because lions and 
tigers presented a danger at night 
and caused people to be afraid 
(Afrikaans 'bang'), and because the 
dangerous Helshoogte had to be 
crossed. The Banghoek Mountains 
take their name from this glen. 

Bantry Bay (C 3318 CD). Exten- 
sion of Sea Point, Cape Town, 
where the coast becomes rocky and 
precipitous, 6 km west of Cape 
Town. Formerly called Botany Bay. 
Possibly named after Bantry Bay in 
Ireland. 

*Barberspan (T 2625 DA). Pan or 
depression containing water, 20 km 



from Delareyville. Some 3 km wide 
and 11 km long, it receives its water 
when the Harts River, next to which 
it is situated, overflows. Afrikaans 
for 'barbel depression', after that 
type of fish. The pan was 
proclaimed a nature reserve in 1949. 

*Barberton (T 2531 CC). Town at 
the foot of the Makonjwa Moun- 
tains, 45 km south-west of 
Nelspruit. Named after Graham 
Hoare Barber (1835-1888) who 
discovered a rich gold-bearing reef 
there in 1884. Became a 
municipality in 1904. 

*Barkly East (C 3027 DC). Town 
some 116 km south-east of Aliwal 
North. Laid out in 1874 on the farm 
Rocky Park and named after Sir 
Henry Barkly, Governor of the Cape 
from 1870 to 1877. Became a 
municipality in 1881. 



*Barkly Pass (C 3127 BB). 
Mountain pass 10 km long over the 
southern Drakensberg, between 
Barkly East and Elliot. Named after 
Sir Henry Barkly, Governor of the 
Cape, 1870-1877. 

*Barkly West (C 2824 DA). Town 
on the Vaal River, some 36 km 
north-west of Kimberley. Formerly 
known as Klipdrift, it began as a 
camp for alluvial diamond diggers 
in 1869. In 1870 it was named 
Barkly West, after Governor Sir 
Henry Barkly. Occupied by Boer 
forces for four months during the 
Second Anglo-Boer War and re- 
named Nieu-Boshof. Became a 
municipality in 1881. 

Barmen (S 2216 B). Former 
mission station of the Rhenish 
Missionary Society, 24 km from 
Okahandja, established in 1844 as 



Neu-Barmen. Named after the 
headquarters of the Society at 
Barmen in Germany; now Gross- 
Barmen. 

*Barrydale (C 3320 DC). Village 
on the Tradouw River, 42 km north- 
east of Swellendam. Named after 
Joseph Barry, a merchant well 
known in the 19th century. Became 
a municipality in 1921. 

*Bashee (Trsk 3128 CD). Popular 
adaptation of Mbashe; occurs as a 
station name, in Bashee Bridge, etc. 

*Basuto Hill (O 2829 AC). Hill on 
the west bank of the Wilge River, 
5 km south-south-west of Harri- 
smith. Named in memory of the 
murder by Matselaan of H O Dreyer 
and J Simbeeck on 29 March 1866. 
He was believed to be a member of 



the Basotho (Basuto), but in fact he 
was a Zulu. 

*Bathurst (C 3326 DB). Town on 
the Kowie River, 55 km southeast of 
Grahamstown and 15 km north-west 
of Port Alfred. Founded in 1820 and 
named after Lord Bathurst, Secre- 
tary of State for the Colonies, by Sir 
Rufane Donkin (1733-1841), Acting 
Governor of the Cape at that time. 

Baviaanskloof (C 3323-3324). 
Ravine 161 km long in the 
Baviaanskloof Mountains. Dutch, 
'baboons ravine', from the large 
numbers of baboons encountered 
there. 

Baviaanskloof (C 3419 BA). 
Original name of Genadendal, 

station of the Moravian Missionary 
Society in the Caledon district. The 



name is of Dutch origin and means 
'baboons ravine'. 

Baviaansrivier (C 3226). River in 
the Somerset district. The name is 
Dutch for 'baboons river', translated 
from the Khoekhoen Gomee. Also 
encountered as Prehns Rivier, 
Bobotyana and Incwama. 

Baynes Mountains (S 1712 BA- 
BB). Mountain range in the northern 
part of South-West Africa, border- 
ing the Kunene River. Named after 
Maudslay Baynes, the first white 
man to follow the Kunene basin on 
foot from the Ruacana Falls to the 
west of the mountains, which he did 
in 1911. 

Bay's Hill (T 2528). Hill near 
Pretoria; named after the Queen's 
Bays, a British regiment in the 



Second Anglo-Boer War (1899- 
1902). 

*Beaufort West (C 3222 BC). 
Town 573 km from Cape Town, 
established in 1818 on the farm 
Hooyvlakte. Named by Lord Charles 
Somerset, Governor of the Cape, 
1814-1826, after his father, the fifth 
Duke of Bedford. Became the first 
municipality in South Africa on 3 
February 1837. 

Bechuanaland (C 2623). Region 
north and south of the Molopo 
River. After 1880 the districts of 
Gordonia, Kuruman, Mafeking, 
Taung and Vryburg became known 
as British Bechuanaland. In the 
nineties Gordonia developed as an 
independent district, and the area 
north of the Molopo became 
Bechuanaland Protectorate. Named 
after the BaTswana, popularly called 



Bechuana or, in Afrikaans, Betsjoe- 
ana. 

*Bedford (C 3226 CA). Town 
85 km south-east of Cradock. 
Founded in 1854 on part of the farm 
Maasstrom which belonged to Sir 
Andries Stockenstrom, and named 
by him after the Duke of Bedford. 
Became a municipality in 1856. 

*Bedfordview (T 2628 AA). 

Township 7 km from Germiston and 
11 km from Johannesburg, east of 
the latter. Laid out as agricultural 
plots on the farm Elandsfontein 
under the name Geldenhuis Estate 
Small Holdings. The name was 
changed on 4 February 1926 to 
Bedfordview, after Bedford Farm, 
the property of Sir George Storrar, 
which could be seen from there. 



Bega River (C 3326 CB-DA). 
Tributary of the Bushmans River, 
rising north-west of Alexandria and 
flowing eastwards along the border 
between the Alexandria and Bath- 
urst districts. Of Khoekhoen origin, 
the name probably means 'milk- 
wood (river)'. 

Belekazana (C 3226 DB/3227 CA). 
Xhosa name for Hogsback. Derived 
from ulu-beleka, 'carry on the 
back', because the hill resembles a 
mother carrying a child on her back. 

*Belfast (T 2530 CA). Town some 
210 km east of Pretoria, situated in 
the foothills of the Drakensberg. 
Established in 1890 on the farm 
Tweefontein, and named after 
Belfast in Ireland, birthplace of John 
O'Neill, father of Richard C 
O'Neill, owner of Tweefontein. Be- 
came a municipality in 1966. 



*Bell (C 3327 AB). Village 30 km 
south-east of Peddie and 80 km 
south-west of East London. Named 
after Charles Davidson Bell (1813- 
1882), Surveyor-General in 1857. 

Bell's Kop (T 2630 BD). Hill 82 km 
east of Ermelo. Named after Robert 
Bell, resident Justice of the Peace 
for the Ermelo district who, with 12 
constables, was murdered by Bekana 
and his Swazi followers while 
collecting tax which the Swazis, 
living on farms allocated to Scottish 
settlers, refused to pay. 

*Bellville (C 3318 DC). Town 
19 km east of Cape Town and 10 km 
south of Durbanville. Originally 
known as Twelve Mile Stone, after 
its distance from Cape Town, it 
received its present name in 1861. 
Named after Charles Davidson Bell, 
Surveyor—General of the Cape from 



1848 to 1872; it became a 
municipality in 1940. 

Ben Dearg (C 3127 BB). Peak 2 
770 m high in the Drakensberg, 
27 km north-east of Elliot. Named 
after Ben Dearg in Scotland, which 
it resembles. 

*Benoni (T 2628 AB). Town 29 km 
east of Johannesburg and about 
8 km north-west of Brakpan. It 
developed from a gold-mining 
camp. Named by Johann Rissik, the 
surveyor who was experiencing 
difficulty with this piece of 
uitvalgrond - land between occupied 
farms - in 1881, after the biblical 
Benoni, son of Rachel (Gen. 35:18). 
The name is Hebrew and means 'son 
of my sorrows'. Became a munici- 
pality in 1907. 



*Berea (Les 2927 BC). Station of 
the French Missionary Society, 
established in 1843. Scene of British 
victory over the Basotho under 
Moshesh in 1852 and of a battle in 
1865 between the Basotho and 
Orange Free State forces under 
General Fick. The origin of the 
name is biblical (Acts 17:10-11) and 
refers to the place to which Paul and 
Silas were sent. Subsequently it 
became fashionable for an elevated 
site and is borne by suburbs of 
Durban and Johannesburg. 

*Berg River (C 3218). River rising 
in the Jonkershoek Mountains 15 km 
south-east of Stellenbosch, and at 
Assegaaibos near Franschhoek, and 
debouching into the Atlantic Ocean 
in St Helena Bay near Velddrif, 
129 km north of Cape Town. The 
name is encountered in Van 



Riebeeck's journal of 15 November 
1657. Given by Abraham Gabbema 
in 1657, the name means 'mountain 
river' and refers to the seemingly 
impenetrable range of mountains at 
the foot of which it flows in a 
northerly direction. It formerly bore 
the name Rio de Santiago or 
Santiaguo. The form Bergrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Berg River, Little (C 3319). 
Tributary of the Berg River. Rises 
near Tulbagh and joins the Berg 
River south-east of the Twenty-four 
Rivers at the farm Mond van de 
Kleine Bergrivier. The name was 
given by Pieter Cruythoff's expedi- 
tion on 7 February 1661. 

Bergriviervallei (C 3318). Region 
bounded in the east by the Draken- 
stein Mountains and in the west by 
Paarlberg. First settled and culti- 



vated in 1687 when Governor Simon 
van der Stel allocated 33 farms of 
51 ha each. Afrikaans for 'mountain 
river valley', it takes its name from 
the Berg River which flows through 
it. 

*Bergville (N 2829 CB). Town on 
the Tugela River, 52 km southwest 
of Ladysmith and 19 km north-west 
of Winterton. It was laid out in 1895 
on the farm Klein Waterval and 
became a municipality in 1961. The 
name was given in 1903 and refers 
to its situation at the foot of the 
Drakensberg, popularly known as 
The Berg. 

*Berlin (C 3227 DC). Village some 
20 km east of King William's Town. 
Founded in 1857 by German settlers 
of the British-German Legion and 
named after the German capital. The 
name is also borne by a settlement 



with a mission station and shops 
below the Pienaars River Dam in 
Transvaal. 

*Berseba (S 2517 DD). Station of 
the Rhenish Missionary Society 
some 97 km north-west of Keet- 
manshoop, at the foot of the Bruk- 
karos Mountain. Founded in 1850 
by Samuel Hahn (1805-1883) and 
named by him with reference to the 
biblical Berseba (Gen. 21:31), 'well 
of the oath'. 

*Bethal (T 2629 AD). Town 150 km 
east of Johannesburg. Established on 
portion of the farm Blesbokspruit 
and proclaimed on 12 October 1880, 
it attained municipal status in 1921. 
Named after two sisters, Elizabeth 
du Plooy and Alida Naude, wives of 
the original owners of the farm. 



*Bethanie (T 2527 DA). Station of 
the Hermannsburg Missionary 
Society 37 km south-east of Rusten- 
burg, established in 1864. Of bib- 
lical origin (Matt. 26:6 and Mark 
14:3; 11:1), the name is Hebrew for 
'house of sorrow or misery'. 

Bethanien (S 2617 AC). Village 
30 km north of Goageb and 160 km 
west of Keetmanshoop. Established 
in 1814 as a station of the Rhenish 
Missionary Society at Uigantes by J 
H Schmelen and named by him. The 
reference is biblical (Mark 11:1). 
'House of misery'. Approved as 
Bethanie. 

*Bethany (O 2925 DB). Station of 
the Berlin Missionary Society es- 
tablished in 1834 by Gebel and 
Kraul to serve the Korana. Hebrew 
for 'house of misery'. The railway 
station was renamed Wurasoord in 



1919, after C Wuras, 
charge of it then. 



who took 



*Bethelsdorp (C 3325 CD). 
Mission station of the London 
Missionary Society, 20 km north- 
west of Port Elizabeth. Established 
in 1803 by J T van der Kemp on the 
farm Roodepas of Theunis Botha. 
From the Hebrew Baith-eel, 'house 
of God'. 

*Bethlehem (O 2820 AB). Town 
250 km north-east of Bloemfontein 
and 260 km south of Johannesburg, 
established in 1860 on the farm 
Pretoriuskloof and proclaimed in 
1884. Named after the biblical 
Bethlehem (Judg. 17:7), the birth- 
place of Jesus. 'House of bread', so 
called because wheat was found to 
thrive there. 



*Bethulie (O 3025 BD). Town 
193 km south of Bloemfontein, es- 
tablished on 4 March 1863 and 
named Heidelberg; renamed after 
the nearby mission station in 1872 
to avoid confusion with the Heidel- 
bergs in the Cape and Transvaal. 

*Bethulie (O 3025 BD). Mission 
station. Originally Moordenaars- 
poort, so named because many San 
and Griquas were killed there by 
Basotho. A mission which had been 
established by the Reverend Clark 
of the London Missionary Society in 
1829 was taken over by Jean Pierre 
Pellissier of the French Missionary 
Society in 1835 and named 
Verheullpolis. The directors of the 
Society preferred a biblical name 
and in the same year renamed it 
Bethulia (Judith 4:6,7), Hebrew, 



'maiden of the Lord' or 'chosen by 
God'. Now spelt Bethulie. 

*Betty's Bay (C 3419 BD). Village 
and holiday resort east of Cape 
Hangklip, some 16 km west-south- 
west of Kleinmondstrand. Named 
after the only daughter of Arthur 
Youldon, chief director of the com- 
pany Hangklip Beach Estates. 

Bidouw Mountains (C 3219 AB). 
Mountains some 39 km east-north- 
east of Clanwilliam. Named after 
the indigenous biedou or bietou 
plant (Chrysanthemoides monili- 
fera), they have given their name to 
the Bidou River, a tributary of the 
Doting. The name is also spelt 
Biedouw. 

Biela Bela (T 2428 CD). Tswana 
name of Warmbad, meaning 'it boils 



of its own accord', referring to the 
hot springs there. 

*Big Bend (Swa 2631 DD). Village 
83 km south of Stegi (Siteki) and 
57 km south-east of Manzini. The 
name refers to a large bend in the 
Great Usutu River there, and is also 
borne by an irrigation scheme. 

*Biggarsberg (N 2829-2830). 
Mountain between Buffelsrivier and 
Wasbank, 8 km south of Glencoe. It 
was named after Alexander Biggar 
(?-1838), a British colonist whose 
servants overturned a cart there in 
December 1838. 

Bilanhlola see Bulanhloya 

Bira (Cis 3327). River rising near 
Peddie and flowing south-east past 
Wooldridge to enter the Indian 
Ocean at Madagascar Reef, south- 
west of Hamburg. The name is a 



Xhosa adaptation of the Khoekhoen 
Bega, Begha, Becha, etc, meaning 
'milk (river)'. 

Bird Island (C 3218 AB). Small 
island near Lambert's Bay, since 27 
October 1962 joined to the coast by 
a concrete wall. Named after the 
thousands of sea-birds which 
congregate there. Also known as 
Penguin Island. 

Bird Island (C 3326 CD). Island 
some 64 km east of Port Elizabeth 
and 8 km from Cape Woody, in the 
Alexandria district. So called 
because many seagulls inhabit it and 
the surrounding islands. The Dod- 
dington was wrecked on it in 1755. 

Bisho (Cis 3227 CD). Capital city of 
the Ciskei, situated several kilo- 
metres north-east of King William's 
Town. It takes its name from the 



Buffalo River which flows past it; 
the name is Xhosa for 'buffalo'. 

*Bisi (Trsk 3029). Tributary of the 
Mzimkulu. It rises in the Drakens- 
berg north-east of Kokstad and 
flows eastwards to enter the main 
stream south of Umzimkulu. 
Derived from Xhosa u-bisi, 'milk' 
and was formerly known as Ibisi. 

*Bivane (N 2730-273i). Tributary 
of the Pongolo River, it rises in the 
Balelasberg and flows between 
Paulpietersburg and Vryheid to 
enter the main stream north-west of 
Louwsburg. Uncertain whether this 
Zulu name is derived from beva, 'be 
angry', 'roar', or from ubivane, 
'rising and falling', or from imba- 
vana, impivane, 'waterbuck'. 

B J Schoeman Airport (C 3327 
BB). Airport 13 km north-west of 



East London, on land acquired in 
1938 and named Collondale after a 
local farm. Named after Barend 
Jacobus (Ben) Schoeman (1905- 
1986), former Minister of Transport. 

B J Vorster Airport (C 2824 DD). 
Airport at Kimberley, named after 
Balthazar John Vorster (1915-1983), 
former Prime Minister of the 
Republic of South Africa. 

*Blanco (C 3322 CD). Village some 
8 km west of George. Founded in 
1847 as a builders' camp, it was at 
first known as White's Villa, after 
Henry Fancourt White, engineer on 
the Montagu Pass built between 
1844 and 1847. The name was later 
changed to Blanco, a play on the 
name 'White'. 

Blesberg (O 2926 BB). Voortrekker 
name for Thaba Nchu, Derived from 



Afrikaans bles, 'blazed', or 'bald'. 
Thus 'blazed mountain', 'bald 
mountain'. 

Blesbokspruit (T 2628). Stream 
rising between Springs and Delmas 
and flowing south-west past Nigel 
and Heidelberg to its confluence 
with the Suikerbosrand River south- 
west of the latter town. The name, 
Afrikaans for 'blesbok stream', 
refers to the fact that the area around 
the source of this stream was a 
favourite hunting-place of these 
animals. 

Blijde Uitkomst (S 2818 BC). 
Station of the London Missionary 
Society at the site of the present 
Warmbad. It was established in 
1805 by Christian and Abraham 
Albrecht but destroyed in 1811 by 
Khoekhoen under Jager Afrikaner. 



The name is Dutch for 'joyful 
deliverance'. 

*Bloedrivier (N 2830 BA). Afri- 
kaans name for Blood River, tribu- 
tary of the Buffels River. The name 
refers to the famous battle between 
12 000 Zulus and 460 Voortrekkers 
on 16 December 1838. 

*Bloemfontein (O 2926 AA). 
Capital city of the Orange Free State 
and judicial capital of the RSA. It 
was established in 1846 by Major H 
D Warden on the farm Bloem- 
fontein, originally owned by a 
Griqua, Mauritz Pretorius. It has 
been claimed to have been named 
after a person with the surname 
Bloem or after an ox with this name. 
Probably, however, it was named 
after flowers growing at the foun- 
tain, from Dutch bloem, 'flower'. 



Municipal status was attained in 
1880. 

Bloemhof (T 2725 DA). Town 
170 km north-east of Kimberley, 
established in 1866 on the farm 
Klipfontein, which belonged to John 
Barclay. Said to have been named 
after white lilies covering the veld. 
An alternative explanation is that it 
derived its name from the flower- 
garden of Barclay's daughter, later 
Mrs Webster. In either event the 
name is derived from Dutch bloem, 
'flower'. 

*Blood River (N 2830 BA). Tribu- 
tary of the Tugela River. It rises 
north-east of Utrecht and flows 
southwards, joining with the Buffels 
River 29 km east of Dundee and 
entering the Tugela at Vantsdrift, 
north-east of Kranskop. Known to 
the Zulu as Ncome, 'the pleasant 



one'. The English name, and its 
Afrikaans equivalent of Bloedrivier, 
refer to a famous battle on 16 
December 1838 between 12 000 
Zulus and 460 Voortrekkers, when 
the waters were coloured with the 
blood of the fallen. The Afrikaans 
form Bloedrivier is preferred for 
official use. 

*Blouberg (C 3318 CB). Hill some 
5 km north of Bloubergstrand, on 
the northern border of the Cape 
district. 'Blue mountain', from the 
colour the hill assumes when viewed 
from ships approaching Table Bay. 
Originally it bore the Dutch form 
Blaauwberg. 

*Blouberg (T 2328-2329). Moun- 
tain west of the Soutpansberg. Afri- 
kaans, 'blue mountain'. Called 
Mouna a senna morini ('the man 
with no hair') by the local people, 



referring to the absence of bush or 
grass on its summit. The name 
Blouberg is also borne by a settle- 
ment on its slopes, north of 
Pietersburg. 

*Bloubergstrand (C 3318 CD). 

Village 24 km from Cape Town, on 
the shore of Table Bay. Originally 
in the Dutch form Blaauwberg 
Strand, it takes its name from the 
beach named after the hill, 'blue 
mountain beach'. Scene of a battle 
in 1806 which heralded the second 
British occupation of the Cape. 

Bloukrans Pass (C 3323 DC). 
Mountain pass 6 km beyond the 
Groot River Pass, on the route 
between Knysna and Storms River, 
in the Tsitsikamma Forest. Con- 
structed by Thomas Bain and 
completed in 1884, it possibly takes 



its name from the Bloukrans River. 
Afrikaans, 'blue cliff. 

Bloukransrivier (N 2830). River, 
scene of the murder of the Voor- 
trekker leader Piet Retief and more 
than 500 of his followers by the 
Zulu on 17 February 1838. Afri- 
kaans, the name means 'blue cliff 
river'. The Zulu name is Msuluzi, 
'the one which disappears'. 

Bluff (N 2931 CC). Promontory 
and suburb of Durban, extending 
8 km from the entrance to Durban 
harbour and separated from The 
Point by the channel forming the 
entrance to the harbour. Known to 
the Zulu as isiBubulangu. A bluff is 
a headland or point with a broad, 
perpendicular face and the name is 
thus most apt. 



*Blyde River (C 3225 CA). Stream 
rising on the Groot Bruintjies- 
hoogte north-east of Pearston and 
joining the Voel River, a tributary 
of the Sundays River, 13 km south 
of Pearston. Of Dutch origin, the 
name means 'happy river'. The 
reason for the name is unknown. 
The Afrikaans form Blyderivier is 
preferred for official use. 

*Blyderivier (T 2430). River rising 
in the Drakensberg and joining the 
Olifants River 13 km south of 
Mica. Dutch 'happy river', so 
called because in 1844 Hendrik 
Potgieter and others returned safely 
from Delagoa Bay to the rest of 
their party of trekkers who had 
considered them dead. While still 
under this misapprehension they 
had named the rivier where they had 



been encamped, Treurrivier, 'mourn- 
ing river'. 

*Blythswood (Trsk 3228 AA). Pres- 
byterian mission station near Butter- 
worth. Named after Captain Matthew 
T Blyth, first Chief Magistrate of the 
Transkei. It is an important education 
centre. 

*Blyvooruitsig (T 2627 AD). Town- 
ship serving the Blyvooruitzicht Gold 
Mining Co from 1937, incorporated 
into the Carletonville municipal area 
on 1 July 1959. 'Joyous prospect', this 
Afrikaans name is derived from the 
Dutch Blyvooruitzicht. 

Bobbejaanberg (C 3318 AD). Moun- 
tain, modernization of Baviaansberg, 
so named by Simon van der Stel after 
baboons living in caves there. 'Baboon 
mountain'. 



*Boboyi River (N 3030 CD). River 
debouching between Oslo Beach and 
Shelley Beach. Possibly from Zulu 
ubobuyi, 'hoopoe' (Upupa africana), 
a bird which is common in the area. It 
has also been stated that the name is 
derived from a type of grass growing 
on the banks, and also that it is derived 
from Zulu bhoba, 'prattle', 'drill a 
hole'; thus 'bubbling brook'. 

*Bochum (T 2329 AC). Settlement 
some 93 km north-west of Pietersburg, 
on the route to Doringpad. A corrup- 
tion of Bochim, a biblical name (Judg. 
2:1 and 5), given by the German 
missionary Carl Franz and his wife 
Helen to a mission station they 
established there in 1890. 

*Bodiam (Cis 3327 AB). Village 
8 km from Bell and 38 km from 
Peddie, near the mouth of the 
Keiskamma River. Named after 



Bodiam Castle in England. Formerly 
known as Mandy's Farm. 

Boesmankop (O 2927). Hill so named 
by the Hottentots of William Corn- 
wallis Harris because on 2 January 
1836 the draught oxen of their 
expedition were stolen and eaten by 
San. 'Bushman hill'. 

Boesmanland (C 2920-3021). Afri- 
kaans name of Bushmanland. 

Boesmansberg (C 3225). Early name 
for Bosberge. 

Boesmanshoed (C 3024 AD). Moun- 
tain some 32 km west of Colesberg. 
Also encountered as The Mosque 
because of its shape, and as 
Chinaman's Hat, the reference being 
to the Bushmen or San in that vicinity 
who were known in the 18th century 
as 'Chineesen' or 'Chinese Hotten- 



tots'. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'Bushman's hat'. 

Boesmansrivier see Bushman's River 

*Boetsap (C 2724 CD). Village 
between Barkly West and Vryburg. 
From Tswana bucwa, 'fat', 'sleek', it 
is said to refer to the condition of the 
cattle there; Bootschap as recorded by 
the early missionaries. 

*Boipatong (T 2627 DB). Township 
in Vanderbijlpark municipal area, 
founded in 1955 under the name 
Tsirela but renamed to avoid confu- 
sion with a similar name. 'Place of 
shelter', because the owner of the farm 
had permitted unemployed families to 
live in huts on the farm. 

*Boitumelong (T 2725 DA). Town- 
ship 5 km from Bloemhof, on the farm 
Klipfontein No HO 344. Tswana, 
meaning 'place of happiness', from the 



fact that the residents were happy to 
move to the new township. 

Bokkeveld (C 3219). Region between 
Clanwilliam and Tulbagh, east of the 
Bokkeveld Mountains. Named after 
the millions of springbok which 
migrated thither in former times. The 
Cold Bokkeveld is east of the Cold 
Bokkeveld Mountains and north of 
Ceres, the Warm Bokkeveld south of 
it. 

*Boknesstrand (C 3326 DA). Village 
19 km south-east of Alexandria, at the 
mouth of the Boknes River, from 
which it takes its name. Formerly 
called Jammerfontein. The name 
Boknes is derived from Khoekhoen 
and means 'father's river'. The forms 
Bocna, Bokana etc. are also 
encountered. 



*Boksburg (T 2628 AB). Town 
22 km east of Johannesburg, between 
Benoni and Germiston. Established on 
2 March 1887 on Vogelfontein and 
named in honour of Willem Eduard 
Bok (1846-1904), Transvaal State 
Secretary. Became a municipality in 
October 1905. 

Boland (C 3318). Region approx- 
imately between the mouth of the Berg 
River and Swellendam, in the Western 
Cape; the precise boundaries are not 
clearly defined. Although situated at a 
low elevation, it was so called because 
the Berg and Breede rivers flow from 
here to the Onderveld east and north of 
the Hex River Mountains. 'Top 
country', 'upper area', 'land above'. 

Bomvanaland (Trsk 3128). Region 
north of the Bashee River, extending 
some 32 km from the coast towards 
the Umtata River, and bounded by 



Galekaland in the south and by East 
Tembuland in the west. Named after 
the Bomvana tribe of Xhosa who 
inhabit it, it later became known as the 
district of Elliotdale. 

Bomvini (N 2831 AA). Stream 18 km 
east-north-east of Hlabisa. From Zulu 
isibomvu, ubombvu, 'red ground'; 
ibomvu, 'red clay'. Literally 'at the 
red ground'. 

Bomvu Ridge (Swa 2632 AA). 
Southern extremity of the Ngwenya 
Mountains and site of a haematite 
mine. Derived from Swazi, the name 
means 'red ridge', referring to the 
colour imparted by the haematite or 
'blood-stone'. In mining activities 
important archaeological and anthro- 
pological evidence has been 
unearthed, eg that haematite was being 
mined there some 30 000 years ago. 
Ntababomvu is the Swazi name. 



*Bon Accord (T 2528 CA). Dam and 
irrigation works on the Apies River, 
14 km north of Pretoria. Completed in 
1924 and adapted in 1931. Possibly 
named by General J C Smuts (1870- 
1950), former Prime Minister, after an 
old estate called Bon Accord, part of 
De Hoop, in Gardens, Cape Town, 
granted to Johannes Smuts in 1777. 

Bondels Reserve (S 2818). Reserve 
for the Bondelswarts tribe of Khoek- 
hoen, 72 km x 24 km in extent, near 
Karasburg. The name is derived from 
that of the Bondelswarts tribe. Liter- 
ally 'bundle blacks', the name is a 
translation of Khoekhoen ! Garni 
#nun; the origin is uncertain. 

*Bongolethu (C 3322 CA). Township 
10 km east of Oudtshoorn. Derived 
from Xhosa, the name means 'our 
pride'. 



*Bonnievale (C 3320 CC). Town 
64 km south-east of Worcester, in the 
Breede River Valley. Founded in 1922 
and named after the railway siding 
which had been called Vale since its 
opening in 1902 and Bonnie Vale in 
1917. Municipal status was gained in 
April 1953. 

*Bontberg (C 3221 AC). Mountain 
40 km east of Sutherland; named thus 
because of its red spots against the 
black background. The name is 
Afrikaans, meaning 'dappled moun- 
tain'. 

Bontebok National Park (C 3420). 
Reserve near Bredasdorp, between 
Caledon and Swellendam, south of the 
Langeberg. Established in 1931 and 
named after the bontebok (Damaliscus 
pygargus), which were settled here and 
thus saved from extinction. The 



Afrikaans form Bontebokpark has 
been approved for official use. 

Bontebokvlakte (Trsk 3127). Region 
near the Swartkeirivier, on the border 
of Silva, a station of the Moravian 
Mission established to serve the Tam- 
boekies. Named after the bontebok 
(Damaliscus pygargus). 

*Bosberg (C 3225 DA). Region 
bounded by Swaershoek in the north 
and Somerset East in the south. 
Encountered in 1711 as Boschberg, 
the name is derived from that of the 
mountains. Afrikaans for 'bush 
mountain', after the vegetation on the 
slopes. 

Bosberge (C 3225 DA). Mountains 
near Somerset East, so named because 
they are covered with trees and shrubs. 
Formerly known as Boesmansberg or 



Bosjesmans Berg. 'Bush mountains'; 
the name is Afrikaans. 

*Bosbokrand (T 2431 CC). Village 
32 km east of Pilgrim's Rest, on the 
route between Nelspruit and Tzaneen. 
Formerly Bushbuck Ridge, a name it 
translates, after the bushbuck (Trage- 
laphus scriptus) which occurred there 
in great numbers. 

*Boshof (O 2825 CA). Town 55 km 
north-east of Kimberley. Established 
in March 1856 on the farm Vanwyks- 
vlei, which had been named after a 
Griqua who sowed his crops on it from 
time to time. Named in honour of 
Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (1808-1881), 
second President of the Orange Free 
State (1855-59) and founder of its civil 
service. Became a municipality in 
1872. 



*Boskop (T 2626 BA). Village 16 km 
north of Potchefstroom, renowned as 
the site of the discovery in 1913 of the 
first fossil skull found in South Africa. 
Approved for a post office, Potchef- 
stroom, and a station on the route 
Potchefstroom-Welverdiend, the name 
is Afrikaans and means 'bush hill'. 

*Bosveld see Bushveld 

Botany Bay (C 3318 CD). Name of 
the present Bantry Bay until at least 
1839. Named after a botanical garden 
which Dr F L Liesching and Jean 
Jacques de Ziegler had there for the 
cultivation of medicinal herbs. 

*Botha's HU1 (N 2930 DC). Village 
37 km north-west of Durban, on the 
road to Pietermaritzburg. It was named 
after a settler, Philip Rudolph Botha, 
grandfather of General Louis Botha 



(1862-1919), first Prime Minister of 
the Union of South Africa. 

*Bothasig (C 3318 CD/DC). Town- 
ship 2,5 km from Milnerton, laid out 
on the farm Bosmansdam and named 
after it, but renamed in 1966 after P W 
Botha, then Minister of Community 
Development and subsequently Prime 
Minister and State President of the 
Republic of South Africa. 

*Bothaville (O 2626 BC). Town 
78 km north-west of Kroonstad. Estab- 
lished in 1893 on the farm Botharnia, 
a portion of Gladdedrift which had 
been bought by Theunis Louis Botha, 
and named after him. 

*Bothibelong (T 2628 BA). Township 
3 km north of Delmas. The name is 
derived from Sotho and means 
'protection'. 



*Bot River (C 3419 AA). Village in 
the Caledon district, 93 km southeast 
of Cape Town. It takes its name from 
the river on the west bank of which it 
is situated. The form Botrivier is 
preferred for official use. 

Bot River (C 3419 AC). River rising 
in the Groenland Mountains and 
flowing south into the Botriviervlei 
which enters the Indian Ocean north- 
west of Mudge Point. The name is 
derived from Botter ('butter') Rivier, a 
translation of Khoekhoen Gouga. Said 
to be so called because in the early 
18th century people from Cape Town 
went there to obtain butter from the 
Khoekhoen, who had their kraals there 
because the grazing was good. Other 
forms of the name include Boter 
Rivier, Both, Butyrosum and Boater. 

Botshabelo (T 2529 CB). Mission 
station of the Berlin Missionary 



Society, 13 km north of Middelburg, 
founded in 1865 on the farm Bosch- 
hoek (now Toevlugt) by Alexander 
Merensky, to serve the Bapedi. 'Place 
of refuge', so called because a fort was 
built to protect the converted Bapedi 
from attacks by Sekhukhune's 
warriors. 

*Bottelary (C 3318 DD). Region in 
the vicinity of Bottelary Mountain, 
Stellenbosch district. Said to have 
been so named because it was the 
common butlery for horses, farmers 
coming from near and far to collect the 
hay which the area produced in great 
quantities. Another explanation is that 
the mountain was so named because 
provisions of the Dutch East India 
Company were kept there; a 'bot- 
telary' was the provisions-room on a 
ship. 



Bottelaryberg (C 3318 DD). Moun- 
tain 8 km west-north-west of Stellen- 
bosch, so named because provisions 
were kept there by the Dutch East 
India Company. 'Bottelary' was the 
provisions-room on a ship. See also 
Bottelary. 

Bottelierskop (C 3422 AA). Hill 
16 km north of Mossel Bay. Possibly 
so called because of its resemblance to 
a butler's cap; it has also been 
suggested that the name is an 
adaptation of 'Beutler' and that the hill 
was so called to commemorate the 
visit of August F Beutler, an ensign of 
the Dutch East India Company who 
led an expedition into the interior in 
1752. 

Bowesdorp (C 3017 DD). Former 
town between Garies and Springbok, 
60 km south of the latter. Established 
on the farm Wilgenhoutskloof and 



named after Henry Bowe, doctor in 
Namaqualand. Situated in a narrow 
valley between high mountains, there 
was not sufficient water or space for 
expansion, and the church, post office, 
police station, shops etc were moved 
to Kamieskroon 7 km away. 

*Brackenfell (C 3318 DC). Village 
26 km north-east of Cape Town, on 
the route to Paarl. Named after the 
farm Brackenfell, portion of Kruispad, 
which George Henry Walton bought in 
1901 and named thus because he was 
reminded of Scotland. It became a 
municipality in 1970. 

*Brakpan (T 2628 AB). Town 37 km 
east of Johannesburg. Founded in 
1886 on the farm Weltevreden No 20 
and proclaimed a township in 1912, it 
was a suburb of Benoni until 1919 
when it became a separate munici- 
pality. Named after a pan of brackish 



water on its outskirts; brak is 
Afrikaans for 'brackish', pan is a 
depression. 

Brak River (C 2922 DB). Tributary of 
the Orange River. It rises between 
Richmond and Hanover and flows 
265 km north-west to enter the Orange 
20 km north-east of Prieska. The name 
is derived from Afrikaans brak, 
'brackish'. 

*Brandberg (S 2114 AB/BA). Moun- 
tain massif some 30 km from east to 
west and 24 km wide, 86 km north- 
east of Cape Cross, 136 km north-west 
of Omaruru, on the eastern edge of the 
Namib. Composed of pink granite 
surrounded by Karoo sediments and 
dark basaltic lava, the mountain 
appears in a certain light to glow, and 
the black rocks have a burnt appear- 
ance. This phenomenon probably gave 
rise to the name, from Afrikaans 



brand, 'burn'. There are other 
theories, eg that it was named after 
Pieter Brand, who visited the country 
in 1792. The Herero name, 
Omukuruwaro, and the Nama name, 
Daunas, Daures, Daureb, also mean 
'burning' or 'burnt mountain'. 

Brandboontjiesrivier (T,2330 CA). 
River flowing through Duiwels- 
kloof. Afrikaans, literally 'burning 
bean river', after a plant which 
grows there. 

*Brandfort (O 2826 CB). Town 
some 56 km north-east of Bloem- 
fontein and 115 km south-west of 
Winburg, established on the farm 
Keerom on 30 October 1866, 
proclaimed in 1874. Municipal 
status was achieved in 1884. Named 
after J H Brand (1823-1888), fourth 
President of the Republic. He was 
the son of Sir Christoffel and Lady 



Catherina Frederica Brand. It is 
sometimes claimed that the town 
was so called because a fort on the 
nearby Keeromkoppie was burnt 
down by San or Basotho. 

Brandvlei (C 3319). Region in the 
vicinity of Worcester. Encountered 
about 1776 in the spelling Brand- 
valley, it owes its name to South 
Africa's largest thermal spring; 
derived from Afrikaans brand, 
'burn'. 

Brandvlei Dam (C 3319 CB). 
Storage and irrigation dam 6 km 
southwest of Worcester, on the 
Breede River, built in 1920-22. 
Takes its name from the original 
vlei at the southern end of which is 
South Africa's largest single thermal 
spring. Also known as Lake Marais. 



*Bredasdorp (C 3420 CA). Town 
195 km south-east of Cape Town. 
Established on 16 May 1838 on the 
farm Lange Fontein, it became a 
municipality in 1917. Named after 
Michiel van Breda (1775-1847), 
member of the Cape Legislative 
Assembly from 1838 and first mayor 
of Cape Town from 1840. 

*Breede River (C 3220-3420). 
River 325 km long, rising in the 
mountains around Ceres and 
debouching into the Indian Ocean at 
Whitesands, 56 km south-east of 
Swellendam. The name is derived 
from Dutch breede, Afrikaans bree, 
'broad' or 'wide', referring to its 
course after its confluence with the 
Riviersonderend, especially after 
floods. Known before 1502 as Rio 
de Nazaret. It seems as though the 
present name is a translation of 



Khoekhoen Sijnna. The form 
Breerivier is preferred for official 
use. 

*Breerivier see Breede River 

Bremersdorp (Swa 2631 AD). 
Former name of Manzini; after a 
trader, Albert Bremer. 

Brenton Island (C 3325 DD). Island 
19 km north-east of Port Elizabeth. It 
was named after Sir Jahleel Brenton 
(1770-1844), naval commander and 
artist. 

*Breyten (T 2629 BD). Town some 
30 km north of Ermelo and 32 km 
south of Carolina. It was laid out on 
the western portion of the farm 
Bothasrust, sold by Lukas Potgieter to 
Nicolaas Breytenbach (1844-1918), 
who helped check the Jameson Raid 
and was fieldcornet of Ward 3 of 
Ermelo in the Second Anglo-Boer 



War. Surveyed by H Nott on 25 
October 1906 and named Breyten, an 
abbreviation of Breytenbach. 

British Bechuanaland (C 2721). 
Former region established when 
Stellaland ceased to exist, originally 
bounded by the South African 
Republic on the east, by the Colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope on the south, 
by the Molopo River on the west, and 
on the north by the Molopo to its 
junction with the Ramathlabama 
Spruit, and thence by that spruit to the 
frontier of the South African Republic. 
The territory was divided into the 
districts of Mafeking, Taung and 
Vryburg. It was extended in 1891, and 
in 1895 consisted of the districts of 
Kuruman, Taung, Vryburg and 
Gordonia. In 1895 it was annexed to 
the Cape. The name is derived from 



that of the Batswana or BaTswana, 
formerly known as Bechuanas. 

British Caffraria (C 3227). Former 
region in the Eastern Cape. On 23 
December 1847 the borders were 
defined as follows: from the mouth of 
the Keiskamma River to the Kouga 
Mountains; thence to the source of the 
Klipplaats River; thence along the 
right bank of this river to the Kei 
River, and along the bank of the Kei 
River to the sea. The region was 
incorporated into the Cape Colony on 
17 April 1866. The name is derived 
from the term caffer or kaffir, now 
having a derogatory connotation, to 
refer to indigenous (black) people of 
South Africa. It in turn is derived from 
Chaldean cofar, 'infidel'. The eastern 
section of Africa was called Cofar by 
the Arabs because the inhabitants did 
not have the same religion as theirs; 



these people they called Cofars or 
Caffers. 

*Brits (T 2527 DB). Town on the 
Crocodile River, some 50 km north- 
west of Pretoria. Founded on 25 May 
1924 on the farm Roode Kopjes and 
named after the owner, Gert Brits, it 
became a municipality in 1944. 

*Britstown (C 3023 DA). Town 
48 km west of De Aar, on the national 
road between Cape Town and 
Johannesburg. Laid out on portion of 
the farm Gemsbokfontein in 1877 and 
named after the owner, Hans Brits. 
Became a municipality in 1899. 

*Broederstroom (T 2527 DD). Settle- 
ment in the Witwatersberg, south of 
the Hartbeespoort Dam, in the Pretoria 
district. Said to have been named after 
two brothers of General Andries 
Pretorius, namely H P N and H A 



Pretorius, who lived there; the name is 
derived from Dutch broeder, 
'brother'. 

*Bronkhorstspruit (T 2528 DC). 
Tributary of the Olifants River. It rises 
east of Springs and flows northwards 
to its confluence with the Wilge River 
8 km east of the town Bronkhorst- 
spruit. Probably named after the water 
plant Nasturtium officinale, known in 
Afrikaans as bronkors and bronkhorst. 
The spellings Bronkers and Brunkers 
are found on early maps. 

*Bronkhorstspruit (T 2528 DC). 
Town 58 km east of Pretoria. It was 
laid out in 1904 on the farm Honds- 
rivier and named Erasmus after the 
owner, C J G Erasmus. In 1935 the 
name was changed to Bronkhorst- 
spruit, after the stream of that name, 
scene of a battle in December 1880 
between a Boer commando under 



Commandant Frans Joubert and 
British troops under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Anstruther. 

*Bruintjieshoogte (C 3225). Region 
in the present Somerset East district, 
between the Sundays River, the 
Renosterberg, the Swartberg, the 
Winterhoeksberge, the Camdeboberg 
and the Sneeuberg. Also encountered 
as Bruynshoogte and De Bruyns- 
hoogte. Probably named after Nic de 
Bruyn, heemraad of Swellendam, 
signatory of the report of the Border 
Commission of 1769-1770 under R 
S Faber and J F Mentz. 

*Brukkaros (S 2517 DD-2518 CA). 
Extinct volcano 40 km west of Tses 
and 105 km north-west of Keet- 
manshoop. The name is derived 
from the Khoekhoen name Geitsi- 
gubeb, 'large leather apron', worn 
around the hips by women in former 



times; bruk is presumably a German 
adaptation of Afrikaans broek, 
'trousers'; karos is a loanword 
meaning 'leather apron', 'blanket', 
etc. The name refers to the 
resemblance between the mountain 
and the article of clothing. 

Brulsand (C 2822 CB). Region west 
of the Langeberge, some 80 km 
south of Olifantshoek. Named after 
a sand dune which roars when the 
sand is disturbed, thus 'roaring 
sand'. 

Buffalo River (C 2917). River 
which rises in the Kamiesberg 
between Springbok and Kamies- 
kroon, and which flows past Spek- 
takel and debouches into the 
Atlantic Ocean at Kleinsee near 
Grootmis, between Hondeklip Bay 
and Port Nolloth. Said to have been 
named by the expedition under 



Simon van der Stel in 1685 because 
buffalo were seen grazing on its 
banks. The Khoekhoen name, 
Koussie, variants Cous, Cousie, 
Kouwsie, Kauzi, Touse, Tousi, has 
the same meaning. Proclaimed the 
northern border of the Cape Colony 
in 1805. An alternative name was 
Sand River. 

Buffalo River (C 3227 DC). River 
rising in the south-eastern parts of 
the Amatole Mountains and flowing 
south and east to enter the Indian 
Ocean at East London. It was known 
to the Dutch as Eerste Rivier ('first 
river'). Twenty survivors of the 
Stavenisse, wrecked between 
Durban and East London, were 
found there in 1686. The name, 
Afrikaans Buffelsrivier, is translated 
from Khoekhoen Kauka. The Xhosa 
name is iQonce or Qonce. 



*Buffeljags River (C 3320-3420). 
River rising in the Langeberg range, 
and flowing south into the Breede 
River. Afrikaans (at first Dutch) for 
'buffalo hunt river', it was so called 
from its being at one time a noted 
place for hunting buffaloes. The 
Afrikaans form Buffeljagsrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Buffelsrivier see Buffalo River 

Buffels River (N 2730-2830). River 
rising in the Drakensberg in die 
Utrecht and Newcastle districts; 
flows south-east to its confluence 
with the Tugela 56 km east of 
Weenen. Afrikaans for 'buffalo 
river', the name is derived from the 
large herds of buffalo which roamed 
there in former times. The Zulu 
name of the river is Mzinyati, 
'home of the buffaloes'. 



Bulanhloya (N 3030). Stream near 
Ramsgate. Variants of the name 
include Bilanhlola, Bilanhlolo, 
Mbilanhlola and Mbilanhlolo. Zulu, 
approximately 'dangerously boil- 
ing', 'ominously stirring'. 

*Bulembu (Swa 2531 CC). Asbes- 
tos mining village 19 km west of 
Pigg's Peak and 48 km south-east of 
Barberton. Formerly named Have- 
lock. The name is said to mean 
'spider(web)', but the reason for the 
name is not clear. 

*Bultfontein (O 2826 AC). Town 
113 km north of Bloemfontein. 
Although approval for the establish- 
ment of a village was granted in 
1862, disagreement as to the site 
delayed the laying out until 1873, 
when it was decided to lay out two 
towns, one at Bultfontein and one at 
Hoopstad. The former was estab- 



lished on the farm Bultfontein, 
belonging to A McCullum and 
named in 1874. Became a munici- 
pality in 1938. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'hill fountain'. 

*Bulwer (N 2929 DD). Town 8 km 
north of Bulwer station on the 
Donnybrook-Underberg line, at the 
foot of the Marwagga Mountains. 
Laid out in 1890 and named in 
honour of Sir Henry Ernest 
Gascoyne Bulwer (1836-1914), 
Governor of Natal, 1882-85. 

*Buntingville (Trsk 3128 DB). 
Methodist mission station 15 km 
south-east of Umtata. Originally 
established by the Reverend W B 
Boyce in 1830 as Old Bunting near 
the village of the Pondo chief Faku 
at the headwaters of the Umngazana 
River, it was transferred about 1865. 
Named after Dr Jabez Bunting 



(1779-1858), the English Wesleyan 
leader. 

*Burgersdorp (C 3126 AB). Town 
on the Stormberg Spruit, 359 km 
north-west of East London. Estab- 
lished on the farm Klipfontein, 
purchased from Gert Buytendach on 
27 December 1847, and named thus 
either in honour of burger comman- 
dos during the Seventh Frontier War 
(1846-47) or, more probably, 
because the citizens themselves had 
taken the initiative in its establish- 
ment; burger is the Dutch word for 
'citizen'. 

*Burgersfort (T 2430 CB). Settle- 
ment and railway station 95 km 
north-west of Lydenburg, on the 
Belfast-Steelpoort line, near the 
confluence of the Spekboom and 
Steelpoort rivers. Named after the 
hexagonal fort built during the 



Sekhukhune War (1876-77- by 
Captain C H von Schlickmann and 
named after President Thomas 
Francois Burgers (1834-81). 

*Burnshill (Cis 3227 CC). Former 
mission station of the Glasgow 
Missionary Society, established at 
the foot of the Amatole Mountains 
in 1831. Named after the Reverend 
John Burns, minister of the Barony 
Church, Glasgow, one of the foun- 
ders of the society. It was destroyed 
in 1851. 

*Bushbuckridge (T 2431 CC). 
Range of hills east of Pilgrim's 
Rest, after which the village of 
Bosbokrand is named. Known by the 
Bantu name Maviljan. The name is 
derived from the many bushbuck 
which inhabited the area in former 
times. 



Bushmanland (C 2920-3021). 
Region bounded approximately by 
the Orange River in the north, 
Namaqualand in the west, the Sak 
and Hartbees rivers in the east, and 
Calvinia in the south. So named be- 
cause the San, popularly called 
Bushmen, lived there. 

Bushmans River (C 3325-3326). 
River rising near Ann's Villa in the 
Albany district and flowing south- 
east past Alicedale to enter the 
Indian Ocean between Boknes and 
Kenton on Sea at Boesmansrivier- 
mond. Named after the San or 
Bushmen. The Xhosa name for this 
river is Qora. 

Bushmans River (N 2929-2830). 
Tributary of the Tugela River. It rises 
near Giant's Castle in the Drakensberg 
and flows north-east past Estcourt to 
enter the Tugela 13 km north-east of 



Weenen. Named after the San or 
Bushmen, who lived in the vicinity. 

Bushveld (T 2427-2429). Region 
approximately bounded by the Stryd- 
poort Mountains in the north, the 
Highveld in the south and the 
Drakensberg Plateau in the east. 
Known in Afrikaans as (Die) Bosveld, 
it takes its name from the low shrubs 
or bushes which characterize it. 

Busi (N 2830 AC). Stream also known 
as Wasbankrivier, Dundee. 'The 
ruler', from Zulu busa, 'rule', 'reign', 
'display strength'. 

*Butha Buthe (Les 2828 CC). Village 
some 19 km south of Fouriesburg 
(OFS). The name means 'place of 
reclining', and is said to refer either to 
three hills nearby resembling recum- 
bent lions, or to be so named because 
the Sotho chief Moshesh settled there 



from 1820 to 1824, when he him to obtain water on the barren 

established himself at Thaba Bosigo. summit, and the blacks withdrew. 

*Butterworth (Trsk 3228 AC). Town 
113 km from East London, on the 
national road between Durban and 
Cape Town. Developed from a station 
of the Wesleyan Missionary Society 
established in 1827 by the Reverend 
W J Shrewsbury and named after 
Joseph Butterworth, former treasurer 
of the Society. The town was founded 
in 1880 and became a municipality in 
1904. 

Buyskop (T 2428 CD). Hill 6 km 
north of Warmbad, named after 
Coenraad de Buys (1761-1823), an 
outlaw who had several black wives. 
A legend relates that, encircled on this 
hill by hostile blacks for a week, he 
flung down a j ar of water to show that 
he had stronger powers which enabled 



Cabo do Arrecife (C 3425 BA). 
Named by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, 
now Cape Recife. This Portuguese 
name means 'cape of reefs'. 

Cabo do Padrao (S 2113 DB). 
Portuguese name of Cape Cross. It 

means 'cape of the padrao' or 'stone 
cross', erected in 1485 or 1486 by 
Diogo Cao. 

Cabo Falso (C 3419 BD). Former 
name of Cape Hangklip. It was thus 
named because early navigators sailing 
westwards mistook it for Cape Point 
and sailed into False Bay instead of up 
the western coast of the Cape Penin- 
sula to Table Bay. 

Cabo Tormentoso (C 3418 AD). 
Former name of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Given by the Portuguese 
explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the 



name means 'stormy cape'. Later the 
name was changed to Cabo da Boa 
Esperance, 'cape of good hope'. 

Cainsheneuj (C 3420). Khoekhoen 
name of Grootvadersbos. It means 
'blind-fly forest' and was recorded as 
early as 1778. 

*Cala (Trsk 3127 DA). Village on the 
Tsomo River, 28 km southwest of 
Elliot. The name is Xhosa for 
'adjacent to', referring to its situation 
west of the Drakensberg which here 
extends north and south. 

Calderwood (C 3226 DC). Settlement 
some 12 km south-east of Fort 
Beaufort and 116 km south-west of 
Alice. It was named after Reverend 
Henry Calderwood of the London 
Missionary Society, author of Caffres 
and Caffre Missions. 



*Caledon (C 3419 AB). Town at the 
foot of the Swartberg, 125 km east- 
south-east of Cape Town and 72 km 
north-west of Bredasdorp. First settled 
in 1715, it became a popular health 
resort on account of hot chalybeate 
springs. At first known as Zwarte 
Berg or Zwartebergbad, it was 
renamed Caledon in December 1813, 
after the Earl of Caledon, Governor of 
the Cape from 1807 to 1811. In 1840 a 
village management board was 
instituted, and municipal status 
attained in January 1884. 

Caledon (O 3025 BD). Earlier name of 
Bethulie; probably after the Caledon 
River. 

Caledon River (O 2828-3026). Tribu- 
tary of the Orange, it rises in the 
Drakensberg north-west of Lesotho and 
flows 500 km south-west through the 
districts of Clocolan, Ladybrand, 



Wepener, Smithfield, Rouxville and 
Bethulie, to enter the Orange east of the 
town of Bethulie. It was named by 
Colonel R Collins in 1809 after the Earl 
of Caledon, Governor of the Cape, 
1807-1811. It was formerly named 
Prinses Wilhelminas Rivier by 
Colonel R J Gordon, who discovered it 
in 1777. The Sotho name of the Cale- 
don is Mogakari, also spelt Mogokari 
and Mogokare, from bokare, 'middle'; 
it flowed between the country of the 
Sotho and that of the Mantatees. The 
name Caledon River was applied by 
proclamations of 8 March 1848 and 14 
March 1849 to one of the four districts 
of the Orange River Sovereignty; now 
it is the Smithfield district. 

*Caledonspoort (O 2828 CB). 
Shallow cave overlooking the Caledon 
River near the Fouriesburg-Butha 
Buthe road, close to the Lesotho 



border. Scene of San drawings of fish. 
Meaning 'Caledon's defile', it was 
named after the river which flows past 
it. 

*Calitzdorp (C 3321 DA). Town 
56 km west-north-west of Oudtshoorn. 
Established in 1821 as a settlement of 
the Dutch Reformed Church, it 
developed into a town and achieved 
municipal status in 1911. Named after 
Frederik Calitz who in 1821 donated 
the land on which it was laid out. 

*Calvinia (C 3119 BD). Town on the 
north bank of the Oorlogskloof River, 
just south of the Hantamsberg, 387 km 
north-east of Cape Town. Established 
in 1851 on the farm Hoogekraal, it 
became a municipality in 1904. Named 
after the religious reformer John Calvin 
(1509-1564). 



Camdebo (C 3224). Region south of 
Graaff-Reinet and north of Agter- 
Bruintjieshoogte and the Sneeuberg, 
extending eastwards towards Pearston 
and Somerset East. Of Khoekhoen 
origin and meaning 'green hollow' or 
'green hole', the name is derived from 
that of a hippo-pool. Variant 
spellings include Camdeboo, Camb- 
deboo, Kamdeboo and Kandeboo. 

*Campbell (C 2823 DC). Village 
32 km north of Douglas, in the 
Herbert district. Established as a 
settlement of the London Missionary 
Society with George Bartlett as 
missionary. Originally known as 
Knoffelvallei, it was later called 
Grootfontein and then Campbell, 
after John Campbell (1766-1840), 
Director of the London Missionary 
Society, who inspected the Society's 
stations in the Cape between 1812 



and 1814. The oldest church north 
of the Orange River is at Campbell. 

*Camperdown (N 2930 DA). Town 
some 60 km by road north-west of 
Durban. Laid out in 1865 on the 
farm Camperdown, named to 
commemorate the victory of the 
British navy under Admiral Adwm 
Duncan over the Dutch fleet under 
Admiral Jan Willem de Winter in 
October 1797. 

*Camps Bay (C 3318 CD). Town- 
ship 11 km south-west of Cape 
Town, on the slopes of the Twelve 
Apostles. Derived from the name of 
Ernst Friedrich von Kamptz of 
Mecklenburg (also encountered as 
Otto von Kamptz of Koenigsberg), a 
sailor who came to the Cape in 1778 
and married the widow Anna 
Wernich, who owned the farm 
Ravensteyn adjoining the bay. 



Cango (C 3322). Region along the 
southern slopes of the Swartberg, in 
the Oudtshoorn district. Of Khoek- 
hoen origin, the name probably 
means 'wet mountain'. The spelling 
Kango is also encountered. 

Cango Caves (C 3322 AC). Scenic 
caves some 30 km north of Oudts- 
hoorn in the south-western foothills 
of the Swartberg. Discovered about 
1780, the caves are a major tourist 
attraction and were declared a 
national monument in 1938. They 
take their name from the Cango, ie 
Khoekhoen for 'wet mountain'. 

Caninga (C 3227 DD). Khoekhoen 
name of the Qinira River. The 
meaning is 'elands river'; Qinira is 
an adaptation. Other variants 
include Geneka, Kinigha, Kwine- 
gha, Quinera and Quinegha. 



Cannaland (C 3321). Region extend- 
ing from Ezelj achtpoort to Platte Kloof, 
situated north of the Outeniqua 
Mountains. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and refers to the canna 
root, an edible type of 
Mesembryanthemum. Also encounter- 
ed as Kannaland and Canaan 's Land. 

Cape Agulhas (C 3420 CC). Cape at 
the southernmost tip of Africa, almost 
due south of Bredasdorp. It is officially 
the meeting place of the Atlantic and 
Indian oceans. The name is derived 
from Portuguese and means 'needle', 
probably given because the needle of 
the compass showed no magnetic 
deviation there but pointed due north. 
Other names encountered include Cape 
of Compasses, Needles of the Compass, 
The Needles, Cabo das Anguillas and 
Ponta de Sao Branddo. 



Cape Columbine (C 3217 DD). 
Promontory some 15 km north-west of 
Vredenburg and 27 km north of 
Saldanha. It was named after the 
Columbine, a barque wrecked there in 
1829. The most powerful lighthouse on 
the coast of South Africa was built 
there in 1936. 

Cape Cross (S 2113 DB). Promontory 
some 127 km north of Swakopmund. 
The name is translated from Portuguese 
Cabo do Padrao, given by Diogo Cao 
in 1485 or 1486 when he erected a 
stone cross (padrao) there. This cross 
was taken to Germany in January 1893 
and a replica was later erected on the 
site. The first landing by a European in 
Southern Africa took place here. The 
cape is known in German as Kreuzkap. 

Cape Flats (C 3418 BA). Region north 
of False Bay, linking the Cape Penin- 
sula to the mainland, extending from 



Green Point, Woodstock and Salt River 
to Bellville, Faure and Strand. Former- 
ly known as De Groote Woeste Vlakte 
('the large, wild flat'), Kaapsche 
Duinen and Zand Vlakte. 

Cape Hangklip (C 3418 BD). Tip of 
the promontory, between Pringle Bay 
and Farmers Bay, at the south-eastern 
extremity of False Bay. Ostensibly 
from Afrikaans 'hanging rock', the 
name is probably an adaptation of 
Hanglip, 'hanging lip', a name 
consistently encountered until about 
1795. It was formerly also known as 
Cabo Falso, False Cape, False 
Hangklip, and Sa Levre Pendante. 

Cape Hermes (Trsk 3129 DA). 
Promontory south of the mouth of 
the Umzimvubu River, at Port St 
Johns. Named after HMS Hermes, a 
ship which was engaged in 
surveying the coast. 



Cape Infanta (C 3420 BD). 
Extremity of a spur of the Potberg at 
the southern side of the estuary of 
the Breede River at St Sebastian 
Bay, some 80 km south-east of 
Swellendam. From Portuguese Cabo 
de Infante, it was probably named 
after Joao de Infante, captain of 
Bartolomeu Dias's second caravel. 

Cape Maclear (C 3418 AD). 
Promontory at the southern tip of 
the Cape Peninsula, adjacent to the 
Cape of Good Hope. Named after 
Sir Thomas Maclear (1794-1879), 
famous astronomer at the Cape from 
1834 to 1870, who laid the founda- 
tion for a trigonometrical survey of 
the Cape Colony. 

Cape of Good Hope (C 3418 AD). 
Southernmost point of the Cape 
Peninsula, slightly west of Cape 
Point. Named Cabo Tormentoso 



('stormy cape') by Bartolomeu Dias 
in 1488, it is said to have been 
renamed Cabo de Bod Esperanca 
('cape of good hope') by King John 

11 of Portugal because the doubling 
of the Cape gave hope of a searoute 
to India. Some authorities believe 
Dias himself bestowed the name. 
The term is often extended to 
include the entire Cape Province. 

Cape Padrone (C 3326 DC). 
Southernmost promontory on the 
coast of the Alexandria district, 
some 10 km south-west of Boknes, 
15 km east of Woody Cape and 

12 km south of Alexandria. The 
name is derived from the Portuguese 
padrdo, a stone cross erected to 
mark Portuguese possession. Origi- 
nally the place was named Padrdo 
de Sdo Gregorio, dedicated to Saint 
Gregory. Once the situation was 



forgotten, Ponta do Padrdo was 
indicated on 18th century maps as 
east of the present Bird Islands, 
which led to Cape Padrone being 
marked as 80 km east of Port 
Elizabeth. 

Cape Point (C 3418 AD). Extreme 
tip of the Cape Peninsula, slightly 
east of Cape of Good Hope, at the 
south-western extremity of False 
Bay. It was formerly known by the 
Portuguese name Cabo di Diab and 
its translation, Devil's Cape. 

Cape Recife (C 3425 BA). Promon- 
tory south-east of Port Elizabeth, at 
the southernmost portion of Algoa 
Bay. Formerly Cap des Recifs, 
Cabo de Recife or Arrecife, the 
name is derived from Portuguese 
and means 'reef. It is recorded as 
early as 1576. Also spelt Receife. 



Cape St Blaize (C 3422 AA). Pro- 
montory at Mossel Bay. Known to 
the Portuguese as Cabo Sao Bras, it 
takes its name from Aguada de Sao 
Bras, 'the watering-place of St 
Blaize', a spring of fresh water 
named by Vasco da Gama in 1497 
on 26 November, the name-day of 
that saint. 

*Cape Town (C 3318 DC). Mother 
city of South Africa, second largest 
city in the Republic of South Africa; 
situated between Table Mountain 
and Table Bay. It developed from a 
settlement established by Jan van 
Riebeeck in 1652 and became a 
municipality in 1839. Originally 
referred to as Cabo de Goede Hoop, 
a shortened form 'Cabo' or 'De 
Caab' came to be used. In the 18th 
century it was known as Het Vlek 
('hamlet') van de Caab. The names 



Cape Town and Kaapstad were 
applied about the middle of the 18th 
century. The Khoekhoen name, 
Huigais, meaning 'stone place', was 
first applied to the Castle but was 
subsequently extended to include 
Cape Town. The Afrikaans form 
Kaapstad has also been approved 
and enjoys the same status as Cape 
Town. 

Cape Voltas (C 2816 DA). Promon- 
tory south of Alexander Bay and 
north of Harrison Cove. The name 
may be derived from the Portuguese 
word for 'tacks', referring to sailing 
manoeuvres. The possibility exists 
that Dias's Angra das Voltas was 
not Luderitz Bay, but here. 

Caprivi Strip (S 1723-1725). 
Region 482 km long and up to 
80 km wide, in the north of South- 
West Africa/Namibia. Named after 



General Count Georg Leo von 
Caprivi di Caprara di Montecuccoli, 
German Imperial Chancellor who 
succeeded Bismarck in 1890. It was 
ceded to Germany by Britain in 
1893. 

*Carletonville (T 2627 AD). Town 
some 72 km west of Johannesburg 
and 71 km north-east of Potchef- 
stroom. Laid out on the farm 
Twyfelvlakte No 8, Oberholzer 
district, and proclaimed on 28 Janu- 
ary 1948, it became a municipality 
on 1 July 1959. Named after Guy 
Carleton Jones, a director of 
Consolidated Gold Fields for 35 
years. 

*Carnarvon (C 3022 CC). Town 
135 km north-east of Williston and 
133 km north-west of Victoria West. 
It was laid out in 1860 on land 
belonging to the Rhenish Missionary 



Society, and became a municipality 
in 1882. At first known as Harms- 
fontein and Schietfontein, it was 
given the name Carnarvon in 1874 
after Henry Howard Molyneux 
Herbert, the Earl of Carnarvon 
(1831-1890), British Colonial 
Secretary. 

*Carolina (T 2630 AA). Town 
225 km east of Pretoria and 64 km 
north of Ermelo. It is said to have 
been laid out either on the farms 
Goede Hoop and Groenvlei, or on 
part of Steynsdraai, belonging to C J 
Coetzee, and to have been named 
after his wife, Carolina Coetzee, nee 
Smit. He donated the land on 
condition that the town be named 
after his wife. Municipal status was 
achieved in 1951. 

Cashan Mountains (T 2527-2528). 
Early name of Magaliesberg, 



adapted from Khashane, the name 
of a chief living there in former 
times. A township of Rustenburg 
bears the approved name Cashan. 

*Cathcart (C 3227 AC). Town to 
the east of the Windvogelberg, 
146 km north-west of East London. 
Developed after 1856 from a mili- 
tary camp established in 1850. It 
was named after Sir George Cath- 
cart (1794-1854), Governor of the 
Cape from 1852 to 1854. It became 
a municipality in 1881. Centre of a 
wool-producing area. 

*Cathedral Peak (N 2829 CC). 
Mountain peak in the Drakensberg, 
some 30 km south-west of Bergville 
and 70 km direct west-northwest of 
Estcourt. Thus named by John 
Sheddon Dobie. Formerly known as 
Zikhali's Horn, after a Ngwanene 
chief who lived at its foot. First 



climbed in July 1917 by D W 
Basset-Smith and R G Kingon. 

*Cathkin Peak (N 2929 CC). 
Named after Cathkin Braes, a hill 
near Glasgow, by David Gray, a 
Scot who settled in Natal in 1849. 
The Zulu name, Mdedeke, is said to 
mean 'make room for him', 'leave 
him in peace', referring to the domi- 
nant masculine aspect of the peak. 

*Cato Ridge (N 2930 DA). Village 
in the Camperdown district, some 
30 km south-east of 

Pietermaritzburg, near the Valley of 
a Thousand Hills. Named after 
George Christopher Cato (1814- 
1893), the first mayor of Durban. 

Cave of Hands (C 3321 CC). Rock 
overhang in the Garcia Pass, 14 km 
north of Riversdale, on the road to 
Ladismith. Named after an abun- 



dance of hand imprints, presumably 
made by people of San physical 
type, by applying paint to the palm 
and fingers and pressing the hand 
against the wall. 

*Cedara (N 2930 CB). Agricultural 
research station in the Lion's River 
district, 26 km north-west of 
Pietermaritzburg and 10 km south- 
east of Howick. Established in 1902. 
The name is said to be derived from 
Sotho, meaning 'place where 
nothing grows'. 

Cedarberg (C 3219). Mountain 
range in the Clanwilliam district, 
within the catchment area of the 
Olifants River. Named after a 
species of cedar tree, Widdringtonia 
cedarbergensis, which grows there. 
Only the Dutch form Cederberg has 
been approved. The name is also 
borne by a mountain on the eastern 



border of the Matatiele district. 
There the name is inappropriate. 

*Cedarville (C 3029 AC). Village 
at the foot of the Cedarberg in the 
Matatiele district, 48 km north-west 
of Kokstad and 278 km from 
Pietermaritzburg. Named after the 
Cedarberg. In 1912 a village 
management board was established. 

*Ceres (C 3319 AD). Town on the 
Dwars River in the Warm Bok- 
keveld, 127 km north-east of Cape 
Town, 16 km from Wolseley and 
10 km from Prince Alfred's Hamlet. 
Established in 1854, it became a 
municipality in 1964. It was named 
after the Roman goddess of 
agriculture, by virtue of the fertility 
of the soil. It is an important fruit- 
producing centre. 



Chaib (C 2824 BC). Khoekhoen 
name of Windsorton; it means 
'place of the kudu'. 

Chamika (C 3323 CA). Khoekhoen 
name of the Potjies River, a 
tributary of the Kammanassie River. 
It may mean 'lion river'. 

*Champagne Castle (N 2929 AB). 
Peak in the Drakensberg opposite 
Cathkin Peak. The latter was given 
this name in 1860 after an alterca- 
tion between two climbers, David 
Gray and a Captain Grantham of the 
Royal Engineers, over a bottle of 
champagne, half of which had been 
consumed by one of them. For many 
years Cathkin Peak bore both 
names; then the name Champagne 
Castle was transferred to its present 
site. 



Chanugaub (S 2615 CA). Khoek- 
hoen name of Luderitzbucht; it 
means 'crossing-place to the other 
side'. 

*Charl Cilliers (T 2629 CA). 
Village some 32 km north of Stan- 
derton. Originally known as Van 
Tondershoek, it was named after the 
Voortrekker Charl (Sarel) Arnoldus 
Cilliers (1801-1871) in 1917. 

Charles' Mount (C 3 318 CD). 

Early name for part of Lion's Rump, 
later transferred to Devil's Peak. 
Also recorded as King Charles 
Mount. 

*Charlestown (N 2729 BD). Town 
some 5 km south of Volksrust, in 
the Newcastle district. Established 
in 1889 and proclaimed a township 
in 1906, it was named after Sir 



Charles Mitchell (?-1899), Governor 
of Natal from 1889. 

Chavonnesberg (C 3319 CB). 

Mountain near Worcester. Named 
after Maurice Pasques de Chavon- 
nes, Governor of the Cape from 28 
March 1714 to 7 September 1724. 

Cheridouws Poort (C 3322 BD). 
Ravine in the Great Swartberg 
through which flows the Agterberg 
River, a tributary of the olifants. 
From Khoekhoen Tsoaridaos, 
'transverse pass'. 

Chesterville (N 2930 DD). Village 
between Cato Manor and Westville, 
some 13 km west of Durban. Named 
after T J Chester, a former manager 
of the Native Administration 
Department of Durban. 

*Chrissiesmeer see Lake Chrissie. 

The Afrikaans form is preferred for 



official purposes, though both have 
equal status. 

*Christiana (T 2725 CC). Town on 
the Vaal River, 113 km north-north- 
east of Kimberley. Established on 
the farm Zoutpansdrift in the 
Bloemhof district. A health commit- 
tee, established in 1895, controlled 
the town until 1904, when municipal 
status was achieved. It is presumed 
to have been named after Christina, 
daughter of M W Pretorius (1819- 
1901), first President of the South 
African Republic, later Transvaal. 

Chuenespoort (T 2429 BA). Ravine 
through the foothills of the Stryd- 
poort Mountains, some 35 km south 
of Pietersburg on the road to 
Lydenburg, through which the 
Chunies River flows. An adaptation 
of the name of a Sotho chief, 
Tshwene or Chuene, meaning 



'baboon'. Referred to as the Klip 
Poort in Louis Trichardt's diary. 
Formerly it was known as 
Chuniespoort. 

*Chuniespoort see Chuenespoort 

*Cicira (Trsk 3128 DA). River 
rising west of Umtata and flowing 
east, north-east and then north to 
enter the Mtata north-west of 
Umtata. Said to mean 'place of the 
ear-ring', because of its looping 
course. 

Cisiqua (C 3420). Khoekhoen name 
of the Soutrivier. The Afrikaans 
name, meaning 'salt river', is a 
translation. 

*Citrusdal (C 3219 CA). Village 
situated in the Clanwilliam district, 
on the right bank of the Olifants 
River, 188 km north-east of Cape 
Town, almost midway between 



Clanwilliam and Piketberg. Estab- 
lished by the Dutch Reformed 
Church in 1916, it achieved munici- 
pal status in March 1957. The name 
is derived from the production of 
oranges (Citrus aurantium or C. 
sinensis) in the surrounding valley. 

*Clanwilliam (C 3218 BB). Town 
at the confluence of the Olifants and 
Jan Dissels rivers, at the foot of the 
Cedarberg, 232 km from Cape Town 
and 35 km from Graafwater. Laid 
out on the farm Jan Disselsvlei, it at 
first bore that name. On 1 January 
1814 it was renamed Clanwilliam by 
Sir John Cradock, Governor of the 
Cape, 1811-1814, after his father-in- 
law, the Earl of Clanwilliam. In 
1901 it attained municipal status. 

*Clarens (O 2828 CB). Village in 
the Bethlehem district, 10 km from 
the border between the OFS and 



Lesotho, between Golden Gate and 
Bethlehem. Laid out in 1912, it was 
named after Clarens, situated 
between Vevey and Montreux in 
Switzerland, where President Paul 
Kruger died. 

*Clarkson (C 3424 AB). Moravian 
Mission village in the Humansdorp 
district, 26 km south-east of Asse- 
gaaibos station and 60 km west of 
Humansdorp. It was established by 
Bishop H P Halbeck in 1839 and 
named after Thomas Clarkson who 
helped abolish the slave-trade. 

*Clocolan (O 2827 DC). Town west 
of Prynn's Berg, and some 166 km 
north-east of Bloemfontein. Laid out 
on the farms Harold and Rienzi in 
1906, it became a municipality in 
1910. The name is of Sotho origin, 
said to be derived from hlohloloane, 
'bump and fight', from an incident 



in which the bumping over of a 
basket filled with wheat led to a 
fight; or 'pressed in the mountains'. 

Cloete's Pass (C 3321 DD). Moun- 
tain pass over the Vreyersberg 
(1 111 m), north of Herbertsdale, 
Mossel Bay district, descending to 
the Gourits River Valley. Construct- 
ed in the 1850s, it was originally 
known as Cloeteskraal Pass. 

*Coalbrook (O 2627 DD). Colliery 
and settlement some 5 km from 
Sasolburg. Probably named after 
Coalbrookdale in England. Scene of 
a major disaster on 21 January 1961; 
435 workers were buried alive when 
the mine collapsed. 

Cobeeb (C 3319). Khoekhoen name 
of Hex River. The Dutch name, 
which means 'witch river', is a 
translation. The reference is to a 



witchdoctor or magician (male or 
female), an influential figure in 
Khoekhoen society. 

*Cockscomb (C 3324 DB). Peak of 
Table Mountain quartzite in the 
Great Winterhoek Mountains, Uiten- 
hage district, 48 km north of 
Humansdorp, 1 759 m high. So 
named from the resemblance of its 
four pinnacles to the comb of a 
rooster. It formerly bore the names 
Craggy Mountain, Grenadier's 
Cap, Four Sisters, Gefestonneerde 
Berg, and Hommoequa. 

*Coega (C 3325 DC). Hamlet 27 km 
north of Port Elizabeth and 32 km 
south-west of Ncanaha. It takes its 
name from the Coega River. Derived 
from Khoekhoen, 'ground river'. 

Coega River (C 3325 CB-DC). Rises 
north of the Winterhoek Mountains 



and flows some 45 km south-east to 
enter the Indian Ocean in Algoa 
Bay, south-east of the mouth of the 
Sundays River. Derived from 
Khoekhoen, the name means 
'ground river'. Variant spellings 
include Cougha, Coecha, Koecha 
and Koega. 

*Coerney (C 3325 BC). River and 
railway station 64 km north of Port 
Elizabeth, on the route to Rosmead, 
situated in the Sundays River 
Valley, Alexandria district. Record- 
ed as early as 1752 (journal of A F 
Beutler), the name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and means 'narrow (not 
"small") forest'. Formerly also 
known as Hoender Craal, from 
Dutch parelhoender, 'guinea-fowl'. 

*Coffee Bay (Trsk 3129 CC). Holi- 
day resort in the Mqanduli district, 
Tembuland, 80 km south-east of 



Viedgesville. Named after the 
hundreds of coffee trees which grew 
from beans either scattered by a 
shipwreck or by plunderers. 

*Cofimvaba (Trsk 3227 BA). 
Village 79 km east of Queenstown 
on the route to Butterworth, in the 
St Marks district, Tembuland. Prob- 
ably named after the nearby stream 
which, after rains, froths turbulently 
and resembles milk. The name is 
also said to be derived from cofa, 
'press', mvaba, 'milk-bag' (of goat- 
skin), done to break lumps of sour 
milk. Another explanation is that the 
sound of the water gurgling over the 
rocks is reminiscent of the splashing 
of milk in the bag when shaken. 

Cogmans Kloof (C 3320 CC). 
Mountain pass in the Langeberg 
range, between Ashton and Mon- 
tagu. The old pass was constructed 



between 1873 and 1877, the modern 
one between 1952 and 1953. Said to 
be named after a Khoekhoen people, 
known as the Koekemans, Cogmans, 
Coggelmans, etc. Also encountered 
as Kogmanskloof. 

Cogmans River (C 3320 CC). 
Flows through the Langeberg range. 
Comprises the Keisie and Kingna 
rivers after their confluence. Named 
after a Khoekhoen people known as 
the Cogmans, Kogmans, Koggel- 
mans, etc. 

Cold Bokkeveld (C 3219). Portion 
of the Bokkeveld extending from the 
Skurweberg towards Citrusdal. 
Situated high above sea-level. The 
name was given because this region 
is indeed cold. It is said that grass 
only starts sprouting towards 
November. 



*Coldstream (C 3323 DC). Village 
east of Plettenberg Bay on the 
Tsitsikamma coast, in the Joubertina 
district. Famous for a burial stone 
excavated nearby in 1910, depicting 
a prehistoric artist holding brush- 
feather and palette, indicating that 
rock paintings were being executed 
in South Africa some 2 000 years 
ago. Said to be named after a cold 
stream flowing past. 

Coleford Nature Reserve (N 2929 
CD). On the farms Coleford and 
Sunnyside, 34 km south of Under- 
berg. Named after a landowner, 
James Cole. 

*Colenso (N 2829 DB). Town 
229 km north-west of Durban and 
27 km south of Ladysmith. Estab- 
lished in 1855, it became a township 
in 1926 and a borough in 1958. 
Named after the Bishop John 



William Colenso (1814-1883), first 
Anglican bishop of Natal and 
champion of the Zulus. Scene of 
battles during the Second Anglo- 
Boer War, on account of the 
strategic railway bridge there. 

*Colesberg (C 3025 CA). Town 
some 29 km south of the Orange 
River, 29 km south-south-west of 
Philippolis and 51 km north of 
Noupoort. Established in 1830, it 
was first named Toverberg, after a 
nearby hill, but subsequently 
renamed after Sir Galbraith Lowry 
Cole (1772-1842), Governor of the 
Cape Colony from 1828 to 1833. 
Municipal status was attained in 
1840. 

Cole's Kop (C 3025 CA). Hill near 
Colesberg, after which it is named. 
It was formerly known as Toorberg, 
Torenberg, Tooverberg and Toring- 



berg, also Tower Mountain. Afri- 
kaans toor, tower means 'bewitch'; a 
misunderstanding of English tower 
may have led to the names Toorberg 
and Tooverberg. 

*Coligny (T 2626 AD). Town some 
27 km south-east of Lichtenburg. 
Originally named Treurfontein, it 
was renamed Coligny when it 
became a town on 23 July 1923, 
after Gaspard de Coligny, a 
Huguenot leader who died in the 
Massacre of St Bartholomew in 
1572. Scene of sporadic diamond- 
mining activities. 

Columbine, Cape 
see Cape Columbine 

Committees Flats (C 3227). 
Between Breakfast Vlei and the 
Great Fish River. Derived from 
Afrikaans Kommetjiesvlakte, 'plain 



of small depressions', the name is 
descriptive of the landscape. 

Compassberg (C 3124 DC). Peak 
2 540m high, 55 km north of Graaff- 
Reinet, on the watershed between 
the Orange and Sundays rivers. Thus 
named by R J Gordon in 1778 
because from the summit he could 
see streams flowing in all directions. 

Conception Bay (S 2314 CD). Bay 
on the coast of South-West Africa, 
121 km south of Walvis Bay. 
Translated from the Portuguese 
Bahia de Conceicdo, it was known 
by the German name Empfang- 
nisbucht. The reference is probably 
to the Virgin Mary's immaculate 
conception. 

*Concordia (C 2917 DB). Village 
in Namaqualand, 19 km northeast of 
Springbok. It was established as a 



station of the Rhenish Mission in the 
early 1800s. In 1863 it was taken 
over by the Nederduits Gerefor- 
meerde Mission. The discovery of 
the copper mine by Albert von 
Schicht in 1940, named Concordia, 
led to the growth of this village. 

Conna (C 3322 CC). Khoekhoen 
name of the Moordkuil. This 
Afrikaans name, meaning 'murder 
pool', is probably a translation of 
Conna. 

Constantiaberg (C 3418 AB). 
Mountain (928 m) in the Wynberg 
district, Cape Peninsula, south of 
Table Mountain. It overlooks Hout 
Bay in the west and Constantia 
Valley in the east. It derives its 
name from this valley, which in turn 
takes its name from the estate, prob- 
ably named by Simon van der Stel 



after Constantia, daughter of 
Commissioner Rijkloff van Goens. 

Cony Island (C 3318 AC). Name 
given in 1607 to Dassen Island by 
Sir Edward Michelburne (?-1611), 
army captain and explorer, after the 
rock-rabbits (Procavia capensis), 
also called coneys or conies, dassen 
in Dutch, he saw there. 

*Cookhouse (C 3225 DB). Village 
some 170 km north of Port Elizabeth 
and 24 km east of Somerset East, on 
the west bank of the Great Fish 
River, which formed the eastern 
boundary of the Cape Colony until 
1819. It is said to take its name from 
a small stone house used for shelter 
and cooking by troops camping on 
the bank of this river. Another 
explanation links the name to the 
hot climate as experienced by the 



troops stationed there. It is an 
important railway junction. 

*Cornelia (O 2728 BB). Village in 
the Vrede district, situated on the 
banks of the Skoonspruit, midway 
between Frankfort and Vrede. 
Named after Cornelia Mulder, 
second wife of President F W Reitz, 
it was proclaimed a township in 
1917 and became a municipality in 
1923. A famous fossil-site on the 
farm Uitzoek is 10 km to the north. 
Cornelia is the birthplace of the 
well-known Afrikaans playwright, P 
G du Plessis. 

Cove Rock (C 3327 BB). Seaside 
property some 16 km west of the 
mouth of the Buffalo River, in the 
East London district. It takes its 
name from a well-known headland 
known since the 17th century as The 
Coffin after its shape as seen from 



the sea. The name Coffin Rock was 
corrupted to Cov Rock and then to 
Cove Rock. 

*Cradock (C 3225 BA). Town on 
the Great Fish River, some 258 km 
by road north of Port Elizabeth. 
Established as a frontier outpost on 
the farm Buffelskloof in 1813, it 
was proclaimed a township in 1814 
and named after Sir John Francis 
Cradock (1762-1839), Governor of 
the Cape from 1811 to 1814. 
Municipal status was achieved in 
1840. Five kilometres north of 
Cradock are hot sulphur springs. 

Cradock River (C 2924). Former 
name of the Orange River above its 
confluence with the Vaal. Named 
after Sir John Cradock (1762-1839), 
Governor of the Cape Colony from 
1811 to 1814. The Khoekhoen name 



for this portion of the Orange is 
Nugariep, 'black river'. 

*Creighton (N 3029 BB). Village in 
the Ixopo district, 35 km northwest 
of Ixopo, near the Transkei border. 
Laid out in 1865, it has been 
administered by a Health Committee 
since 1947. It was named after Lady 
McCullum (nee Creighton), wife of 
Sir Henry McCullum, Governor of 
Natal from 1901 to 1907. 

Crocodile River (T 2530-2531). 
Major tributary of the Komati. Rises 
north of Dullstroom and flows 
306 km, mainly eastwards, to the 
confluence at Komatipoort. Named 
after the many crocodiles which 
frequent it. The name is also borne 
by a major tributary of the Limpopo 
River. The Afrikaans equivalent is 
Krokodilrivier. 



Crook's Corner (T 2231 AC). 
Locality at the confluence of the 
Levubu and Limpopo rivers. So 
called because its situation close to 
the borders of Mocambique, Trans- 
vaal and Zimbabwe made it conve- 
nient for poachers, ivory-hunters, 
slavers and outlaws. 

Cross, Cape see Cape Cross 

Croydon (Swa 2631 BA). Settle- 
ment some 55 km north-east of 
Manzini. Laid out in 1924 on the 
farm Croydon, named after the 
borough in London, from which the 
former owner, Buckham, came. 

Cuighakamma (C 3323 AC). 
Khoekhoen name of Toorwater. 
Literally 'magic water'; the 
Afrikaans name is a translation. The 
reference is to a whirlpool in which 
a Khoekhoen man was drowned. 



*Cullinan (T 2528 DA). Mining 
town some 35 km by road east of 
Pretoria. Laid out in 1902 on the 
farm Elandsfontein, it was named 
after Sir Thomas Major Cullinan 
(1862-1936), founder of the Premier 
Mine, after whom the world's 
largest diamond was named. Used as 
a military training centre during 
World War 2. 

Cunnycamma (C 3321). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Olifants River, 

tributary of the Gourits. Meaning 
'whirling water', the name probably 
refers to eddies caused by potholes 
in the bed. 

Cwebeni (N 2832 CC). Zulu name 
of Richards Bay. It means 'lagoon', 
or 'large expanse of water', from 
ichwebe. 



D 

Daan Viljoen Game Reserve (S 2216 
B). In the Khomas Highland, 25 km 
west of Windhoek; some 3 940 
hectares in extent. It was opened in 
1962 and named after Daniel T du 
Plessis, Administrator of South-West 
Africa. Stocked with game, including 
klipspringers, kudu, gemsbok and 
mountain zebra, it is a popular holiday 
resort. 

Daasdaap (C 3018 BC). Nonpe- 
rennial watercourse rising north of 
Bleskrans and extending north-east 
and east to Sobabe Saltpan. Derived 
from Khoekhoen, the name means 
'grass depression'; the Afrikaans 
translation Graslaagte has been 
applied to a farm there. 

Da Gama Park (C 3418 AB). 
Township in the Simon's Town dis- 
trict, north-west of the town. Situa- 



ted in the Else River Valley, it was 
established for 'navy men' and their 
families. It was named after Vasco 
da Gama (?-1524), the Portuguese 
navigator. 

*Dal Josafat (C 3318 DB). Indus- 
trial township in the valley between 
Paarl and Wellington, housing most 
of the industries of Paarl. A ceme- 
tery of the Huguenots was laid out 
in 1692. Here are buried a number 
of pioneers of the Afrikaans 
language. The name is of biblical 
origin, referring to a place of judge- 
ment (Joel 3:1-2). Also encountered 
as Daljosafat and Dal van Josafat. 

*Dalmanutha (T 2530 CC). Station 
some 16 km east of Belfast, on the 
route between Pretoria and Maputo. 
Named after the farm, which in turn 
takes its name from a biblical town 
on the Sea of Galilee (Mark 8:10). 



The name is said to mean 'house of 
widowhood'. The area is known to 
the local inhabitants as Monometsi. 
A clash between the Bakoni and 
Matabele occurred here. It was also 
the scene of the last pitched battle of 
the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899- 
1902) which took place from 25 
August 1900. 

*Dalton (N 2930 BC). Village some 
11 km east of New Hanover and 
35 km south of Greytown. Named 
after North Dalton in Yorkshire, 
from whence came Henry Boast who 
organized an immigration to Natal 
in 1850 of people from Yorkshire. It 
is the junction for the Noodsberg 
line. 

Damaraland (S 1913-2214). Region 
historically south of the Kunene 
River and north of Great Namaqua- 
land; now situated east of the 



Swakopmund district, west of the 
Kaokoland and north of the Walvis 
Bay and Karibib districts. Named 
after the Damara, Dama or Berg- 
damara, a Bantu people who speak 
Nama. 

Danger Point (C 3419 CB). 
Promontory at the southern extre- 
mity of Walker Bay, south-east of 
Gans Bay, in the Hermanus district. 
So named because reefs and rocks 
present a serious hazard to ships 
approaching the shore too closely. 
The Birkenhead was wrecked here 
on 26 February 1852 with the loss of 
445 lives. A lighthouse 46 m high, 
with a range of 29 km, was erected 
here. The name Danger Point is also 
borne by a promontory between East 
London and Gonubie Mouth. 

*Danielskuil (C 2823 BA). Village 
142 km north-west of Kimberley 



and 72 km north-east of Postmas- 
burg. It takes its name from a cone- 
shaped depression 6 m deep in the 
dolomitic limestone; with a domed 
covering, reminiscent of the biblical 
'Daniel in the lion's den' (Afr kuil, 
'hole', 'pit'). The Griqua leader 
Adam Kok is said to have used this 
depression as a prison, and to also 
have kept snakes in it. The area is 
known for rich asbestos deposits and 
for diamonds, while marble is also 
mined. The Tswana name of 
Danielskuil is Tlaka le Tlou or 
Tlaka-lo-Tlou, 'elephant reed'. 

*Dannhauser (N 2839 AA). Town 
between Glencoe and Newcastle, 
some 8 km from the road between 
Johannesburg and Durban. Pro- 
claimed in 1937, it was possibly 
named after Thomas Richard Dann- 



hauser, a former acting landdrost of 
Weenen. 

Danskraal (N 2829 DB). Historic 
site some 5 km north-east of Lady- 
smith in the Klip Rivier district, said 
to be the place where the Voor- 
trekkers camped a week before the 
famous Battle of Blood River on 16 
December 1838 and where the first 
vow was taken which led to the Day 
of the Covenant. The name means 
'village of dancing'; it was here that 
the commando was entertained with 
ceremonial dances by the Zulus of 
Matowan or Nodotta. 

Dap Naude Dam (T 2329 DD). 
Storage dam in the Broederstroom, a 
tributary of the Luvuvhu, some 
16 km north of Haenertsburg. It was 
built in 1957 and 1958 to supply 
water to Pietersburg and named after 



D J (Dap) Naude, who was a mayor 
of Pietersburg seven times. 

Dargle see The Dargle 

*Darling (C 3318 AD). Town some 
75 km south-west of Cape Town, in 
the Malmesbury district. At first 
known as Groene Kloof, it was laid 
out in 1853 and named after Sir 
Charles Henry Darling, Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Cape from 1851 to 
1854. From 1901 it was adminis- 
tered by a village management 
board, and in 1955 it achieved 
municipal status. 

*Dassenberg (C 3118 DC). Former 
name of Heerenlogementsberg. It is 
derived from Dutch dassen, 
'coneys', 'rock-rabbits' (Hyrax or 
Procavia capensis), and was given 
by Simon van der Stel. 



*Dassen Island (C 3318 AC). 
Island some 5 km long and 2 km 
wide, 58 km north-west of Table 
Bay. So called because of the abun- 
dance of rock-rabbits or conies 
(Hyrax or Procavia capensis, dassen 
in Dutch) encountered there. Named 
Ilha Branca ('white island') by the 
early Portuguese mariners, it was 
renamed Elizabeth Eiland by Joris 
van Spilbergen in 1601, and Coney 
Island by Sir Edward Michelbourne 
in 1605. The form Dasseneiland is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Daunas (S 2114). Nama name of 
Brandberg. Derived from dau, 
'burn', thus 'burnt mountain', the 
same meaning as the Afrikaans 
name. Also encountered as Daureb 
and Daures. 

*Daveyton (T 2628 AB). Township 
some 16 km east of Benoni. Laid out 



in 1956, it was named after Mrs M 
Davey, a town councillor who 
played a part in its establishment. 
Regarded as a model township with 
excellent amenities. 

Dawebgaos (S 2416 DD). Nama 
name of Maltahohe. 'Mouth of the 
Daweb River'; the name Daweb is 
derived from dawe (Tamarix 
usneoides). These bushes grow in 
the non-perennial stream which 
flows through Maltahohe and enters 
the Hutup. 

*De Aar (C 3024 CA). Town some 
806 km from Cape Town, 800 km 
from Pretoria and 547 km from Port 
Elizabeth. It was named after the 
farm on which it was laid out; the 
farm was thus named by its owner, 
Jan Gabriel Vermeulen, in 1839, on 
account of a vein (Dutch aar) or 
subterranean watercourse there. The 



town developed around the station 
established in 1881, and was 
formally laid out in 1902. It became 
a municipality in 1904. De Aar is 
the second largest railway junction 
and the second largest postal centre 
in the Republic of South Africa. 
Olive Schreiner lived there between 
1907 and 1913, when her husband 
was town clerk. In 1914 a railway- 
line to South-West Africa was laid 
at the rate of 1,5 km per day. 

*Dealesville (O 2825 DB). Town 
some 70 km north-west of Bloem- 
fontein, 55 km south-east of Boshof 
and 111 km north-east of Kimber- 
ley. It was laid out on the farm Klip- 
fontein and named after the owner, 
John Henry Deale. It was pro- 
claimed a township in 1899 and 
achieved municipal status in 1914. 
The spas Baden-Baden and Floris- 



bad are respectively 14 and 37 km 
from Dealesville. 

Debe (Cis 3227). Tributary of the 
Keiskamma River, which it enters 
south-east of Alice. Also encoun- 
tered as Tewe and Deba. Derived 
from Khoekhoen, the name means 
'brackish river'. It has been trans- 
ferred to Debe Hollows, Debe Flats, 
Debe Nek. 

Debe Flats (Cis 3227). Region in 
the vicinity of King William's 
Town. Although the name has been 
stated to be derived from Xhosa 
iDebe, 'tattooed person', from 
numerous small depressions, it is 
probably from Khoekhoen debe, 
'brackish'. In this case the flats take 
their name from the river. 

*Debe Nek (Cis 3227 CC). Settle- 
ment 19 km west-north-west of King 



William's Town and 38 km east of 
Alice. Takes its name from the Debe 
(Khoekhoen for 'brackish') River, 
from the defile ('nek') through 
which the Debe River flows. This 
was the site of the Battle of 
Amalinda between Ndlambe and 
Gaika in 1818. Now a health resort. 

De Cuylen (C 3318 DC). Former 
name of Kuils River. Also encoun- 
tered as De Kuilen. 'The pools', the 
name is Dutch. 

*De Dooms (C 3319 BC). Town in 
the Hex River Valley, 32 km north- 
east of Worcester and 40 km south- 
west of Touwsrivier. It takes its 
name from the farm De Dooms 
boven aan de Hex Rivier ('the 
thorns on the upper Hex River') 
known as early as 1725. A village 
management board was instituted in 



1933 and municipal status attained 
in 1951. 

De Hoop (C 3322 CA). Village of 
the Dutch Reformed Church 16 km 
west of Oudtshoorn. It was laid out 
in July 1908 and so named with 
reference to Rom. 5:5, 'hope maketh 
not ashamed'; the definite article is 
often used in Dutch and Afrikaans 
in conjunction with abstract nouns. 

De Kuiper's Drift (T 2531 BD). 
Ford in the Crocodile River near 
Komatipoort. It was so named on 10 
October 1960 by General R C 
Hiemstra in honour of Frans de 
Kuiper who in 1725 led what was 
probably the first expedition of 
white people into the Transvaal 
from the east, ie from Delagoa Bay, 
to seek a route to Monomotapa. 



*Delareyville (T 2625 CB). Town 
96 km south-west of Lichtenburg, 
82 km north-east of Vryburg, 
114 km north-west of Wolmarans- 
stad, and 61 km north of Schweizer- 
Reneke. It was laid out in 1914 and 
declared a border industry area in 
1968. It was named after Jacobus 
Hercules (Hendrik) de la Rey (1847- 
1914), General of the Boer forces in 
the Anglo-Boer War, who was shot 
and killed by police when the 
motor-car in which he was travelling 
failed to stop at a road-block. 

De Leeuwenberg (C 3318 CD). 
Early name of the hill adjacent to 
and north-west of Table Mountain. 
Dutch for 'the lion mountain', it 
comprises het Hoofd (the Head), de 
Rug (the Back), de Bil (the Rump), 
and de Knie (the Knee). 



Delgada Point (C 3423 AB). Early 
name of Cape Seal, at the south- 
western extremity of Plettenberg 
Bay. 

*Delmas (T 2628 BA). Town some 
19 km north-east of Springs and 
73 km south-east of Pretoria. It was 
laid out on the form Witklip in 
1907, and has been administered by 
a town council since 1965. Dialectic 
French for 'small farm', the name 
was given by Frank Campbell 
Dumat, former owner of Witklip, 
after his grandfather's farm in 
France. 

*Delportshoop (C 2824 AD). 
Village at the confluence of the 
Harts and Vaal rivers, in the Barkly 
West district. It developed from a 
diamond-diggers' camp and is said 
to have given the name after the first 
person to find diamonds there. The 



public diggings were proclaimed in 
November 1871, a village manage- 
ment board was instituted in 1931, 
and municipal status attained in 
1970. Two Tswana names for 
Delportshoop are encountered, 
namely Tsineng, also spelt Tsining, 
Tsening, Tsenin and Tsoneng, and 
Dekgathlong, also spelt Dekhath- 
long, Dekatlong, Dekgathlong, 
Dikgatlhong, Likatlong and Likhat- 
Ihong. The latter name means 
'meeting-place', referring to the 
confluence of the Vaal and Harts 
rivers there. 

*Dendron (T 2329 AD). Village 
some 68 km north of Pietersburg, 
managed by a health committee. 
Laid out on the farm Duitsland. The 
name is derived from the Greek 
word for 'tree' and refers to the 



abundance of indigenous trees in the 
area. 

*Deneysville (O 2628 CC). Village 
and pleasure resort on the Vaal 
Dam. Established in 1936 on the 
farms Wilhelmina and Witpoort in 
the Sasolburg district, it has been 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board since 1948. It was 
named after Colonel Deneys Reitz 
who was Minister of Lands when 
the dam was built. 

Denidouw (C 3323 BD-DB). Ravine 
some 40 km south-east of Willow- 
more. The name is Khoekhoen and 
means 'honey ravine'. Variants 
include Dienie Douw, Dine Dow and 
Dniedouw. 

De Qua (C 3323 AD). Khoekhoen 
name (with the Dutch definite 
article) of Aasvoelberg in the 



Willowmore district. It means 'vul- 
ture', so that the Afrikaans name is 
a translation as regards the first 
element, Aasvoel. 

*Derby (T 2527 CC). Village 
117 km west-north-west of Johan- 
nesburg, 60 km south-west of Rus- 
tenburg and 17 km east of Koster. 
Laid out on portions of the farms 
Rietfontein and Vlakfontein, it was 
named after Lord Derby, British 
Secretary of State. 

Derm (S 2318 CA). Settlement 
132 km north-east of Mariental and 
24 km east of Uhlenhorst in the 
Rehoboth district. Afrikaans for 
'intestine', the name is translated 
from Khoekhoen Guias. The reason 
for the name is not known. 

*De Rust (C 3322 BC). Village 
35 km east-north-east of Oudts- 



hoorn, between the Swartberg in the 
north and the Kammanassieberg in 
the south. It was laid out in 1900 on 
the farm De Rust, from which it 
takes its name, Dutch for 'rest', 
'repose'. 

*Despatch (C 3325 CD-DC). Town 
26 km north-west of Port Elizabeth 
and 10 km from Uitenhage, on the 
route between these two places. It 
came under the administration of a 
village management board in 1942 
and achieved municipal status in 
1945. The name is derived from the 
'despatching' of bricks made there 
to other places. There was an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to change the name 
Despatch to John Vorster, after a 
former Prime Minister of the 
Republic of South Africa. 

Devil's Peak (C 3318 CD). Moun- 
tain 1 002 m high, north-east of 



Table Mountain and connected to it. 
Derived from Dutch Duyvels Bergh 
or Duivels Berg, later Duivels Kop, 
the name is said to refer to violent 
winds which appear to blow down- 
wards from the summit. It also bore 
the names De Wind and Windberg, 
as well as Charles Mount(ain) 
(transferred from Lion's Rump; 
after King Charles I of England), 
Crown Hill, Duivenberg, Herbert's 
Mount (given by Commodore 
Humphrey Fitzherbert in 1620), 
Dove's Mountain and Teufelsberg. 

*Devon (T 2628 BD). Village some 
18 km west of Leslie and 56 km 
east-south-east of Springs. Named 
after the home county in England of 
the surveyor who laid it out. 
Important for natural gas in the 
vicinity. 



*Dewetsdorp (O 2926 DA). Town 
68 km south-east of Bloemfontein, 
on the road to Aliwal North. It was 
laid out on the farm Kareefontein in 
1876 and at first bore this name. 
Applications to the Volksraad in 
1876 for the establishment of a 
village failed, but another request in 
1879 led to recognition in 1880 
under the name Dewetsdorp, after 
Field-Cornet Jacobus Ignatius de 
Wet, father of General C R de Wet, 
who took the initiative in its 
establishment. Municipal status was 
attained in 1890. Dewetsdorp was 
the scene of heavy fighting in the 
Second Anglo-Boer War. In 1927 
the town hall was blown up, killing 
the mayor and two councillors. 

*De Wildt (T 2527 DB). Railway 
station, police station and post 
office 40 km west-north-west of 



Pretoria, in the Brits district. It was 
named after the engineer who in 
1905 surveyed the railway-line 
between Pretoria and Rustenburg, 
E de Wildt. Famous for a speech 
delivered on 7 December 1912 by 
General J B M Hertzog which 
ultimately led to the establishment 
of the National Party. 

D F Malan Airport (C 3318 DC). 
Situated on the Cape Flats, south of 
Parow. Officially opened in 1955, 
but was in use before that. Named 
after Daniel Francois Malan (1874- 
1959), Prime Minister of the Union 
of South Africa from 1948 to 1954. 

Dias Point (S 2615 CA). Rocky 
point with lighthouse, fog-horn and 
radio station at the south-western 
extremity of Luderitz Bay, 23 km 
from Luderitz. Named after the 
Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu 



Dias, who erected a stone cross 
there on 25 July 1488, dedicated to 
St James. 

Dicker Wilhelm (S 2616 CA). 
Prominent mountain (1500 m) 
35 km north-west of Aus, along the 
road to Luderitz. German for 'the 
thickset Wilhelm', the name refers 
to Kaiser Wilhelm II whose orders, 
like the insular mountain in the 
otherwise flat Namib Desert, were 
not easily lost sight of. The moun- 
tain also bears the Nama name 
Garub and the German translation 
thereof, Grosse Tiger Berg. 

Die Baai (C 3325 DC). Popular 
name for Port Elizabeth; 'the bay'. 

*Die Bakke (C 3422 AA). Holiday 
resort at Mossel Bay. Named after 
two steel tanks (Afrikaans bakke) 
installed in 1884 to hold water piped 



from the Outeniqua Mountains for 
the use of transport-riders and 
others. 

Die Berg (C 3218 DD). Popular 
name for Versfeldpasberg. The 
name is Afrikaans and means 'the 
mountain'. 

Die Hel (C 3322). Colloquial name 
for Gamkaskloof, region of 22 km in 
the Swartberg, near Oudtshoorn, 
north of Calitzdorp and east of the 
Seweweekspoort. The pass leading 
to the valley drops 579 m in just 
over 3 km. The name may be 
derived from the Afrikaans verb hel, 
to incline or dip steeply, or the noun 
helling; or it may be from the 
English 'hell', referring to the 
inaccessibility and inhospitability of 
the region. 



Die Hel (T 2529). Gorge cut by the 
Olifants River into the escarpment 
between Middelburg and Witbank 
on the Highveld, and the Loskop 
Dam in the Lowveld. Possibly 
named thus for its inaccessibility. 

*Die Kelders (D 3419 CB). Holiday 
resort 19 km south-west of Stanford, 
between Gans Bay and Hermanus. 
Afrikaans for 'the cellars', the name 
is derived from caves in sandstone 
cliffs there. 

*Die Moot (T 2527). Valley some 
130 km long and 3 to 5 km wide, 
between the Magaliesberg in the 
north and the Daspoortrand and 
Witwatersrand to the south, in the 
districts of Brits, Krugersdorp and 
Pretoria. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'valley between ranges of 
hills'. 



Diepgatwyk (C 3419 A). Region 
between Caledon and Hermanus, 
bounded by the Shawsberg in the 
north and the Kleinriviersberg in the 
south. 'Deep hole area', because of 
its situation between the mountains. 

Diep River (C 3323). River rising 
north of Assegaaibos and flowing 
south-east to join the Krom River 
between Clarkson and Humansdorp. 
Afrikaans or Dutch for 'deep river', 
the name refers to the depth of the 
ravine through which it flows. 

Dieprivier (C 3423). Former name 
of Bietourivier. The name is 
Afrikaans for 'deep river'. 

Dikgatlhong (C 2824 AD). Said to 
be the Tswana name of Delports- 
hoop; derived from dikgatlho, 
'meeting-place', referring to the 
nearby confluence of the Vaal and 



Harts rivers; now spelt Likhatlhong. 
There is also a Dikgatlhong in 
Botswana (2525 CA). 

*Dingaanstat (N 2831 AD). The 
'stat' or village of Dingaan (Din- 
gane, Udingane), Zulu ruler, 1795- 
1840; known to the Zulu as Umgun- 
gundlovu. Now a mission station of 
the Dutch Reformed Church, it is 
situated between Melmoth and 
Babanango. 

Dipka (C 3420 BA). Tributary of 
the Breede River; rises south-west 
of Heidelberg and flows south-west 
to enter the main stream on the farm 
Diptka's Mouth. The name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'brackish river'. Diptka is an older 
spelling. 

Disa River (C 3418 AB). River 
rising on Table Mountain and flow- 



ing south-west into Hout Bay. 
Named after the Disa uniflora, a 
flower formerly abundant at its 
source. This river is also known as 
Hout Bay River. 

Disporecamma (C 3419). Khoek- 
hoen name of Caledon. 'Hot water', 
after the chalybeate springs there. 

Doddington Rock (C 3325 DD). 
Rock in Algoa Bay, off the mouth of 
the Coega River, some 5 km south 
of Bird Island. Named after the East 
Indiaman Doddington which was 
wrecked there on 17 July 1755 with 
the loss of 247 lives. The 23 
survivors lived on Bird Island for 
seven months and reached the 
mainland by constructing a vessel 
from the wreckage. 



Dogghakamma (C 3419 AB). 
Khoekhoen name of the Swart- 
rivier. The name means 'black 
water', 'black river'; the Afrikaans 
name is thus a translation. 

*D6hne (C 3227 CB). Settlement 
6 km north of Stutterheim. It was 
founded in 1857 and named after 
Jacob Ludwig Dohne (1811-1879), 
first Berlin Society missionary in 
South Africa and author of the first 
complete dictionary in a native 
language in this country, namely A 
Zulu-Kafir Dictionary (1857). 

Donkin River (O 2828). Former 
name of the Elands River, thus 
called in honour of Sir Rufane 
Donkin (1773-1841), Acting Gover- 
nor of the Cape Colony in 1820 and 
founder of Port Elizabeth. 



*Donnybrook (N 2929 DD). 
Village some 80 km south-west of 
Pietermaritzburg, in the Polela 
district. It was named after a suburb 
of Dublin, Ireland, by Robert 
Comrie, the owner of the farm on 
which it was laid out. 

*Doonside (N 3030 BB). Holiday 
resort on the Indian Ocean some 
30 km south-west of Durban, 
between Amanzimtoti and Illovo 
Beach. At first the siding was called 
Middleton, after its builder, but to 
avoid confusion with Middleton in 
the Cape the name was changed in 
1910 to Doonside, after a house 
called Lorna Doone which over- 
looked the siding. 

*Dordabis (S 2217 DC). Settlement 
some 100 km south-east of Wind- 
hoek, between Kapp's Farm and 
Uhlenhorst. Derived from Khoe- 



khoen, the name probably means 
'the arid place'. 

*Dordrecht (C 3127 AC). Town on 
the northern slopes of the Storm- 
berg, some 76 km north-north-east 
of Queenstown and 88 km southwest 
of Barkly East. It was established in 
1856 on the farm Boschrand and 
became a municipality in 1867. It 
was named after Dordrecht in 
Holland, in memory of an historic 
synod of Reformed churches held 
there in 1618-1619. Notorious for its 
cold winters. 

Doring River (C 3322). Tributary 
of the Kammanassie River, flowing 
north-east in the region between 
George and Oudtshoorn. Afrikaans 
for 'thorn river', the name is a trans- 
lation of Khoekhoen Kaukou, 
which literally means 'pricking 
thorn'. 



*Douglas (C 2923 BB). Town some 
15 km south-west of the confluence 
of the Orange and Vaal rivers, 
117 km west-south-west of Kimber- 
ley, and 162 km north-east of 
Prieska. It developed around the 
London Mission Station Backhouse, 
established in 1838, and was 
renamed in 1867 after Sir Percy 
Douglas, Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Cape Colony. In the same year a 
village management board was 
instituted. Municipal status was 
attained in 1914. Diamond-digging 
occurs here and a pleasure resort has 
been laid out on the bank of the 
Vaal River. 

*Draghoender (C 2922 AC). 
Former name of Marydale, now ap- 
plied to a railway station and post 
office 3 km to the north, in the 



Prieska district. Derived from Afri- 
kaans dragonder, 'dragoon'. 

Drakensberg (2430 AA-3127 BB). 
Mountain range some 1 046 km 
long, extending eastwards from near 
Dordrecht for 130 km, then north- 
wards to near Tzaneen. Of Dutch 
origin, the name means 'dragon 
mountain'. The Sotho name is said 
to be Quathlamba, Zulu Khahlamba, 
variously explained as 'anything 
thrown in a heap', 'a barrier, as of 
pointed spears', etc. Other forms 
include Kwahlamba, Kwathlamba, 
Qathlamba, Quahlamba, etc. 

Drakenstein (C 3319 CC). Region 
some 50 km long and 20 km wide, 
between the Roodezand Pass and 
Paarl. Named in October 1687 in 
honour of the High Commissioner, 
Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede to 
Drakenstein, who had visited the 



Cape two years previously. It was 
opened to farmers by Governor 
Simon van der Stel in 1687. Early 
accounts refer to the region as 
including the valley from Groot- 
Drakenstein to the modern Fransch- 
hoek. That is why the French 
Huguenots are said by some to have 
settled at Franschhoek and by others 
at Drakenstein. 

Driekopseiland (C 2924 BA). Site 
of rock engravings in the smooth 
volcanic bed of the Riet River near 
its confluence with the Modder 
River, some 40 km south-west of 
Kimberley. Afrikaans for 'three hill 
island'. 

Droedap River (C 2917 DD). 
Watercourse extending from the 
vicinity of Springbok in Namaqua- 
land southwards to the Buffels 
River. The name is a hybrid, from 



Afrikaans droe, 'dry', and Khoek- 
hoen #gab, 'dry marsh'. Older 
forms Old Drooge Daap and 
Drogedap are still borne by farms. 
The Khoekhoen name of this 
watercourse is Orokap, literally 
'dry flat'. 

Dronkvlei (N 3029 BB). Area near 
Creighton, in the Ixopo district, so 
called because the water in some 
marshes there caused cattle drinking 
it to become dizzy. 'Dizzy marsh'; 
the name is Afrikaans. 

Droogedaap see Droedap River 

*Drummond (N 2930 DA). Village 
in the Camperdown district, 45 km 
west of Durban. It was named after 
F C Drummond, former director of 
the Natal Land and Colonisation 
Company. 



Duiwel se Wereld (N 2731). Region 
north-west of Louwsburg, character- 
ized by rugged, impenetrable 
ravines. Legend has it that at the 
time of the Creation, the Devil was 
permitted to create a portion of the 
earth. When he was finished, he saw 
that what he had made was inferior 
to God's creation. So incensed was 
he that he furiously tore his handi- 
work asunder. The ruins are 
therefore known as 'Die Duiwel se 
Wereld' - 'the Devil's world'. 

*Duiwelskloof (T 2330 CA). 
Village in the Letaba district, 24 km 
north of Tzaneen. Surveyed in 1919 
and proclaimed in 1920, it is 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board. The name, Afrikaans 
for 'Devil's ravine', was possibly 
given by virtue of the rugged, awe 
inspiring aspect, or because of the 



difficulty with which laden wagons 
trekked through it in the rainy 
season. The railway station was 
called Modjadji in 1914 but was 
later renamed. 

Duiwelspiek see Devil's Peak 

Duiwenhoks River (C 3320-3420). 
River rising on the southern slopes 
of the Langberg range, flowing 
southwards through Heidelberg, and 
debouching into St Sebastian Bay at 
Puntjie, 16 km east of the Breede 
River Mouth. The name, meaning 
'dovecote' or 'pigeon-hok', is of 
Dutch orgin, and is encountered as 
early as 1676. Such cotes were built 
during the early years. 

*Dukuduku Forest Reserve (N 

2832 AD). Indigenous forest in the 
Hlabisa district, south of Lake St 
Lucia, east of Mtubatuba and north 



of the Umfolozi River. The name is 
of Zulu orgin and refers to the 
impenetrability of the undergrowth, 
being said to mean 'to hide' or 'to 
attempt to find one's way'. 

Dukuza (N 2931 AD). Zulu name of 
Stanger; derived from uku-Tukuza, 
'hide', 'conceal', 'keep secret'. It 
was the site of the main village of 
the Zulu chief, Shaka, founded in 
1818. 

*Dullstroom (T 2530 AC). Town 
35 km north of Belfast and some 
53 km south-west of Lydenburg. It 
was proclaimed on 9 October 1893 
and named after a merchant from 
Amsterdam, Wolterus Dull, chair- 
man of a committee which rendered 
assistance to families who had 
suffered losses during the First 
Anglo-Boer War. The element 
stroom, 'stream', refers to the 



Crocodile River nearby. One of the 
coldest towns in South Africa, 
Dullstroom boasts the highest 
station (2 076 m) and is the only 
place in the country where beech 
and elm trees grow; they were 
planted by Dutch immigrants. 

Dumbe (N 2730 BD). Zulu name of 
Paulpietersburg. It is derived from 
madumbe, a wild fruit (Colocasia 
antiquorum) growing on the Dumbe- 
berg south and east of the town. 

*Dundee (N 2830 AA). Town 8 km 
east of Glencoe and 77 km northeast 
of Ladysmith. It was laid out in 
1882, came under local adminis- 
tration in 1897 and was proclaimed 
a borough in 1902. It was named 
after Dundee in Scotland, birthplace 
of its founder, Thomas Paterson 
Smith. The iron-ore and coal 
deposits in the area have made it a 



centre of mining and industrial 
activity. 

*Durban (N 2931 CC). City, 
principal port and popular holiday 
resort on the Indian Ocean. 
Originally named Port Natal, it was 
established in 1835 on land ceded 
by the Zulu king Shaka in 1828. 
Borough status was achieved on 15 
May 1854 and city status in 1935. It 
is named after Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban (1777-1849), Governor of 
the Cape from 1834 to 1838. Until 
about 1870 the name was spelt 
D'Urban. 

*Durbanville (C 3318 DC). Town- 
ship 28 km north of Cape Town and 
8 km from Bellville. It was laid out 
in 1806, came under the admini- 
stration of a village management 
board in 1897, and achieved muni- 
cipal status in 1901. At first known 



as Pampoenkraal, it was renamed 
D'Urban on 2 September 1836, 
after Sir Benjamin D'Urban, 
Governor of the Cape from 1834 to 
1838. To avoid confusion with 
Durban in Natal, the name was 
changed to Durbanville in 1886. No 
industrial development is permitted. 

*Du Toitskloof (C 3319 CC). 
Mountain pass between Paarl and 
Worcester on the national Johan- 
nesburg - Cape Town road, 
between the Drakenstein and Hawe- 
quas mountains, north of the Du 
Toit's Mountains. It was named 
after Francois du Toit, who 
obtained the farm Kleine Bosch in 
1692 and who first used the route. 
A road was made in 1785 and in 
1821 a start was made with the 
building of a pass. Between 1940 
and 1949 the main road north was 



diverted from Bain's Kloof to Du 
Toitskloof. 

Du Toit's Mountains (C 3319). 
Mountain range east of Paarl, 
northeast of the Wemmershoek 
Mountains, and south of the Slang- 
hoek Mountains and Du Toitskloof. 
It is named after Francois du Toit, a 
Huguenot who obtained the farm 
adjacent to Du Toitskloof in 1692. 

Du Toit's Pan (C 2824 DD). 
Original name of Beaconsfield. 

Named after Abraham Paulus du 
Toit, owner of the farm Dorst- 
fontein on which it was laid out in 
1870, and a pan near the old 
farmhouse. 

Dutywa (Trsk 3228). Tributary of 
the Bashee or Mbashe River. 
Derived from Xhosa ukuduba, 'to 
disturb', ukudutywa, 'be disturbed', 



the name is said to refer to the 
confused state of the Fingo and 
Thembu at the time of the invasions 
of the Zulu and Mfecane about 
1820. The town Idutywa takes its 
name from this river. 

*Dwarsberg (C 3319). Mountain 
extending in a north-westerly direc- 
tion from the Hex River Mountains 
and forming an obstacle before the 
valley behind them. This Afrikaans 
name accordingly means 'transverse 
mountain'. 

*Dwarsberg (T 2426 CD-DC), 
Mountain range extending east and 
west, situated some 80 km north of 
Zeerust, Groot-Marico and Swart- 
ruggens. From Afrikaans dwars, 
'across', 'athwart', the name was 
given because the range lies at right 
angles to the Marico River which 
flows through it near Tommiesrus. 



*Dwarskersbos (C 3218 CA). Fish- 
ing village in the Piketberg district, 
some 11 km north of Laaiplek. Near 
here the Portuguese navigator Vasco 
da Gama first set foot on South 
African soil on 7 November 1497 
when he explored the present St 
Helena Bay. A tidal wave 6 m high 
struck Dwarskersbos on 27 August 
1969. The name is said to be derived 
from Afrikaans; kersbos is a type of 
plant, Euclea polyandra, or 
Sarcocaulon species. 

*Dwars River (C 3219). Tributary 
of the Olifants River, in the Clan- 
william district. Afrikaans for 
'athwart river', the name is probably 
translated from Khoekhoen 

Koignas. The Afrikaans form 
Dwarsrivier is preferred for official 
use. 



Dwyka River (C 3221-3321). 
Tributary of the Gamka River, rising 
in the Beaufort West, Laingsburg 
and Prince Albert districts and 
flowing southwards to join the 
Gamka west-south-west of Prince 
Albert, thus forming the Gourits 
River. Also encountered as 
Debemka, Deepka, Dwinka, Debe, 
and Brakke Rivier, the name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'brackish river'. The geological 
series takes its name from this river. 

Dyer(s) Island (C 3419 CB). Near 
Sandy Point, Bredasdorp district, 
some 3 km offshore. Presumably 
named after Samson Dyer, a Negro 
who came to the Cape from America 
in 1806, reputedly the first person to 
set foot on the island. Also encoun- 
tered as Dias Island, which leads to 



the question whether one name is 
not an adaptation of the other. 

*Dysselsdorp (C 3322 CB). Village 
some 30 km east of Oudtshoorn, site of 
a London Mission Station established 
in 1838. Managed by the Oudtshoorn 
Divisional Council since 1926. 



Eastern Province (C 3124-3428). 
Alternative and more popular term 
for the Eastern Cape Province, 
which officially came into being in 
1786 when the Graaff-Reinet district 
was established. In 1827 the State 
Secretary, Bourke, defined the East- 
ern Province as consisting of the 
districts of Graaff-Reinet (including 
Beaufort and the Winterveld), 
Albany, George, Somerset and 
Uitenhage. In 1852 Governor 
George Cathcart determined that it 
would consist of Albany, Albert, 
Colesberg, Cradock, Fort Beaufort, 
Graaff-Reinet, Grahamstown, Port 
Elizabeth, Uitenhage, Somerset and 
Victoria. When the Cape was 
divided into seven electoral provin- 
ces, the districts of Aliwal North, 
King William's Town, East London, 



Queenstown and Wodehouse 
comprised the Eastern Province. 

*East London (C 3327 BB). City 
on the Indian Ocean, at the mouth of 
the Buffalo River, some 320 km 
east-north-east of Port Elizabeth. It 
developed from a landing place for 
troops in 1845 during the War of the 
Axe. At first known as Port Rex, 
probably after John Rex who was 
engaged in taking surveys and 
soundings, it was annexed to the 
Cape and named East London on 14 
January 1848. Municipal status was 
attained in 1873 and city status in 
1914. 

Ebenezer (C 3118 CA). Mission 
station of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society at the mouth of the Olifants 
River in the Vanrhynsdorp district. 
It was established by Von Wurmb in 
1831. The name is of biblical origin 



(1 Sam. 7:12) and means 'stone of 
help'. Also spelt *Ebenhaeser and 
Ebenhaezer. 

Ecca Pass (C 3326 BA). Mountain 
pass some 15 km north-east of 
Grahamstown. It takes its name 
from the Ecca River, now known as 
the Brak River, a tributary of the 
Great Fish, which it enters 2 km 
south of Committees. The name is 
of Khoekhoen origin and probably 
means 'salty' or 'brackish river'. 
The name has been transferred to 
Ecca Heights, and to the Ecca Series 
of sedimentary rocks which overlies 
the Dwyka Series. 

*Edenburg (O 2925 DB). Town 
85 km south-south-west of Bloem- 
fontein. Laid out on the farm 
Rietfontein in 1862, it became a 
municipality in 1891. The name is 
said to be either of biblical origin or 



an adaptation of Edinburgh, name of 
the birthplace in Scotland of the 
Reverend Andrew Murray (1828- 
1917), for many years the only 
minister in the Orange Free State. 

*Edenvale (T 2628 AA). Town 
some 15 km east of Johannesburg, 
10 km north of Germiston and 9 km 
west of Jan Smuts Airport. It was 
laid out on the farm Rietfontein in 
1903 and became a municipality in 
1942. Probably named after one of 
the owners of the farm, John Eden. 

*Edenville (O 2727 DA). Town 
48 km north-east of Kroonstad and 
50 km south-west of Heilbron. It 
was established on the farms 
Erfdeel-Noord, Langland and Wel- 
gelegen in 1912, and attained muni- 
cipal status in 1921. The name is 
assumed to refer to the biblical 



Garden of Eden, but this is 
uncertain. 

*Eerstegoud (T 2329 CD). Village 
14 km south-west of Pietersburg. 
Laid out in 1868, it was at first 
called Marabastad. At the request of 
the inhabitants the name was 
changed about 1954 to Eerstegoud, 
Afrikaans for 'first gold', in 
memory of the discovery in 1871 of 
the first gold in the Transvaal at 
Eersteling by Edward Button. 

Eerste River (C 3227). Now 
Buffels River. Thus named by survi- 
vors of the Stavenisse, wrecked in 
1686, who built a new ship to sail to 
the Cape. The name is Afrikaans 
(originally Dutch) and means 'first 
river'. 

*Eerste River (C 3418). Rises in 
the Jonkershoek, flows through 



Stellenbosch and enters False Bay 
west of the Strand. Named Eerste 
Rivier ('first river') by Hieronymus 
Cruse in 1669 because it was the 
first river encountered en route to 
the interior. The form Eersterivier 
is preferred for official use. 

Eibeb River (C 2917 DD). Tribu- 
tary of the Buffels River, 40 km 
south of Springbok, in the Nama- 
qualand district. The name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'burn', 'hot', or 'fire river'. 

Eibees (S 2818 BD). Khoekhoen 
name of Warmbad. Derived from 
/Aebes or /Aibes, 'fire (hot) place', 
'hot spring'. The spelling Eibees 
probably results from the German 
pronunciation. 

Ein (2816-2818). Khoekhoen name 
for the western reaches of the 



Orange River. Also encountered as 
Tyen, Eijn, Eyra and /K'ei, the name 
has been explained both as meaning 
'river' and 'people', ie 'where the 
people lived'. 

Ekeberg Point see Point Ekeberg 

*Elandsberg (C 3225 BA). Moun- 
tain some 10 km north-east of Cra- 
dock. Afrikaans for 'elands moun- 
tain', it was named after the 
antelopes (Taurotragus oryx) which 
occurred there in great numbers. 
The pioneer explorer Colonel Robert 
Jacob Gordon (1743-1795) named it 
and the other mountains there, such 
as the Barbersberg and Michaus- 
berg, Fiscaal Boers Gebergte. 

Elandskloofberge (C 3318). Moun- 
tains bordering on the Groenland. 
Afrikaans for 'elands ravine moun- 
tains', the name is said to be trans- 



lated from Khoekhoen. These moun- 
tains are thus also named after the 
Taurotragus oryx. 

*Elandslaagte (N 2829 BD). Farm- 
ing and coal-mining centre some 
26 km north-east of Ladysmith. 
Afrikaans for 'elands flat', it was 
the scene of one of the first battles 
of the Second Anglo-Boer War, on 
21 October 1899. Monuments have 
been erected to the fallen on both 
sides. 

Elandspad (C 3418 BB). Former 
name of Sir Lowry's Pass. Named 
after the eland (Taurotragus oryx) 
which followed this path to cross the 
Hottentots Holland Mountains; 
probably a translation of Khoekhoen 
Gantouw. 

*Elands River (O 2828). River 
which rises at Mont-aux-Sources 



and flows north to join the Wilge 
River north-west of Warden. Named 
after the eland (Taurotragus oryx) 
which abounded there, it was 
formerly known as Donkin River, 
after Sir Rufane Donkin, Acting 
Governor of the Cape in 1820. The 
form Elandsrivier is preferred for 
official use. 

*Elim (C 3419 DA). Settlement 
48 km north-west of Cape Agulhas 
and 32 km south-west of Bredas- 
dorp. Established as a Moravian 
Mission Station in 1824, it was 
given this biblical name (Exod. 
15:27) which means '(palm) trees'. 

Elizabeth Island 
see Isla d'Elizabeth 

*Elliot (C 3217 BD). Town on the 
Slang River, 80 km south-west of 
Maclear and 65 km south-east of 



Barkly East, 9 km from the Transkei 
border. It was established in 1885 
and became a municipality in 1911. 
Named after Sir Henry George 
Elliot (1826-1912), Chief Magistrate 
of the Transkeian territories from 
1891 to 1902. 

*Elliotdale (Trsk 3128 DC). Town 
50 km south of Umtata, 22 km 
south-east of Mqanduli. Named after 
Sir Henry Elliot, Chief Magistrate of 
the Transkei from 1891 to 1902. 

*Elsburg (T 2628 AA). Town some 
6 km south-east of Germiston. Laid 
out on the farm Klippoortjie in 1887 
and proclaimed a town in 1908, it 
was named after the owner, F C Els. 
It was administered by a health 
committee from 1908 and by a 
village council from 1938. Munici- 
pal status was achieved in October 
1957. It almost became the capital 



of the goldfields instead of 
Johannesburg. 

Elsieskraal River (C 3318). Rises 
on the flanks of the Tygerberg and 
flows west and south-west to enter 
the Swart River at Pinelands. 
Formerly Elsjes Kraal Rivier, it may 
have been named after Elsje van 
Suurwaarde, wife of Andries de 
Man, owner of the farm Dooden- 
kraal in the Tygerberg and Secunde 
in the time of Simon van der Stel. 

Emanzana (T 2530 DC). Northern 
Sotho name of Badplaas. Said to 
mean 'healing waters', referring to 
the medicinal properties of the hot 
sulphur springs there. 

Embekelweni (Swa 2631 AC). 
Former royal village, 13 km north- 
west of Manzini, of King Mband- 
zeni of Swaziland. 



Embokodweni (N 2831 BA). Given 
as the name of a mission station 
north-east of Mahlabatini. The name 
is of Zulu origin and probably 
means 'place of round stones'. See 
Mbokodweni and Umbogintwini. 

Embulamalokwe (N 2730 DD). 
Stream some 22 km south-west of 
Vryheid. The name is of Zulu origin 
and may mean either 'place where 
dresses are beaten' (ie washed) or, 
more probably, 'place where dresses 
are lifted' (ie when wading through 
the stream). 

*Empangeni (N 2831 DD). Town 
some 160 km north-east of Durban 
and 32 km west of Richards Bay. It 
was laid out in 1885, attained 
township status in 1931 and became 
a borough in 1960. It takes its name 
from the river, a tributary of the 
Mhlatuze. The name is of Zulu 



origin, but has been explained in a 
variety of ways, for example as 
referring to a type of plant (Cycada- 
ceae or Oliniaceae) or, as is most 
widely accepted, as derived from a 
verb meaning 'grab', 'seize', 'rob'. 
The latter theory is also open to 
various interpretations; that the river 
comes down in flood and robs 
people of their crops; that cattle- 
thieves were active there; and that, 
because of the fertility of the soil, it 
was necessary to grab or lay claim 
to a piece of ground to prevent 
disputes about ownership. 

*Engcobo (Trsk 3128 CA). Town 
85 km west of Umtata, 77 km north- 
east of Idutywa, on a spur of the 
Kumba Mountains. It became a 
municipality in March 1917. Of 
Xhosa origin, the name is said to 



mean 'a place with trees and long 
grass next to a stream'. 

*Enon (C 3325 BC). Mission 
station of the Moravian Society, 
some 10 km east of Kirkwood and 
5 km north of the Sundays River. It 
was established in 1818. The name 
is of biblical origin (John 3:23), 
referring to a place in Samaria 
where John baptized the people. It 
means 'spring, fountain'. 

*Enselsberg (T 2526 AC). Moun- 
tain in the Marico district, north east 
of Zeerust. The name is derived 
from the surname of Johan Adam 
Enslin, leader of the 'Jerusalem- 
gangers', a religious sect which 
trekked northwards and founded 
Nylstroom. Known to the Northern 
Sotho as Tshwenyane, 'place of the 
small baboons'; formerly also 
known as Kurrichaine, Kurrechani 



or Kurrichaniberg , after a Huruthse 
chief. 

*Enstra (T 2628 AD). Township 
on the farm Geduld in the Springs 
district, proclaimed on 17 April 
1943. Established primarily for the 
first paper-mill of the South 
African Pulp and Paper Industries, 
the name is derived from 'enter- 
prise' and 'straw', from which 
paper was to be made. 

Enta (O 2727-2728). Khoekhoen 
name of the Vals River which rises 
near Lindley and flows 300 km 
north-west past Kroonstad to enter 
the Vaal River west of Bothaville. 
Also encountered as 'Nta and En- 
taap, it means 'false or treacherous 
river', so that the Afrikaans Vals is 
a translation. 



Entabeni (T 2230 CC). Forest 
reserve with Louis Trichardt as 
principal town. 'On top of the 
mountain'. 

EnZubuhlungu (T 2527-2528). 
River, now either the Apies or 
Pienaars. Zulu, 'the one which 
injures, hurts', referring to the 
sharp dolomite stones on the river 
bed which hurt the bare-footed 
Nguni women when they fetched 
water. 

Enzwabuklunga (T 2528). Ndebele 
name for the Apies River. Said to 
mean 'painful', referring to the 
sharp stones on the river bed, the 
name appears to be a variant of 
EnZubuhlungu. 

*Epukiro (S 2119 CA). Roman 
Catholic mission station 93 km 
northeast of Gobabis, founded in 



1903 to serve the Tswana. The 
name, derived from Herero, is said 
to mean 'the country where one 
gets lost'. 

Eranchi (Swa 2531 DC). Former 
name of Tshaneni. 

*Erasmus (T 2528 DC). Former 
name of Bronkhorstspruit; named 
after C J G Erasmus, the owner of 
the farm Hondsrivier on which it 
was established in 1904. 

*Ermelo (T 2629 DB). Town 
237 km east of Johannesburg. Laid 
out on the farm Nooitgedacht in 
1879, it was proclaimed a town in 
1880 and named after Ermelo in the 
Netherlands, where the Dutch 
Reformed minister Frans Lion 
Cachet had been converted to Chris- 
tianity. In 1901 Ermelo was razed to 



the ground by the British forces, but 
it was rebuilt after 1903. 

Eros Mountains (S 2217 CA). 
Extend from north-west to south- 
east, situated to the north-east of 
Windhoek. The name is Khoekhoen 
and refers to the sour-plum trees 
(Ximenia americana) which grow 
there. Eros Airport, Erospark and 
the farm Eros take their names from 
the mountain. 

Ertjiesvlei (C 3419). Region 
between Babilonstoring range and 
Kleinrivierberge in the Hermanus 
district. '(Wild) pea marsh', former- 
ly Artjesvlei, Atchasvlei. The 
present name is Afrikaans. 

Eseljagpoort (C 3322 DC). Defile 
in the Outeniqua Mountains, 
through which the Brak River, a 
tributary of the Kammanassie River, 



flows north-west; some 20 km 
north-east of George. Derived from 
Dutch Ezel Jacht Poort, the name 
means 'zebra-hunt defile'; the zebra 
was known as an esel (literally 'ass, 
donkey'). 

*Eshowe (N 2831 CD). Town on the 
Mlalazi River, some 140 km north- 
east of Durban and 24 km north- 
west of Gingindlovu. It was 
proclaimed a town in 1915, and 
became a borough in 1954. Famed 
for its pine-trees and some 162 ha of 
indigenous forest within the munici- 
pal boundaries, Eshowe is said to be 
named after the sound of wind in the 
trees. Other explanations of this 
Zulu name are that it means 'windy 
place' and that it refers to a type of 
plant growing there (Xysmalobium), 
repellent to dogs and therefore used 
in the preparation of hides. The 



town was besieged for two months 
in the Zulu War (1879-80) and it 
became a town then. 

Esselstein's Bay (C 3418 AB). 

Early name of Simon's Bay. Also 
spelt Ijselstein and Yselstein Bay, it 
was named after a Dutch East India- 
man which sheltered there in 1671. 

*Estcourt (N 2929 BB). Town on 
the Bushmans River, 256 km from 
Durban and 30 km south-east of 
Colenso. Laid out in 1848, it was 
named Bushmans River Post or 
Bushmans Drift. In 1859 the seat of 
magistracy was moved from 
Weenen to Estcourt. It became a 
township in 1905 and reached 
borough status in 1914. The name 
was changed in 1863 to Estcourt, 
said to be in honour of a British 
member of Parliament, Thomas H S 



Estcourt, a friend of an early settler, 
J W Wilks. 

*Evander (T 2629 AC). Township 
80 km east of Springs, 8 km south of 
Kinross and 48 km west of Bethal. 
Laid out as a mining town by the 
Union Corporation Ltd in 1955, it 
was named after Evelyn Anderson, 
widow of a former managing direc- 
tor of the company. 

*Evaton (T 2627 DB). Former name 
of Residensia. Named after Eva, 
daughter of James B Tucker, who 
laid out the township in 1904 on the 
farm Wildebeesfontein. 

*Excelsior (O 2827 CC). Town in 
the Winburg district, some 105 km 
north-east of Bloemfontein and 
55 km south of Winburg. It was laid 
out in 1910 on the farms Excelsior 
and Sunlight, and proclaimed a town 



in 1911. The name is Latin and 
means 'more elevated'. 

Ezulwini (Swa 2631 AC). Village 
11 km south of Mbabane and 13 km 
north-west of Mahlanya. Takes its 
name from an old settlement, 'place 
of the heavens'. Hot magnesium 
springs occur here, and there is a 
drop of 610 m in 6 km. 



Fafa (N 3030 AD/BC). River which 
rises in the Ixopo district and flows 
south-westwards to enter the Indian 
Ocean at Ifafa Beach, south-west of 
Bazley and north-east of Mtwalume. 
Also spelt Ifafa, the name is derived 
from Zulu. Generally thought to 
mean 'the sprinkling one', the name 
is explained as referring to the 
sound of spray at rapids, or to the 
falling of drops condensed in the 
misty ravines through which the 
river flows. 

*False Bay (C 3418). Inlet open to 
the south and bounded in the west 
by the Cape Peninsula, in the north 
by the Cape Flats and in the east by 
the mainland from the Strand in the 
north to Cape Hangklip in the south. 
At first it was known to the Portu- 
guese mariners as Golfo dentro das 



Serras, 'bay between the moun- 
tains', probably referring to Cape 
Point and Cape Hangklip, 40 km 
apart. The present name, and its 
Afrikaans equivalent Valsbaai, are 
derived from Cabo Falso (now 
Cape Hangklip), 'false cape', so 
called because early mariners often 
mistook it for Cape Point and turned 
north too soon. The form Valsbaai 
is preferred for official purposes. 

False Cape (C 3418 BD; 3419 CB). 
Name applied to the present Danger 
Point until about 1614, and 
subsequently to the present Cape 
Hangklip. Also known as False- 
hood, the promontory derived its 
name from early mariners mistaking 
it for Cape Point and therefore 
turning north too soon. It is a 
translation of the Portuguese Cabo 
Falso. 



*Faure (C 3418 BB). Hamlet some 
16 km south-west of Stellenbosch 
and 13 km north-west of Strand. 
Nearby is the kramat or tomb of 
Sheik Yusuf (1626-1699), an 
Islamic expatriate priest. Faure is a 
common surname; it is uncertain 
after whom this place was named. 

*Fauresmith (O 2925 CB). Town 
61 km north-west of Trompsburg 
and 60 km north of Philippolis. It 
was laid out in 1850 on the farm 
Sannah's Poort and became a muni- 
cipality on 13 December 1859. It 
was named after the Moderator of 
the Dutch Reformed Church, Philip 
Eduard Faure, and Sir Harry Smith, 
Governor of the Cape. Fauresmith is 
the third oldest town in the Orange 
Free State and one of the few places 
in the world where the railway line 
runs down the main street. 



*Felixton (N 2831 DD). Village in 
the Lower Umfolozi district, 10 km 
south-east of Empangeni. First 
settled in 1907, there is no local 
authority. Said to have been named 
either after Viscount Herbert John 
Gladstone, nicknamed Felix, or after 
a local pioneer, Felix Piccione. 

Fermosa Bay see Bahia Formosa 

*Ficksburg (O 2827 DD). Town in 
the so-called Conquered Territory, 
on the western bank of the Caledon 
River and the eastern slopes of the 
Imperani Mountain, 203 km east- 
north-east of Bloemfontein and 
67 km south-east of Senekal. It was 
laid out in 1867 on the farms 
Generaalsvlei, Kromdraai, Losberg 
and Sikonjelasberg, and became a 
municipality in May 1891. It was 
named after Johan Izak Jacobus Fick 
(1816-1892), Commandant-General 



of the OFS, who played a prominent 
role in the Basuto Wars of 1865- 
1868. 

Fingoland (Trsk 3227). Region 
formerly comprising the territory 
between the Great Fish River in the 
west and the Keiskamma River in 
the east, north of the Chusie and 
Gwangwa rivers and south of an 
imaginary line from the confluence 
of the Tyume and Keiskamma 
rivers. At present it incorporates the 
districts of Butterworth, Nqamakwe 
and Tsomo. Named after the Fingos, 
a Xhosa people also known as the 
Abambo, 'those from the east'. The 
name Fingo is said to mean 'slaves', 
'homeless wanderers'. These people 
fought on the side of the British in 
the War of the Axe in 1846. 

Fiscaal Boers Gebergte (C 3225 
BA). Former name of the Barbers- 



berg, Elandsberg, Michausberg etc, 
north-east of Cradock. Named thus 
in 1777 by Colonel Robert Jacob 
Gordon (1743-1795), pioneer 
traveller, after Fiscal W C Boers, 
who left the Cape on 12 April 1783. 

Fish Bay (C 3421 BD). Inlet on the 
coast of the Mossel Bay district, 
23 km west of the present Mossel 
Bay. Formerly Bahia dos Vaqueiros, 
it was named Visbaai in 1601 by 
Paulus van Caerden, the Dutch 
navigator, because nothing was 
found to eat except fish. The name 
means 'fish bay'. 

*Fish Hoek (C 3418 AB). Holiday 
resort and residential area in the 
Simon's Town district, on the west- 
ern coast of False Bay, some 30 km 
south of Cape Town. First settled 
about 1818, the town was laid out 
on the farm Vischhoek in 1919, 



administered by a village manage- 
ment board since 1927, and became 
a municipality in 1940. Well known 
for fossilized skeletons of Fish Hoek 
Man, some 10 000 years old. The 
name, partially translated from 
Dutch, means 'fish corner'. It was 
taken from the inlet, known as such 
as early as 1672. The Afrikaans 
form Vishoek is preferred for 
official purposes. 

Fish Hoek Bay (C 3418 BB). 
Former name of Gordon's Bay; not 
to be confused with Fish Hoek 
which is on the opposite coast of 
False Bay. 

*Fish River see Great Fish River 

Fish River (S 2417-2817). Tribu- 
tary of the Orange River. It rises in 
various headwaters north-west of 
Mariental and flows south-east and 



then mainly south to enter the 
Orange at Rooilepel, some 40 km 
south-west of Ai-Ais. The name, 
also encountered as Afrikaans Vis- 
rivier, is translated from Nama //Aub 
or //Oub, 'fish'. The Fish River 
Canyon, reminiscent of the Grand 
Canyon in Arizona, is a popular 
tourist attraction. 

*Flagstaff (Trsk 3129 AB). Town 
some 80 km south-east of Kokstad 
and 45 km north of Lusikisiki. It 
developed from a trading station 
established in 1877 and derives its 
name from the practice by the 
owners of hoisting a white flag on 
Sundays to indicate that the store 
was closed. For many years it served 
as a post of the Cape Mounted 
Rifles. 

Flesh Bay see Vleesbaai 



Fleuve Large (C 3220-3420). 
Former name of the Breede River. 

*Florisbad (O 2826 CC). Health 
resort with hot springs 45 km north- 
west of Bloemfontein and 47 km 
south-west of Brandfort, near the 
Haagenstad salt-pan. Named after 
Floris Venter who opened up the 
mineral spring. Famous as a fossil- 
site. 

*Fochville (T 2627 AD). Town 
50 km north-east of Potchefstroom, 
20 km south-east of Carletonville 
and 74 km south-west of Johan- 
nesburg. It was laid out during 
World War I on portions of the 
farms Kraalkop and Leeuspruit, and 
proclaimed on 15 November 1920. 
In 1951 a village council was insti- 
tuted. It was named after Marshall 
Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929), Com- 



mander-in-Chief of the Allied For- 
ces in France during World War I. 

Formosa Bay see Bahia Formosa 

Formosa Peak (C 3323 DC). High- 
est peak in the Tsitsikamma Moun- 
tains, north-east of Plettenberg Bay. 
Takes its name from Bahia Formosa, 
'beautiful bay', now Plettenberg 
Bay. 

*Fort Beaufort (C 3226 DC). Town 
147 km north-west of East London, 
80 km north of Grahamstown and 
22 km west of Alice. It was laid out 
in 1837 around a fort of the same 
name, built in 1822 by Lieutenant- 
Colonel H Maurice Scott against 
marauding Xhosas and named after 
the Duke of Beaufort, father of Lord 
Charles Somerset. Municipal status 
was achieved in 1883. The War of 
the Axe (1846) started as a result of 



a dispute over an axe in a shop in 
Fort Beaufort. 

*Fort Cunynghame (C 3227 AD). 
Saw-milling centre about 5 km 
north-north-west of Dohne, at the 
north-eastern foot of the Xolora 
Mountains. It developed from a 
military post and was named after 
Lieutenant Cunynghame who was in 
command of it. 

Fort Frederick (C 3325 DC). Early 
name of Port Elizabeth, taken from 
a fort erected in 1798 to ward off 
attacks by the French. Named after 
Frederick, the Duke of York. 

*Fouriesburg (O 2828 CA). Town 
some 50 km south-south-east of 
Bethlehem, 53 km north-east of 
Ficksburg and 10 km from Cale- 
don's Poort, where this river, the 
border with Lesotho, is crossed by a 



bridge. It was laid out in 1892 on 
the farm Groenfontein and named 
after the owner, Christoffel Fourie. 
It was the scene of heavy fighting 
during the Second Anglo-Boer War 
(1899-1902) and was almost 
completely destroyed. 

*Fourteen Streams (C 2824 BB). 
Railway junction some 3 km north- 
east of Warrenton and 76 km north- 
east of Kimberley, near the 
Transvaal border. Said to be so 
called because the Vaal River 
divides into a number of streams at 
low water; the Reverend John 
Mackenzie stated in 1880 that there 
was a series of gentle falls in the 
river in the vicinity. The Tswana 
name is Melacaneng, 'at the 
streams'. The Afrikaans form Veer- 
tienstrome is preferred for official 
use. 



Francistown (Bots 2127 BA). Town 
north-west of Wolf Hills, 90 km 
north-north-east of Serule and 
88 km south-west of Plumtree. It has 
been administered by a town 
management board since 1962. 
Named after one of four concess- 
ionaires to whom Lobengula, the 
Matabele chief, granted land in 
1880, it is now the rallying point for 
labourers working in the Republic of 
South Africa; they are brought there 
by air and travel to the Republic by 
rail. 

*Frankfort (C 3227 CB). Village 
51 km north-east of King William's 
Town. It developed from a settle- 
ment of members of the British- 
German Legion in 1857 and is 
named after Frankfurt in Germany. 

*Frankfort (O 2728 AB). Town on 
the Wilge River, 124 km north of 



Bethlehem, 55 km east of Heilbron 
and 32 km south-west of Villiers. It 
was laid out in 1869 on the farm 
Roodepoort and became a munici- 
pality in June 1896. Named by 
Albert von Gordon, probably after 
Frankfurt in Germany; early 
documents also give the spelling 
with u. 

*Franschhoek (C 3319 CC). Town 
on the Franschhoek River, a tribu- 
tary of the Berg River, 30 km east of 
Stellenbosch and 25 km southeast of 
Paarl. It was established in 1860 and 
attained municipal status in 1881. 
Literally 'French corner', 'French 
glen', it takes its name from the 
region, so designated because 
French Huguenot refugees were 
settled there in 1688. 

*Fraserburg (C 3121 DC). Town 
on the Nuweveld Plateau, 509 km 



north-east of Cape Town, 96 km 
south-east of Williston and 110 km 
north-east of Sutherland. It was laid 
out in 1851 on the farm 

Rietfontein and named after two 
people, the Reverend Colin Fraser, 
father of President M T Steyn's 
wife, and the elder, Gerrit Jacobus 
Meyburgh. 

*Frederikstad (T 2627 CA). 
Hamlet some 34 km south-west of 
Carletonville and 23 km north of 
Potchefstroom. It was established 
in 1885 and named after Frederik 
Wolmarans. Fighting took place 
here during the Second Anglo-Boer 
War. The name is also encountered 
as Frederickstad. 

Fugitives' Drift (N 2830 BC). Ford 
in the Buffels River a few kilo- 
metres from Isandlwana, south-east 



of Dundee. It takes its name from a 
group of British soldiers who fled 
through here in the Battle of 
Isandhlwana on 22 January 1879. 

Fumfula (N 2831 CB). Tributary of 
the Mfule River, 25 km southeast of 
Melmoth. Of Zulu origin, the name 
is said to mean either 'the gnawing 
one' or 'the one which suddenly 
appears', ie where one did not 
expect a river, or from the under- 
growth. 'The one which despoils' is 
another explanation. 

Fundudzi see Lake Fundudzi 



Gaborone (Bots 2425 DB). Capital 
of Botswana, 75 km north-east of 
Lobatse and 21 km from the Trans- 
vaal border. Founded in 1890, it was 
named after Gaberone (or Gabo- 
rone) Matlapeng (or Matlapin), a 
chief who lived there at that time. 
Until 1969 it was known as 
Gaberones. The name is said to 
mean 'it (the chieftainship) is not 
unbecoming'. 

Gaikaskop (C 3226 DB). Peak 
north of Hogsback in the Amatole 
Mountains some 40 km north-east of 
Fort Beaufort. Apparently not 
named after the Xhosa chief Gaika 
or Ngqika, but derived from Xhosa 
egqira, 'witchdoctor'. Also encoun- 
tered on old maps as Luheri. 



Gaikou (C 3320 A). Khoekhoen 
name of the Witteberge, it probably 
means 'shining mountain'. The 
Afrikaans name, meaning 'White 
mountains', thus approximates in 
meaning to the Khoekhoen one. 

Galekaland (Trsk 3228). Region 
some 64 km by 48 km in the south- 
eastern portion of Transkei, bounded 
by the Kei and Bashee rivers, Fingo- 
land, and the Indian Ocean. Main 
towns are Kentani and Willowvale. 
Named after Galeka or Gcaleka, son 
of Palo and founder of the 
AmaGcaleka tribe about the middle 
of the 18th century. 

Galgenbos (C 3325). Region 
extending from the Gamtoos River 
to the vicinity of Swartkops. Derives 
its name from a former extensive 
forest which was known as 't Galge 
Bosch in 1776. Afrikaans (Dutch) 



for 'gallows wood', the name is said 
to be derived from a gallows carved 
into the bark of a tree over the 
names of a number of travellers. Of 
the original forest only the Long- 
more Reserve and other vestiges 
remain. The station Galbos at the 
western summit of Van Staden's 
Pass takes its name from Galgenbos. 

Gamdachama (C 3419). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Steenbok River, 
dating from 1707. Presumably a 
misspelling of Gawdachama, the 
name means 'steenbok river'; the 
modern name is a translation. 

Gamka (C 3221-3321). Tributary of 
the Gourits River. It rises, in the 
Beaufort West and Prince Albert 
districts and flows south-west and 
south to its confluence with the 
Dwyka River some 25 km north of 
Calitzdorp; thereafter these two 



rivers form the Gourits. The name 
is Khoekhoen and is generally 
accepted as meaning 'lion river'; 
the explanation of 'deep river' is 
also encountered, however. 

Gamkaskloof (C 3321 DC). Ravine 
in the Swartberg Mountains through 
which the Gamka River flows. 
Colloquially known as The Hell on 
account of its inaccessibility. A 
road was built to it in 1963. 

*Gamsberg (S 2316 AD). Promi- 
nent, flat-topped mountain some 
90 km west of Rehoboth and 
115 km south-west of Windhoek. 
Also encountered as Tans, #Gansa, 
Gans Bg., #Kans Berg and 
#Ganzberge, the name is derived 
from Khoekhoen #gan, 'shut', 
'close'; thus 'screen mountain', 
said to be so named because it shuts 
all else from view. 



Gams se Berg see Ghaamsberg 

Gamtoos River (C 3325 CC). 
Rising in the Sneeuberg, it flows 
southwards for 560 km and enters 
the Indian Ocean at St Francis Bay 
near Humansdorp. The upper 
reaches are called the Kariega, the 
middle portion from near Winter- 
hoek the Groot River, and the last 
87 km the Gamtoos. Of Khoekhoen 
origin, the name is probably 
derived from that of a tribe, the 
Gamtoos or Gamtouers, etc. 

*Gansbaai see Gans Bay 

*Gans Bay (C 3419 DB). Fishing 
village south of Walker Bay, 48 km 
south-east of Hermanus, 22 km 
south-west of Stanford and some 
6 km north-east of Danger Point. 
Originally known as Gansgat, ie 
'goose hole', after the wild geese 



there, it was laid out on the farm 
Strandfontein and became a munici- 
pality in April 1962. The form 
Gansbaai is preferred for official 
use. 

Gantouw (C 3418 BB). Short-cut 
to the top of Sir Lowry's Pass in 

the Hottentots Holland Mountains. 
Derived from Khoekhoen, it means 
'eland path', possibly from the 
route those animals took to cross 
the mountains. 

*Ga-Rankuwa (Bop 2527 DB-2528 
CA). Township 34 km north-east of 
Pretoria and 10 km south-west of 
Mabopane, it was opened in Feb- 
ruary 1966 to serve the border 
industry area of Rosslyn. The name, 
given in honour of a respected 
resident, is said to mean 'at the 
master of the sheep'. 



Garcia's Pass (C 3321 CC). Mount- 
ain pass in the Langeberge, between 
Riversdale and Muiskraal. Built 
between 1873 and 1877 and moder- 
nized in 1963, it was named after 
Garcia, the Civil Commissioner at 
Riversdale who discovered the route 
and made a bridle-path. 

Garden Castle (N 2929 CD). Peak 
in the Drakensberg. Named Giant's 
Castle by Sir Allen Gardiner in 
1835, it was renamed in 1865 by 
Surveyor-General Dr Peter Suther- 
land after his mother whose maiden 
name was Garden. 

Garden Route (C 3318-3325). 

National road and railway between 
Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, and 
more specifically between Swellen- 
dam and Humansdorp, situated 
between the coastal ranges and the 
sea. Named thus because of the 



beautiful scenery incorporating 
majestic mountains, indigenous 
forests, lakes, rivers and mountain 
passes. 

Garib (2816-3027). Khoekhoen 
name of the Orange River, more 
often encountered as Gariep; the 
name means 'river'. 

Garibams (S 2816 CB). Khoekhoen 
name of Oranjemund, meaning 
'river mouth', so that the Dutch- 
German name has precisely the 
same meaning. 

Gariep (2816-3027). Khoekhoen 
name of the Orange River. The 

name means 'river', and is encount- 
ered in names such as Transgariep 
for the territory north of the Orange 
River. 

Gariepeis (C 2820 DD). Khoekhoen 
name of Neuseiland. It literally 



means 'river nose', so that the 
Afrikaans name, which means 'nose 
island', is a partial translation. 

*Garies (C 3018 CA). Town in the 
Namaqualand district, at the foot of 
the Kamiesberg, 46 km south of 
Kamieskroon and 146 km northwest 
of Vanrhynsdorp. The name is 
Khoekhoen and means 'couchgrass', 
Afrikaans 'kweek'. 

Garingberge (C 2823-2923). 
Region in the vicinity of the Asbes- 
tos Mountains. Afrikaans for 'cotton 
mountains', the name refers to the 
fibrous nature of the rocks. 

*Garub (S 2616 CA). Mountain 1 
500 m high 35 km north-west of Aus 
and 11 km north of Garub siding in 
the Luderitz district, between 
Luderitz and Keetmanshoop. 
Derived from Khoekhoen /garub, 



'tiger mountain'; the German name 
Grosse Tiger Berg is a translation. 
Also known as Dicker Wilhelm. 

Gasab River (C 3018 AB-BA). 
Tributary of the Buffels River. It 
rises near Stofkloof and enters the 
Buffels at Kamassies. Also encoun- 
tered as Kansaap, the name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'orange-thorn river', after the 
Parkinsonia africana growing there. 

Gatberg (C 3128 AC-CA). Moun- 
tain some 22 km south-west of Ugie 
and 18 km north-east of Elliot. 
Afrikaans for 'hole mountain', the 
name refers to an aperture formed 
by two large rocks leaning against 
each other. The Xhosa name is 
Ntunjenkala or Untunjenkala. At 
one time Gatberg was used as 
regional name for the entire Maclear 
district. 



Gatsrand (T 2627). Range of hills 
between Potchefstroom and Johan- 
nesburg. Literally 'hole-ridge', it is 
named thus because of numerous 
caves, sink-holes and subterranean 
caverns caused by weathering of the 
dolomite. During the Second Anglo- 
Boer War the Boer leader Danie 
Theron (1870-1900) was killed here. 
A monument has been erected to his 
memory. 

Gauka (C 3421 AA). Khoekhoen 
name of the Vet River at Riversdale. 
It means 'fat river', so that the 
Afrikaans name is a translation. 

Gcuwa (Trsk 3228). Tributary of 
the Great Kei River; flows south 
past Butterworth to the confluence 
at Qombolo. The name is probably a 
Xhosa adaptation of Khoekhoen 
Goea and is said to mean 'densely 
overgrown place'. 



Geigoub (0 2725). Khoekhoen name 
of the Vet River. Literally it means 
'great fat', so that the Afrikaans 
name is a partial translation. Also 
encountered as Gy Koup, Gei/Houb, 
Gykoub, Kei-cop and Ky Goup. 

Geikheis (S 2116 DD). Khoekhoen 
name of Okahandja. Derived from 
Kai//khaes, it means 'large sand', 
'place of large sand', which approx- 
imates to the meaning of the Herero 
name. 

Geioub (S 2417-2817). Nama name 
of the Fish River, tributary of the 
Orange River. It means 'great or 
large fish', so that the English and 
Afrikaans names are translated. 

Geitsigubeb (S 2517 DC-DD). 
Alternative Khoekhoen name of 
Brukkaros. It means 'large hind- 
skirt or apron', the reference being 



to the similarity in shape between 
this extinct volcano and the article 
of clothing made of leather and 
formerly worn by women. 

*Genadendal (C 3419 BA). Mora- 
vian mission station south of the 
Riviersonderend Mountains, 35 km 
north-east of Caledon and 6 km 
north-west of Greyton. Founded in 
1737 by Georg Schmidt, it is the 
oldest mission station in South 
Africa. The name is of Dutch origin, 
'dale of mercy'. Its picturesque 
surroundings and buildings make it 
a favourite spot for artists. Formerly 
known as Baviaanskloof; the name 
was changed in 1806. 

*George (C 3322 DC). Town some 
51 km north-east of Mossel Bay, 
72 km south-east of Oudtshoorn, 
8 km from the coast, on the southern 
slopes of the Outeniqua Mountains. 



The first town to be established after 
the British Occupation of 1806, it 
was proclaimed in 1811 under the 
name George Town, after King 
George III of England, who donated 
a Bible to the church. It became a 
municipality in 1884. 

*Germiston (T 2628 AA). City 
some 54 km south of Pretoria and 
16 km south-east of Johannesburg. 
Laid out on the farm Elandsfontein 
in 1887, it bore that name until 1904 
when it was officially named Ger- 
miston, after a farm near Glasgow in 
Scotland, birthplace of John Jack, a 
gold-mining pioneer. It has the larg- 
est railway junction in South Africa 
and the largest gold refinery in the 
world. 

Gewelberge (C 3318 CD-3418 AB). 
Afrikaans name for the Twelve 
Apostles. Derived from the Dutch 



Gevelbergen, 'gable mountains', 
used in Van Riebeeck's time. 

*Geysdorp (T 2625 CB). Town in 
the Western Transvaal, some 24 km 
south-west of Delareyville. It was 
laid out in 1895 on the farm 
Paardefontein. Probably named after 
Commandant N C Gey van Pittius 
(1837-1893), Administrator of the 
Boer republic of Goshen. 

*Gezubuso (N 3030 CA). Tributary 
of the Msunduze River, southwest of 
Pietermaritzburg, 5 km west of 
Ndwedwe. Of Zulu origin, it is said 
to mean 'where the faces are 
washed'; various streams are used 
for different purposes, and this one 
is for washing, and, for example, not 
for drinking. 

Ghaamsberg (C 2918 BB-BD). 
Mountain about 10 km east of Agge- 



neys. Also encountered as Gams se 
Berg and Gamsberg, the name is 
derived from Khoekhoen /Gaams, 
'grassy spring', probably after the 
Aristida brevifolia growing there. 

*Ghaap (C 2823 AD-BC). Plateau 
some 130 km wide, bounded in the 
east by the Harts River and in the 
west by the Kuruman Hills, and 
extending from the confluence of 
the Orange and Vaal rivers 
northwards to Vryburg. Also known 
as Ghaap Plateau, Ghaap plato, 
Ghaapseberg, Kaapseberg and 
Kaap Plateau; the name is derived 
from Khoekhoen #Hab, 'flat 
mountain', 'plateau'. 

*Giant's Castle (N 2929 AD). 
Mountain in the Drakensberg, some 
60 km west-south-west of Mooi 
River and south-east of Champagne 
Castle. So named in 1835 by 



Captain Allen F Gardiner because it 
resemble Edinburgh Castle from one 
or two points. The name was trans- 
ferred to its present position in May 
1865 by the Surveyor-General, Dr 
Sutherland, who named the original 
Giant's Castle Garden Castle, after 
his mother, whose maiden name was 
Garden. Nearby are a popular 
holiday resort and a game reserve. 

Giant's Cup (N 2929 CB). Former 
name of Hodgson's Peak; it was 
bestowed in 1835 by Captain Allen 
Gardiner because of its shape. 

*Gibeon (S 2517 BA). Village on 
the Fish River, 177 km north of 
Keetmanshoop, 60 km south of 
Mariental and 350 km south-east of 
Windhoek. Founded as a Rhenish 
mission station in 1862, it was 
destroyed in 1870 but rebuilt. The 



name is of biblical origin (Josh. 
10:2). 

*Gifkop (C 3223 AA). Hill south of 
Katjiesberg near Beaufort West. 
Afrikaans for 'poison hill', the name 
is probably derived from Khoekhoen 
Iga, an element occurring in 
Kadiesberg, an alternate name of 
Katjiesberg (which thus does not 
mean 'little cat mountain', as one 
would expect). 

Gillitts-Emberton (N 2930 DC). 
An amalgamation of fourteen town- 
ships administered by a health 
committee, established in 1939. 
Situated in the Pinetown district, 
29 km north-west of Durban, on the 
road to Pietermaritzburg. Named 
after an early pioneer, William 
Gillitt, and his birthplace in 
England, Emberton. Gillitts is the 
approved form. 



*Gingindlovu (N 2931 BA). Village 
21 km south-east of Eshowe, in the 
Mtunzini district. The name was 
first applied to one of Cetshwayo's 
military kraals nearby. Of Zulu 
origin, it is said to mean 'place of 
the big elephant' or, more possibly, 
'swallower of the elephant', 
referring to Cetshwayo's victory 
over his brother Mbulazi in 1856. 

*Glencoe (N 2830 AA). Town and 
coal-mining centre on top of the 
Biggarsberg, 10 km west of Dundee. 
It was laid out in 1921 and achieved 
borough status in 1934. It is named 
after a valley in Scotland. 

*Glackstadt (N 2731 CC). Village 
some 32 km south-east of Vryheid. 
Formed in 1906 as the centre for 
farming families. The name is 
German and means 'city of happi- 
ness'. This village was probably 



named after the city on the Elbe 
River in Germany. 

Gmaap (O 2825-2926). Khoekhoen 
name of the Modder River. Also 
encountered as Maap and Gumaap, 
it means, 'brown river'. 

Goadar (C 3228 CC). Early name 
for the Gonubie River. Derived 
from Khoekhoen, it means 'marsh 
river'. 

*Goageb (S 2617 CC). Settlement 
31 km south of Bethanien, 69 km 
west of Seeheim and 249 km east of 
Luderitz. Of Nama origin, the name 
means 'twin rivers'. Formerly 
known as Konkiep, an adaptation of 
the same name, it takes its name 
from the Konkiep River, tributary 
of the Fish River. 

*Goas (S 2215). Roman Catholic 
mission station 40 km south of 



Karibib. The name is Khoekhoen 
and means 'place of bullfrogs'. 

Gobabeb (S 2315 CA). Research 
station some 80 km south-east of 
Walvis Bay, on the Kuiseb River. 
The name is of Khoekhoen origin 
and means 'place of the fig-tree' 
(Ficus capensis). 

*Gobabis (S 2218 BD). Town on 
the Black Nossob River, 230 km 
east of Windhoek. Site of a Rhenish 
mission station since 1856 and of a 
Roman Catholic mission station 
since 1907, it grew into a village 
with a management board in 1935 
and a municipal council in 1944. 
The name, of Khoekhoen origin, 
does not mean 'place of elephants', 
as is popularly supposed, but 'place 
of arguing or discussing'. 



*Gochas (S 2418 DD). Village on 
the Auob, 64 km south-east of 
Stampriet, administered by a village 
management board since 1958. The 
name is Khoekhoen and means 
'place of many !go-bushes', 
referring to Acacia hebeclada or A. 
stolonifera. 

Goea (Trsk 3228). Khoekhoen name 
of the Gcuwa. The latter name is an 
adaptation of the former and has the 
same meaning, 'densely overgrown'. 

*Goedgegun (Swa 2731 AA). 
Former name of Nhlangano; Afri- 
kaans for 'well granted', 'favour- 
ably permitted'. 

Goegamma (C 3321 BD). Head- 
water of the Kruisrivier. Derived 
from Khoekhoen, it means 'athwart 
water', 'transverse river', so that the 



Afrikaans name Kruisrivier is a 
literal translation. 

*Golden Gate (O 2828-2829). 
Region on the watershed between 
the Vaal and Orange rivers, south- 
east of Bethlehem, east of Clarens, 
south of Kestell, north of Lesotho 
and west of Harrismith. The name is 
derived from twin sandstone bluffs 
which look golden at sunset, and has 
been transferred to the Golden Gate 
Highlands National Park, 4 271 ha 
in extent, proclaimed in September 
1963. Restocked with indigenous 
animals, this reserve has two rest 
camps and offers a wide variety of 
facilities and entertainment. 

*Golela (T 2731 BD). Town on the 
southern border of Swaziland, 
145 km south-east of Piet Retief. 
Formerly spelt Gollel, the name is 
of Swazi origin, said to mean 'place 



of game'. This was a hunting ground 
of the Nyawo tribe in former times. 
The portion of the town across the 
border, in Swaziland, was renamed 
Lavumisa. 

Golfo da Concepcaon (S 2214 CD). 
Portuguese name of Walvis Bay. 
Known as such in 1502, the name 
seems to be a contraction of Golfo 
de S Maria da Concepcao, 'bay of 
the conception of St Mary'. 

Golfo da Roca (C 3325 DD). Portu- 
guese name of Algoa Bay; it was 
given this name by the mariner 
Bartolomeu Dias in 1488. 

Golfo das Agulhas (C 3420 CA). 
Portuguese name of Struis Bay. 

Refers to Cape Agulhas just to the 
south-west; named thus because the 
compass-needle was observed to 



point directly north, ie with no 
magnetic deviation. 

Golfo de Balena (S 2214 CD). 
Portuguese name of Walvis Bay, 
'bay of the whale', so that the 
Afrikaans name is a translation. 

Golfo dentro das Serras (C 3418). 

Portuguese name of False Bay, 

meaning 'bay between the moun- 
tains', probably referring to Cape 
Point in the west and Cape 
Hangklip in the east of the entrance 
to the bay. 

Golfo de Sanelena (C 3218 CA). 
Portuguese name of St Helena Bay. 
Also encountered as Golfo da Santa 
Elena, the name was bestowed by 
Vasco da Gama on 7 November 
1497. St Helena Bay is an 
anglicization. 



Golfo de Santa Maria da Vitoria 

(S 2614 BB). Portuguese name of 
Hottentot Bay. It was probably 
named thus by Bartolomeu Dias on 
23 December 1487, to commemo- 
rate the Portuguese victory over 
Castile at Aljubarotta in 1384. 

Golfo de Sao Estevao (S 2615). 
Bay 40 km south of Luderitz. Thus 
named by Bartolomeu Dias in 1487 
because he arrived there on 26 
December, the day of St Stephen. 
Subsequently named Elizabeth Bay 
and Elisabethbucht, it is now the 
site of the largest ghost-town in 
South-West Africa/Namibia. 

Golfo de S Maria da Conceicao (S 

2214 CD). Portuguese name of 
Walvis Bay. Also encountered as 
Golfo da Concepcaon, it refers to 
the Immaculate Conception of the 
Virgin Mary. 



Golfo de Sao Tome (S 2514 DB). 
Portuguese name of Spencer Bay. 
Named thus by Bartolomeu Dias on 
21 December 1487, the nameday of 
St Thomas. 

Golfo dos Pastores (C 3425 AA). 
Early name of St Francis Bay, 

given by Bartolomeu Dias and 
meaning 'bay of the shepherds'. 
Changed to Bahia de Sao Fran- 
cisco by Perestrelo. 

Golfo dos Vaqueiros (C 3422 AA). 
Portuguese name of Mossel Bay, 

bestowed in July 1501 by the 
navigator Joao da Nova because he 
saw Khoekhoen with herds of cattle 
there. The name means 'bay of 
herdsmen'. 

Gollel (Swa 2731 BD). Former 
name of Lavumisa. Said to mean 
'place of game', given because this 



was a hunting-ground in former 
times. The portion of the town 
falling within the Republic of South 
Africa is still known as Golela. 

Gomee (C 3225). Khoekhoen name 
of the Baviaans River. It means 
'baboons river', the Dutch name 
being a translation. 

Gompiesrivier (T 2429). Tributary 
of the Olifants River. It rises south 
of Pietersburg and enters the main 
stream 50 km east of Roedtan. Also 
known as the Zebediela River. The 
name is an adaptation of the 
Ndebele name Ngumpe. It has 
given its name to the settlement 
Gompies. On the latest official 
maps the name of this river appears 
as Nkumpi. 

*Gonubie (C 3227-3328). Former 
name of the Gqunube. 



*Gonubie (C 3228 CC). Seaside 
town at the mouth of the Gqunube 
(Gonubie) River, 21 km north-east 
of East London. The name is said to 
be derived from Khoekhoen and to 
mean 'bramble river', after Royena 
growing there. Since another name 
for this river was Goadar or 'marsh 
river', a connection is possible with 
'mud', 'marsh', #goa in Nama. 

*Goodhouse (C 2818 CC/CD). 
Locality with a landing-strip, on the 
southern bank of the Orange River, 
60 km south-west of Warmbad and 
60 km east-south-east of Vioolsdrif. 
The name is a folk etymological 
adaptation of the Khoekhoen 
Gudaos, 'sheep ford', said to be the 
place where the Namas crossed the 
Orange River with their sheep when 
they trekked from Little Namaqua- 
land to Great Namaqualand. 



*Goodwood (C 3318 DC). Town in 
the Bellville district, 11 km east- 
north-east from the centre of Cape 
Town. Established in 1905, it 
became a municipality in 1938. It 
was named after a race-course in 
England, as it was intended that 
this, too, should be a racing centre, 
but after one race the project was 
abandoned. 

Gordonia (C 2824). District with 
Upington as principal town, bordering 
on Botswana and South-West Africa. 
Formerly known as Korannaland, it 
was thus named after Sir Gordon 
Sprigg, Prime Minister of the Cape 
Colony four times between 1878 and 
1892, who visited it in the company of 
Sir Thomas Upington. 

Gordonsbaai see Gordon's Bay 



*Gordon's Bay (C 3418 BB). Town 
in the north-eastern corner of False 
Bay, 6 km south-east of Strand. 
Known as Fisch Hoek in early times, it 
was renamed after Colonel Robert 
Jacob Gordon (1743-1795), traveller 
and soldier. In 1902 it came under a 
village management board, and in 
1961 municipal status was attained. It 
is a very popular resort. 

*Goshen (C 2524). Former republic in 
the vicinity of Mafikeng, established 
on land granted to volunteers, mainly 
from the western Transvaal, who 
assisted Machabi in his defeat of 
Montsioa in 1882. The name is of 
biblical origin (Gen. 45:9, 10) and 
means 'pasturage'. The republic was 
nullified in 1885 and became part of 
Bechuanaland. Other variants of the 
name are Goosenland, Goshenland 
and Gosen. 



*Gouda (C 3319 CA). Town some 
38 km south of Porterville, 14 km west 
of Tulbagh and 61 km north-west of 
Worcester. Prior to 1929 it was known 
as Porterville Road. Of Khoekhoen 
origin, the name Gouda is said to 
mean 'antelope'. Another possible 
explanation is 'honey path', 'honey 
defile'. 

Goudini (C 3319-3419). Region with 
Rawsonville as principal town, also 
including the Breede River Valley, Du 
Toitskloof, Lake Marais, Stettynskloof 
and Worcester. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin, and has been 
explained as 'bitter honey', 'wild 
honey', 'honey beer' and 'faecal 
honey'. Noted as a health resort with 
mineral springs. Other forms 
encountered include Gaudini, 
Gaudine, Ghaudinee, and Goudene 
Dina. 



*Goukamma (C 3322 DD-3422 BB). 
River rising in the Outeniqua Moun- 
tains and flowing south to enter the 
Indian Ocean at Rowwehoek, some 
10 km south-west of Knysna. 
Derived from Khoekhoen and 
encountered also as Daukama, 
Doukoma, Gaukamma, Gowcomma 
and so forth, the name means 
'Hottentot-fig river', referring to the 
Carpobrotus edulis. 

*Goup (C 2823-2923). Region 
between Prieska and Griquatown, 
said by some to include Danielskuil. 
Also encountered as Gouph, Coup, 
Koub, and so forth, the name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and probably 
means 'flat, level, open country'. 

Goup (C 3221-3222). Region incor- 
porating the headwaters of the Leeu 
and Gamka rivers south of the 
Nuweveld Mountains and extending 



eastwards past the present Beaufort 
West. Of Khoekhoen origin, the 
name has been said to mean 'fat', 
referring to succulent vegetation or 
well-fed stock; 'skeleton veld', 
'smelly hole', etc: It probably means 
'flat, level, open veld'. 

Gourits River (C 3321-3421). 
Formed by the confluence of the 
Dwyka and Gamka rivers some 
40 km west of Prince Albert, it 
flows south past Calitzdorp and 
enters the Indian Ocean between 
Bull Point and Kanonpunt, some 
30 km south-west of Mossel Bay. 
Formerly known by the Portuguese 
names Rio das Vaccas, Rio 
Fermoso and Rio dos Vaqueiros, it 
is also encountered as Gauritz, 
Gouris, Gouds (incorrectly inter- 
preted as Afrikaans or Dutch goud, 
'gold'), Gaauwrits (incorrectly inter- 



preted as Dutch gaauw, 'rapid', rits, 
'rustling', and translated as 'rapid 
rustling river'. The name is Khoek- 
hoen and the river is generally 
thought to be named after a Khoek- 
hoen people who lived there. An 
alternative explanation is that it 
means 'diarrhoea river', from the 
mud and debris deposited by flood- 
waters. 

Gqunube (C 3227-3328). River 
formerly known as the Gonubie, 
rising south-east of Stutterheim and 
flowing south-east to enter the 
Indian Ocean at Gonubie, some 
20 km north-east of East London. 
The name is a Xhosa adaptation of 
the Khoekhoen name, said to mean 
either 'brambleberry river', after 
species of Royena, or 'marsh river'. 

*Graaff-Reinet (C 3224 BA). Town 
on the Sundays River, 296 km 



north-west of Port Elizabeth, 42 km 
north-east of Aberdeen and 105 km 
south-west of Middelburg. It was 
founded in 1786 and attained muni- 
cipal status in 1845. Named after 
Cornells Jacob van de Graaff, 
Governor of the Cape (1785-1791) 
and his wife, Cornelia Reinet (also 
spelt Reynet). 

*Graafwater (C 3218 BA). Town 
some 285 km north-east of Cape 
Town, 32 km west of Clanwilliam 
and 32 km south-east of Lambert's 
Bay. Administered by a local body 
since 1950 and by a village manage- 
ment board since 1953. The name is 
Afrikaans and probably refers to a 
hole dug in the bed of a river to 
obtain water. 

*Grabouw (C 3419 AA). Town on 
the Palmiet River in the Caledon 
district, 19 km south-east of 



Somerset West and 69 km south- 
west of Cape Town. It was founded 
about 1850, obtained a village 
management board in 1930 and 
became a municipality in 1956. It 
was named after Grabouw in 
Germany, some say the birthplace of 
the founder, Wilhelm Langschmidt, 
and others the birthplace of the 
mother of Von Schlicht, owner of 
the farm on which it was laid out. 

Grahamstad see Grahamstown 

*Grahamstown (C 3326 BC). Town 
128 km north-east of Port Elizabeth. 
It grew from military headquarters 
established in 1812 on the farm 
Rietfontein (some say Noutoe, now 
Table Farm), and named Graham's 
Town after Colonel John Graham, 
whose troops had cleared the 
Zuurveld of Xhosas. It was laid out 
in 1815, was administered by a 



board of commissioners from 1837, 
and became a municipality in 1862. 
Became the centre of the British 
Settlers of 1820 and obtained a 
bishopric in 1853. Rhodes Univer- 
sity is situated there. 

*Graskop (T 2430 DD). Town 
14 km south-east of Pilgrim's Rest 
and 28 km north of Sabie. It was 
laid out between 1880 and 1890 on a 
farm belonging to Abel Erasmus, 
Native Commissioner of the Trans- 
vaal Republic. Named after a grassy 
hillock (Afrikaans gras, 'grass', kop, 
'hillock'). Originally it was a 
mining camp. It is the best place to 
view Edge of the Lowveld, with a 
sudden drop of 700 metres. 

*Gravelotte (T 2330 DC). Mining 
centre 10 km north-east of Leydsdorp 
and 52 km north-west of Hoedspruit. It 
was established in 1916 and named 



after the farm owned by a Prussian 
missionary who had fought in the 
Battle of Gravelotte (1870-71). 

*Great Brak River (C 3422). Paver 
forming the boundary between George 
and Mossel Bay, rising in the 
Outeniqua Mountains 16 km north of 
Mossel Bay and 19 km from the 
Indian Ocean. 'Brackish or salty 
river', so called because the lower 
reaches are tidal and therefore saline. 
The Little Brak River, not a tributary, 
is nearby; the epithet 'Great' serves to 
distinguish between them. The name 
was known in 1752. 

*Great Brak River (C 3422 AA). 
Village at the mouth of the river of the 
same name, between Mossel Bay and 
George. Founded in 1859 by the 
Searle family who own a leather firm 
there and still employ and house 
almost the entire community. The 



form Groot-Brakrivier is preferred 
for official purposes. 

Great Fish River (C 3125-3327). The 
Great Fish River rises in various 
headwaters between Graaff-Reinet, 
Cradock and Middelburg, flows 
mainly south, then east, and enters the 
Indian Ocean 60 km south-east of 
Grahamstown. The Little Fish River 
rises in the Tandjiesberg 48 km south- 
east of Cradock and joins the Great 
Fish 56 km from Somerset East. 
Translated from Khoekhoen Oub, it 
was named Rio do Infante by the 
Portuguese. Played an important role 
in SA history as the border between 
the colonists and the Xhosa. 

Great Kei River see Kei River 

Great Letaba River see Letaba 

*Green Point (C 3318 CD). North- 
western extremity of the promontory 



at the northern end of the Cape 
Peninsula. Known to the Portuguese as 
Ponta da Praia, it was named Green 
Point in 1675, making it the second 
oldest English place name in South 
Africa (Chapman's Peak is said to be 
the oldest). The first lighthouse in 
South Africa was erected here in 1824. 

Grens see Border 

*Greylingstad (T 2628 DD). Town 
some 100 km south-east of Johannes- 
burg, 58 km north-west of Standerton 
and 50 km south-east of Heidelberg. 
The name was first borne by a town 
established in 1910 some 5 km south 
of the present one and named after a 
local pioneer, P J Greyling, step-son of 
Piet Retief. In 1914 the name Grey- 
lingstad was transferred to its present 
site, laid out in 1913, replacing the 
name Willemsdal, after Willem Bezui- 
denhout, owner of the farm. The 



original town was vacated. In 1920 a 
town council was established. 

*Greyton (C 3419 BA). Town on the 
Sonderend River, 6 km east of 
Genadendal, 39 km north-east of 
Caledon and 145 km east of Cape 
Town. It was established in 1854 and 
attained municipal status in February 
1910. Named after Sir George Grey 
(1812-1898), Governor of the Cape 
Colony from 1854 to 1859 and 1860 to 
1861. 

*Greytown (N 2930 BA). Town on 
the Umvoti River, 64 km north of 
Pietermaritzburg. It was laid out in 
1850, proclaimed a township in 1896 
and became a borough in 1915. 
Named after Sir George Grey, Gover- 
nor of the Cape Colony. It was the 
scene of action during the Bambata 
Rebellion of 1906; now the centre of a 
wattle-growing industry. 



Griekwaland see Griqualand 

*Griekwastad see Griquatown 

Griqualand (C 2824). Region compri- 
sing the Hay district and the western 
part of Barkly West. So called because 
it was the home of the Griqua 
Khoekhoen. Griqualand East, Griqua- 
land West and Griquatown were also 
named after them. 

*Griquatown (C 2823 CC). Principal 
town of the Hay district, 155 km west 
of Kimberley and 117 km north-east 
of Prieska. Formerly the station 
Klaarwater of the London Missionary 
Society, founded in 1802, it was 
renamed Griquatown in 1813 by the 
Reverend John Campbell (1766- 
1840), missionary of the London 
Missionary Society. From this the 
town developed, becoming a muni- 
cipality in 1910. It was named after 



the Griqua, a Khoekhoen people 
who lived there. The form 
Griekwastad is preferred for 
official purposes. 

Groblersdal (T 2529 AA). Town on 
the Olifants River, some 160 km 
east-north-east of Pretoria, 105 km 
north-east of Bronkhorstspruit and 
140 km south-east of Nylstroom. It 
was laid out on the farm Klipbank, 
proclaimed on 9 March 1938, was 
administered by a health committee 
after 1940 and became a munici- 
pality in October 1952. Named after 
Willem Jacobus Grobler, owner of 
the farm Klipbank, who was largely 
responsible for the Hereford and 
Loskop irrigation schemes leading 
to the establishment of the town. 

Groene Kloof (C 3318 AD). Former 
name of Darling. Derived from 
Dutch, it means 'green ravine'. 



Groene Kloof (C 3318 CB). Early 
name of Marare. Of Dutch origin, it 
means 'green ravine'. 

Groenpunt see Green Point 

*Grondneus (S 2817 BB). Shoulder 
between the Kuniab and Gamkab 
rivers, north-east of their conflu- 
ence, some 40 km east-southeast of 
Ai-Ais. Afrikaans for 'ground nose'. 
Neus is a common term for a 
headland, promontory, shoulder and 
similar features; Klipneus is some 
60 km south-west of Grondneus. 
The name Grondneus is possibly 
translated from Khoekhoen # gui, 
# kui, # guni, # kuni, 'nose'; the 
Kuniab River which flows past it 
possibly has the same meaning, 
'nose river'. There is another 
Grondneus at C 2820 BB, a settle- 
ment with a post office and store, 



about 60 km north-west of 
Upington. 

*Groot-Brakrivier 
see Great Brak River 

*Groot-Drakenstein 
see Drakenstein 

*Grootfontein (S 1918 CA). Town 
60 km south-west of Tsumeb, 32 km 
east of Otavi and 32 km south of 
Abenab. It was founded in 1884 by 
the Dorsland Trekkers as capital of 
their Republic of Upingtonia, came 
under the jurisdiction of a village 
management board in 1933, and 
attained municipal status in 1947. 
Known to the Herero as Otjivandat- 
jongue, 'hill of the leopard', and to 
the Nama as Geiaus, Geious or 
Kaiaus, 'large fountain'. The Afri- 
kaans name is a translation of the 



latter. The Hoba meteorite is near 
Grootfontein. 

*Groot-Marico (T 2526 AB). Town 
38 km east of Zeerust. Although 
settled as early as 1845, it was 
founded on the farm Wonderfontein 
in 1948 and is administered by a 
health committee. There is no cer- 
tainty as to the origin of the name; it 
has been explained as meaning 
'place of blood', 'place of cornering 
and killing', 'the meandering or 
erratic one', and 'pastures'. 

*Grootmis (C 2917 CA). Settlement 
near the mouth of the Buffels River. 
Named thus because the fog hangs 
over the coastline for days at a time. 
'Large mist', the name is Afrikaans. 

Groot-Noodsberg see Noodsberg 

Grootvadersbos (C 3420). Forest 
north-west of Swellendam. Origi- 



nally much more extensive than 
now, it was known as Cainsheneuj 
or 'blind-fly forest' to the 
Khoekhoen. The name is derived 
from Dutch Grootvaders Bosch, 
'grandfathers forest'. 

Groot-Visrivier see Great Fish 
River 

Grootvloer (C 2920-3020). Region 
some 50 km south-west of Kenhardt, 
extending irregularly on either side 
of the Sak River as far as Onderste- 
dorings. The flat, clayey surface has 
been formed by flood-waters of the 
Sak River being impeded by dolerite 
hills in the north and spreading up to 
32 km across the Dwyka Flats. 
Afrikaans for 'large floor', the name 
is descriptive. 

Groot-Winterberge 
see Winterberge 



Groot-Winterhoekberge 
see Winterhoekberge 

Gross-Barmen see Barmen 

Grosse Tiger Berg (S 2616 CA). 
Mountain between Liideritz and Keet- 
manshoop, 35 km north-west of Aus. 
German for 'great tiger mountain', the 
name is a translation of Khoekhoen 
Garub. The mountain is also known 
as Dicker Wilhelm. 

*Groutville (N 2931 AD), Mission 
station several km south-west of 
Stanger. Established in 1844 by the 
Reverend A Grout (1803-1894) of the 
American Missionary Society and 
named after him. Formerly it was 
known as Umvoti. 

*Grunau (S 2718 CB). Village 51 km 
north-west of Karasburg and 175 km 
south of Keetmanshoop, The name is 
German for 'green meadow' and may 



be derived from the green vegetation 
that springs up on the plain after rain; 
translated from Khoekhoen Ameis. 

Guanhop (C 2923 1313). Khoekhoen 
name of Douglas. Said to mean 'sad 
ford', Afrikaans 'jammerdrif, from a 
skirmish between San and Korannas, 
with heavy losses on both sides. 

Guchas (C 2917 1313). Khoekhoen 
name of Springbok. It is derived from 
Guchas and means 'place or fountain 
of many springbok', referring to Anti- 
dorcas marsupialis. The Afrikaans 
name is thus a translation. 

Gudaos (C 2818 CC). Khoekhoen 
name of Goodhouse, meaning 'sheep 
ford'. The 'English' name is actually 
an adaptation of Gudaos. 

Gudwini (N 3030 1313). Tributary of 
the Mkomazi River, east of Wartburg. 
Zulu for 'at the dagga-pipe', the 



reference is to the smoking of Canna- 
bis sativa or wild hemp. This is done 
by inserting the ox-horn pipe into cool, 
damp clay, and drawing the smoke 
through water to cool it. An alternative 
explanation is that the name is derived 
from igudu, a type of herb with a large 
bulb-like root (Hypoxis latifolia) 
growing there. 

*Guguletu (C 3318 DC). Township 
on the Cape Flats, 18 km southeast of 
Cape Town, established in 1958. 
The name is Xhosa for 'our pride'. 

Gumaap see Gmaap 

Gydo Pass (C 3319 AB). Mountain 
pass 5 km north of Prince Alfred 
Hamlet, between the Skurweberg 
and Gydoberg, linking the Cold 
Bokkeveld and the Warm Bokke- 
veld. Derived from Khoekhoen, the 
name has been thought to mean 



'milkbush poort', after a type of 
euphorbia growing there. More 
probably, however, the name means 
'steep pass'. 

Gy Koup see Geigoub 



H 

*Haarlem (C 3323 CB). Village 
16 km east of Avontuur and 29 km 
south-east of Uniondale, in the 
Langkloof. Originally laid out in 
1856, it was taken over by the 
Berlin Missionary Society in 1860. 
The mission station was named 
Anhalt-Schmidt, but the village had 
already been named Haarlem and 
bears that name today, presumably 
after the city 19 km west of 
Amsterdam in Holland. 

*Haenertsburg (T 2329 DD). 
Village 58 km east of Pietersburg 
and 42 km south-west of Tzaneen. 
Once the centre of the Woodbush 
Gold Fields, it is now a timber 
centre. Named after C F Haenert 
who discovered gold there. 



Hakha (S 2116 BA). Khoekhoen 
name of the Omatako Mountains; it 
means 'two stone hills'. 

*Halfway House (T 2528 CC). 
Town some 27 km north of Johan- 
nesburg and 18 km north-west of 
Kempton Park. It was laid out in 
1890 and called thus because it was 
the stop halfway between Johannes- 
burg and Pretoria for the Zeederberg 
coach service. 

*Hamburg (Cis 3327 AD). Village 
and holiday resort on the southern 
bank of the Keiskamma River, 3 km 
from its mouth, 11 km southeast of 
Peddie, 74 km south of King 
William's Town and 96 km south- 
west of East London. It was 
established in 1857 by members of 
the British-German Legion after the 
Crimean War and named after 
Hamburg in Germany. 



*Hamilton (O 3025 BB). Early 
name of Trompsburg; after Sir 
Hamilton Goold-Adams (1858- 
1920), Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Orange River Sovereignty from 
1901 to 1910. 

Hanas (S 2417 BA). Khoekhoen 
name of Kalkrand. Derived from 
lAnas, it means 'veld-bulb hole', 
after the edible Moraea species 
growing there. 

*Hangklip (C 3418 BD). The south- 
ernmost point on the eastern coast of 
False Bay. The name, literally 
'hanging rock', seems to be an adap- 
tation of Hanglip, 'hanging lip', 
after its shape. It was known to the 
Portuguese as Cabo Falso and as 
Ponta Espinhosa. 

Hanglip (C 3418 BD). Older (and 
correct) name of Hangklip. The 



name, Dutch for 'hanging lip', 
refers to the shape of this mountain, 
like a lip hanging down over the 
chin. In Dutch times this name was 
always used. The modern form 
Hangklip, 'hanging rock', seems to 
be a corruption by the British. 

*Hankey (C 3324 DD). Town in 
the Gamtoos Valley, 27 km north- 
east of Humansdorp and 64 km 
west-north-west of Port Elizabeth. 
It was established in 1825 as a 
station of the London Missionary 
Society and named after the 
treasurer of this society, William 
Alers Hankey. 

*Hanover (C 3124 AB). Town in 
the Karoo, some 720 km northeast 
of Cape Town and 75 km south- 
west of Colesberg. It was laid out 
in 1854 on the farm Petrusvallei 
and attained municipal status in 



1885. Named after Hanover in 
Germany, from whence came the 
parents of Gert Gous, owner of the 
farm. 

Hans Merensky Nature Reserve 

(T 2330 DA). Reserve on the 
southern bank of the Great Letaba 
River, 64 km east-north-east of 
Tzaneen and 65 km north-west of 
Phalaborwa. Named after a mining 
geologist and diamond magnate. 

*Hantam (C 3119 BC). Region 
bounded by the Bokkeveld and 
Namaqualand in the west, the 
Renoster River in the east, Bush- 
manland in the north, and the 
Roggeveld Mountains in the south. 
Calvinia, at the foot of the 
Hantamsberg, is the main town. The 
name is of Khoekhoen origin, most 
probably derived from heyntame, 
the Pelargonium bifolium, an edible 



root. The Hantamsberg takes its 
name from the same root. 

Haradas (S 2518 CA). Alternative 
name of the Mukorob, also known 
as the Finger of God and Vinger- 

klip. Derived from Khoekhoen, the 
name means 'shake', an illusion 
caused by the shimmering heat- 
waves. 

*Hardap (S 2417 BD). Irrigation 
settlement and dam on the Fish 
River, 24 km north of Mariental and 
306 km south-east of Windhoek. Of 
Khoekhoen origin, the name means 
'nipple' or 'wart', and refers to a 
round hill with a rock on top, 
resembling a female breast in 
profile. A popular holiday and 
camping resort. 

Hardeveld (C 3118). Region 
extending northwards from the 



Olifants River to near Garies, 
bounded in the west by the Sandveld 
and in the east and south-east by the 
Kliprandstreek and the Knersvlakte. 
The name is Afrikaans for 'hard 
field'; the region forms a sharp 
contrast to the soft, sandy coastal 
regions north and south. 

*Harding (N 3029 DB). Principal 
town of the district of Alfred, at the 
foot of the Ingeli range, 34 km 
north-west of Izingolweni and 
84 km north-west of Port Shepstone. 
It was founded as a military outpost 
in 1877 and proclaimed a township 
in 1911. Named after Sir Walter 
Harding (c 1812-1874) who in 1858 
became the first Chief Justice in 
Natal. 

*Harrismith (O 2829 AC). Town 
on the Wilge River, south-east of 
the Platberg, 86 km east of Bethle- 



hem, 53 km south-east of Warden 
and 82 km north-west of Ladysmith. 
Originally laid out in 1849 at 
Majoorsdrif, 16 km west of the 
present site, it was moved for lack 
of water and established in 1850. 
Municipal status was attained in 
1875. Named after Sir Harry Smith 
(1787-1860), Governor of the Cape, 
1847-1852. 

*Hartbeesfontein (T 2626 CB). 
Mining town 29 km north-west of 
Klerksdorp, 45 km east of Ottosdal 
and 56 km south of Coligny. Named 
after the farm on which it was laid 
out, derived from an incident in 
which two Voortrekkers, pursuing a 
wounded hartebeest (Alcelaphus 
caama), found it dead at a spring 
(fontein). Proclaimed in 1955, it is 
administered by a health committee. 



Not to be confused with Hartebees- 
fontein south of Stilfontein. 

Hartbees River (C 2820). Tributary 
of the Orange River, joining it 
below the Augrabies Falls. The 
upper course is the Sak River. The 
name refers to the hartebeest 
(Alcelaphus sp.) and is a translation 
of Khoekhoen Kammaghaap. 

Hartebeesthoek (T 2627 DC). Site of 
a radio space research station between 
Magaliesburg and the Hartebeespoort 
Dam, for tracking satellites and doing 
radio-telescope research of space. 
Installed in 1961 by the Council for 
Scientific and Industrial Research for 
collaboration with NASA. The name 
means 'hartebeest corner', referring to 
Alcelaphus species. 

*Hartenbos (C 3422 AA). Seaside 
resort for railway employees belong- 



ing to the Afrikaanse Taal en Kultuur- 
vereniging, 8 km northwest of Mossel 
Bay and some 40 km south-west of 
George. Continually developed and 
improved, it boasts the normal holiday 
and recreational facilities as well as a 
cultural museum and organized sport- 
ing and cultural activities. It takes its 
name from the farm Hartenbosch 
granted in 1730 to Esias Engelbrecht 
Meyer. Dutch, now Afrikaans, for 
'hart thicket', it refers to antelopes 
there in former times. The Hartenbos 
River also derives its name from that 
forest. 

Hartingsburg (T 2428 CD). Original 
name of Warmbad; it was given in 
honour of Professor Pieter Harting 
(1812-1885), father of the Nederlands- 
Zuid-Afrikaanse Vereniging and 
champion of the Transvaal Boers. This 



name was in use between 1882 and 
1920. 

Harts River (T 2625 DA-C 2824 
AD). Tributary of the Vaal River; rises 
in the Lichtenburg district and flows 
418 km south-west to its confluence 
with the Vaal at Delportshoop, some 
55 km north-west of Kimberley. The 
name is a literal translation of 
Khoekhoen # Gaoblgarib; 'heart 
river', possibly named after a chief or 
a tribe. 

*Hartswater (C 2724 DD). Town on 
the Pokwani River, some 23 km south 
of Taung and 36 km north of Warren- 
ton. Centre of the Vaal-Harts Irrigation 
Scheme, it became a municipality in 
April 1960. It takes its name from the 
Harts River. 

Harucharos (S 2517 DD-2518 CA). 
Former name of Brukkaros, the 



extinct volcano. Derived from Khoek- 
hoen, the name is said to mean 'where 
bulrushes grow in abundance'. 

Haruncka (C 3323 CD). Khoekhoen 
name of Matjies River. Literally it 
means 'bulrush river'. Bulrushes are 
known in Afrikaans as matjiesgoed, 
ie 'things from which little mats are 
made'. The Khoekhoen used such 
mats to cover their round huts. 

Haukaap (C 2921). Khoekhoen 
name of the Sak River. It means 
'river which gets lost', ie in the 
sand. 

Havelock (Swa 2531 CC). Asbestos 
mining village 19 km west of Pigg's 
Peak and 48 km south-east of 
Barberton, linked to the latter by 
what may be the world's longest 
aerial cableway. Named after Sir 
Arthur Elibank Havelock (1844- 



1908), Governor of Natal from 1886 
to 1889. Now known as Bulembu. 

Havengaville (O 2727 CC). Origi- 
nal name of Hennenman. After 
Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga (1882- 
1957), a former Minister of Finance. 
The name was used from 1936 to 
1947. 

Hawequa Mountains (C 3319 CA). 
Range north of the Klein- 
Drakenstein Mountains, south-east 
of Wellington. Named after the 
Hawequa tribe of Khoekhoen, also 
spelt Hawekwa, Obiekwa, Obiqua, 
etc. 

*Hawston (C 3419 AC). Fishing 
village north-east of Mudge Point, 
5 km north-west of Onrusrivier and 
11 km from Hermanus. Named after 
a certain Haw, a civil commissioner 
of Caledon. 



Hay (C 2822-2924). District and 
division of which Griquatown is the 
principal town, bounded by Post- 
masburg, Prieska and Hopetown. 
Named after Lieutenant-General 
Charles Craufurd Hay (1809-1873), 
Governor of the Cape Colony from 
May to December 1870. 

*Healdtown (Cis 3226 DC). Wes- 
leyan Methodist mission station 
10 km north-east of Fort Beaufort 
and 15 km north-west of Alice. 
Established in 1853 by the Reverend 
John Ayliff and named after the 
treasurer of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Missionary Society, James Heald, 
who had contributed towards a 
training institution for teachers, 
founded there in 1867. 

*Heatonville (N 2831 DB). Settle- 
ment some 13 km north-west of 
Empangeni. Named after George 



Heaton Nicholls (1876-1959), 
member of Parliament for Zululand 
from 1920, later also Administrator 
of Natal and High Commissioner for 
South Africa from 1944. 

Hebron (C 2824 BC). Original 
name of Windsorton. Of biblical ori- 
gin (Gen. 13:18), the name means 
'party', 'gathering', 'alliance'. 

*Hectorspruit (T 2531 BC). Hamlet 
some 30 km west of Komatipoort 
and 80 km north-east of Pigg's 
Peak. Named after a tributary of the 
Crocodile River, the Hectorspruit, 
which is said to take its name from a 
hunting-dog which died there from a 
tsetse-fly bite. 

*Heerenlogement (C 3118 DC). 
Historic cave some 26 km southwest 
of Klawer and 18 km north of 
Graafwater. Dutch for 'gentlemen's 



lodgings', it was so named because 
it was used for shelter by early 
travellers. Famous for names of 
almost 200 travellers inscribed in it 
since 1712. A milkwood tree 
(Sideroxylon inerme) growing out of 
the rock was already there in 1777 
when it was visited by Colonel R J 
Gordon (1743-1795), later comman- 
der of the garrison. 

*Heidelberg (C 3420 BB). Town on 
the Duivenhoks River, 29 km west 
of Riversdale and 53 km east of 
Swellendam. It was laid out on the 
farm Doornboom about 1855 and 
attained municipal status in March 
1862. Named after Heidelberg in 
Germany, where the Catechism was 
drawn up by Olevianus and 
Ursimus. 

Heidelberg (O 3025 BD). Original 
name (1863-1872) of Bethulie. 



*Heidelberg (T 2628 AD). Town in 
the Suikerbosrand, 50 km southeast 
of Johannesburg, 30 km south of 
Benoni and 54 km east of Meyerton. 
Originating as a trading-post, it was 
laid out on the farm Langlaagte in 
1866 and attained municipal status 
in 1903. Named after Heidelberg in 
Germany where the trader, Heinrich 
Ueckermann, had been trained. Well 
known for the Heidelberg Kloof 
pleasure resort. 

Heigariep (2823-2924). Khoekhoen 
name of the lower Vaal River. 
Literally 'grey river'; the Afrikaans 
name is a direct translation. 

*Heilbron (O 2727 BD). Town 
some 130 km south of Johannes- 
burg, 72 km north of Lindley and 
90 km west of Frankfort. It was laid 
out in 1872 on the farm Rietfontein, 
proclaimed a village in May 1873 



and attained municipal status in 
1890. Literally 'spring of salvation', 
the name is said to be derived from 
a strong spring supplying water, or 
from an ancient town in Germany. 

Heirachabis (S 2819 BA). Station 
of the Roman Catholic Missionary 
Society 80 km west of Nakop and 
80 km east of Karasburg. The name 
is Khoekhoen and means 'place of 
gum' (from the Acacia dulcis); this 
gum is sold for the manufacture of 
sweets. 

Heitsieibeb (C 2816 BD). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Wondergat. 
Regarded by them as a sacred place, 
it is named after the Khoekhoen 
deity Heitsieibeb. 

Heiveld (C 3419 AD). Region 
between Hermanus and Stanford, 
between the Klein River and the 



mountain slopes to the north. Liter- 
ally 'heathfield', after proteas and 
ericas growing there. 

Hel see Die Hel 

*Helpmekaar (N 2830 AD). Village 
26 km south-east of Dundee. Afri- 
kaans for 'help each other', the 
name is derived from transport 
riders having had to assist each 
other in making a road over a nearby 
hill. 

Helshoogte (C 3318 DD). Mountain 
pass between Stellenbosch and Pniel 
to the north-east, over the saddle 
linking Simonsberg and the Jonkers- 
hoek Mountains. Built in 1854, the 
name may mean 'Hell's height' 
(Afrikaans), or it may be derived 
from the verb hel, 'to incline 
steeply'. Also spelt Hellshoogte. 



Hendrik Verwoerd Dam (O 3025 
D). Storage and irrigation dam on 
the Orange River, south-east of 
Bethulie and north of Venterstad. It 
forms part of the Orange River 
Project and a tunnel has been built 
from Oviston southwards to 
Teebusvlakte, a distance of more 
than 80 km. Named after Hendrik 
Frensch Verwoerd (1901-1966), 
Prime Minister of South Africa from 
1958 to 1966. 

*Hendrina (T 2629 BA). Town 
53 km north-west of Ermelo, 40 km 
west-south-west of Carolina and 
53 km south-east of Middelburg. It 
was founded in 1914 on the farm 
Grasfontein, administered by a 
health committee from 1919, and by 
a village council since 1926. It was 
named after Hendrina Beukes, wife 



of Gert Beukes, who owned the 
farm. 

*Henkries (C 2818 CC). Settlement 
near the Orange River, 13 km west 
of Goodhouse. Derived from Khoek- 
hoen, the name, also encountered as 
Henkrees, Henkeriss and Hamne- 
ries, means 'mountain slope'. 
Henkriesmond is also known as 
Increase, a lovely example of 
popular etymology, while the name 
Henkries has led to a story in which 
a dying man, found by Balis, is said 
to have muttered he was 'hungry', 
which became Henkries! 

*Henley on Klip (T 2628 CA). Vill- 
age and pleasure resort some 6 km 
north-west of Meyerton and 8 km 
south of Daleside. Named for its 
situation on the Klip River, probably 
in imitation of Henley on Thames in 
England. 



*Hennenman (O 2727 CC). Town 
43 km south-west of Kroonstad, 
16 km north-west of Ventersburg 
and 20 km north-east of Virginia. 
Originally a railway station named 
Ventersburg Road, it was renamed 
Hennenman in 1927 after a local 
farmer, Petrus F Hennenman (1844- 
1932). The town was established on 
the farm Vredefontein in 1936 and 
first named Havengaville, but it 
attained municipal status under the 
name Hennenman in 1947. Cement 
is manufactured there. 

Hennops River (T 2527 DD-2528 
CC). Rises south-west of Pretoria 
and flows west and north into the 
Hartebeestpoort Dam near Pelin- 
daba. Formerly Erasmus or Rasmus 
River, it takes its name from the 
farm Hennopsrivier, named after a 
previous owner, the widow H 



Hennop, about 1859. The upper 
reaches are known as Kafferspruit. 

*Henties Bay (S 2214 AB). Seaside 
resort on the Atlantic Ocean just 
south of the mouth of the Omaruru 
River, 72 km north-west of Swakop- 
mund, 100 km west of Usakos and 
126 km south-west of Uis. The 
Omaruru River flows underground 
here, and a spring on the beach 
supplies an abundance of fresh 
water. Named after Hentie van der 
Merwe of Otjiwarongo, who for 
many years availed himself of this 
facility in his holidays. Particularly 
popular in summer when the air is 
cooled by the Benguella current. 
The form Hentiesbaai is preferred 
for official use. 

*Hentiesbaai see Henties Bay 



Herbert (C 2923-2924). District 
and division of which Douglas is the 
principal town. Bounded by the 
Orange River in the south, Hope- 
town, Hay and Kuruman in the west, 
Barkly West in the north, and 
Fauresmith and Jacobsdal in the 
east. It was named after Henry 
Howard Molyneux Herbert, Earl of 
Carnarvon (1831-1890), British 
Colonial Secretary. 

*Herbertsdale (C 3421 BB). 
Village east of the Gourits River, in 
the Langtou Valley, 56 km north- 
west of Mossel Bay. It was estab- 
lished in 1865 on the farm Hemel- 
rood and named after James Benton 
Herbert, who owned part of this 
farm. 

Herbert's Mount (C 3318 CD). 
Former name of Devil's Peak, given 



by Commodore Humphrey Fitzher- 
bert in 1620. 

Hercules Falls (C 2820 CB). Name 
given by the traveller G A Farini 
(Through the Kalahari Desert, 1886, 
p. 398) to the Augrabies Falls, as 

suggestive of its size as well as in 
honour of the Governor of the Cape 
Colony' (Sir Hercules Robinson, 
later Lord Rosmead, 1880-89). 

Hereroland (S 2017-2120). Region 
traditionally inhabited by the Here- 
ro, now bounded by Botswana, 
Bushmanland and the districts of 
Grootfontein, Otjiwarongo, Okahan- 
dja and Gobabis. The name has been 
variously explained as meaning 'to 
rejoice', 'the ancient ones', and 'the 
determined ones', the latter referring 
to a decision taken by an ancestral 
group to remain there and not to 
move away to the present Botswana. 



*Hermannsburg (N 2930 BB). Sta- 
tion of the Hermannsburg Mission- 
ary Society, situated some 20 km 
east of Greytown. Established in 
1854 and named after Hermanns- 
burg in Germany, headquarters of 
this society. General Louis Botha 
was educated here. 

*Hermanus (C 3419 AC). Town 
and holiday resort between Onrus 
and Mosselrivier, on the northern 
shore of Walker Bay, 120 km south- 
east of Cape Town and 47 km south- 
west of Caledon. It was established 
in 1855 and attained municipal 
status in 1904. Originally named 
Hermanuspietersfontein, after a 
Dutch teacher who watered his 
sheep there, it was shortened to its 
present form in 1904. 

Hermes, Cape see Cape Hermes 



*Hermon (C 3318 BD). Village 
22 km north of Wellington and 8 km 
from Porseleinberg. Of Hebrew 
origin, the name means 'elevated, 
'exalted', the reference being to the 
biblical Mount Hermon (Dent. 3:8, 
9). 

Herold's Bay (C 3422 AB). Holiday 
resort west of Malgas River mouth, 
some 24 km south-west of George 
and east of Guano Bay. Named after 
the first Dutch Reformed minister of 
George, T J Herold (1812-1823). 

*Herschel (Trsk 3027 CA). Village 
19 km north of Lady Grey, east of 
Aliwal North. Founded in 1879, it 
was named after the astronomer Sir 
John Frederick W Herschel (1792- 
1871) who worked at the Cape from 
1834 to 1838, inter alia making 
observations of Halley's Comet. 



*Hertzog (C 3226 DA). Village in 
the Kat River Valley, 7 km south- 
west of Seymour and some 27 km 
north-east of Fort Beaufort. Origi- 
nally named Tamboekievlei, it 
received its present name in 1837, 
after Willem Frederik Hertzog 
(1792-1847), Assistant Surveyor- 
General of the Cape Colony from 
1828 and surveyor of the Kat River 
Settlement. 

*Hertzogville (O 2825 BA). Town 
55 km north-east of Boshof, 48 km 
south-east of Christiana and 46 km 
south-west of Hoopstad. It was 
founded in 1915 and attained 
municipal status in 1924. Named 
after General James Barry Munnik 
Hertzog (1866-1942), former Prime 
Minister of the Union of South 
Africa and founder of the National 
Party. 



Hessekwaskloof 
see Hessequas Kloof 

Hessequas Kloof (C 3420 AA). 
Ravine near Bredasdorp. Also 
encountered as Essequas Kloof, 
Hessekwaskloof, Hijsiquas Cloof 
Hosiquas Kloof, etc, it was named 
after a Khoekhoen people who lived 
there. 

*Hex River (C 3319 BC-CB). 
Tributary of the Breede River, rising 
north-east of De Dooms and flowing 
south-west between the Hex River 
Mountains and Kwadouwsberg to 
enter the Breede River south of 
Worcester. Dutch for 'witch river', 
the name is variously stated to refer 
to the ghostly atmosphere of the 
deep ravine through which the river 
flows, or to a legend of a lover who 
plummeted to his death while pick- 
ing a rare disa for Eliza Meiring, 



who subsequently became deranged 
and acted like a witch. Other 
explanations link the name with 
Afrikaans hek, 'gate', or with x's, 
referring to the numerous times the 
road crosses the river. Actually the 
name appears to be a translation of 
Khoekhoen Cobeeb, referring to a 
witchdoctor or magician, a powerful 
and influential figure in Khoekhoen 
society. The Afrikaans form Hex- 
rivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Hexrivier see Hex River 

H F Verwoerd Airport (C 3325 DC). 
Airport at Port Elizabeth, south of 
Walmer and Humewood. It was 
named after Hendrik Frensch 
Verwoerd (1901-1966), Prime 
Minister of South Africa from 1958 
to 1966, when he was assassinated. 



Hhohho (Swa 2531 CB). Village in 
the Lomati Valley, 36 km northeast 
of Pigg's Peak. The name is said to 
mean 'dark' and may refer to its 
situation among the mountains. 

*Hibberdene (N 3030 DA). Village 
and holiday resort on the Indian 
Ocean, 98 km south-west of Durban, 
in the Umzinto district, halfway 
between Sezela and Port Shepstone. 
Named after a former Postmaster- 
General of Natal, C Maxwell- 
Hibberd. 

*Hillcrest (N 2930 DD). Town 
between Botha's Hill and Emberton, 
some 35 km north-west of Durban. 
Laid out on the farm Emberton in 
1943, it was so named after its 
position on the crest of a hill over- 
looking a valley to the north. 



*Himeville (N 2929 DC). Village 
145 km west of Durban, 5 km north- 
east of Underberg and 125 km west- 
south-west of Pietermaritzburg, at 
the entrance to the Sani Pass. 
Proclaimed a township in 1905, it 
has been administered since 1954 by 
a health committee. Named after Sir 
Albert Henry Hime (1842-1919), 
Prime Minister of Natal from 1899 
to 1903. 

Hlabeni (N 2929 DC). Flat-topped 
hill some 12 km north-west of 
Creighton. The name, also applied 
to the region east and north-east of 
the hill, to a forest, a river and a 
mission station, is Zulu and means 
'at the aloes'. 

*Hlabisa (N 2831 BB). Village 
between the Hluhluwe and Umfolozi 
game reserves, some 40 km north- 



west of Mtubatuba. Named after the 
Hlabisa tribe of Zulus. 

*Hlatikulu (N 2929 BA). Bush- 
covered mountain, and tributary of 
the Little Mooi River, 32 km south- 
west of Estcourt. The name is 
derived from Zulu hlati, 'bush', 
khulu, 'large'; thus 'large forest'. 

*Hlatikulu (Swa 2631 CD). Town 
28 km north-east of Nhlangano, 
founded in 1924. The name is 
derived from Swazi ihlati, 'forest', 
kulu, 'large', referring to densely 
forested ravines in the area. 

Hlawe (N 2931 CA). Tributary of 
the Manzamnyama which flows into 
the Tongati. Derived from Zulu 
uhlawe, the name means 'place of 
gravel'. Uhlawe is the Zulu name 
for Tongaat. 



*Hlobane (N 2730 DB). Coal- 
mining centre 27 km east of Vryheid 
and 31 km south-west of Louws- 
burg. The locality was known as 
such in the previous century and the 
name applied to the town in 1924. 
Of Zulu origin, it is said by some to 
mean 'beautiful place', and by 
others 'place of dispute'. It was the 
scene of fighting in the Zulu War of 
1879. 

Hlotse Heights (Les 2828 CC). 
Former name of Leribe, referring to 
its situation overlooking the Hlotse 
River. 

*Hluhluwe (N 2831/2832). River 
rising in the Nongoma district and 
flowing east through Hlabisa into 
Lake St Lucia. The name is derived 
from the Zulu word for a type of 
creeper growing on the riverbanks, 



bobbejaantou in Afrikaans (Dalber- 
gia armata). 

Hluti (Swa 2731 BA). Village some 

50 km south-east of Nhlangano, in 
the Shiselweni district. It takes its 
name from a nearby hill, the summit 
of which, streaked with bush, 
resembles the hair-style or Mute of 
Swazi women. 

*Hobhouse (O 2927 CA). Town 
32 km north-east of Wepener and 

51 km south-west of Ladybrand, 
near the Lesotho border. It was laid 
out on the farm Poortjie in 1912 and 
attained municipal status in 1913. 
Named after Emily Hobhouse 
(1860-1926), author and philanthro- 
pist who brought to public notice 
abuses in concentration camps 
during the Anglo-Boer War. 



*Hochfeld (S 2117 BD). Settlement 
135 km north-east of Okahandja. 
The name is German and means 
'high field', referring to the 
altititude of the place. 

Hodgson's Peaks (N 2929 CB). 
Range of peaks about 3 km south of 
the Sani Pass, 22 km north-west of 
Himeville. Formerly Giant's Cup, 
they are said to be named after a 
farmer by the name of Hodgson who 
was fatally wounded in the thigh 
while tracking a group of San. 

Hoedjies Bay (C 3317 BB). North- 
ern portion of Saldanha Bay. Also 
spelt Hoedjes, Hoeties, Hoetjies, 
Odjens, Oetiens and Oetjens, the 
name is believed to be derived from 
the Dutch family name Oetgens van 
Waveren. 



*Hoedspruit (T 2430 BD). Town 
some 28 km north-east of Acorn- 
hoek and 27 km south-west of 
Mica. It takes its name from the 
farm and stream. Afrikaans for 'hat 
stream', the name probably refers 
to some local incident. 

Hoerikwaggo (C 3318 DC). 
Khoekhoen name of Table Moun- 
tain; it means 'sea mountain', ie 
'mountain at the sea'. 

*Hofmeyr (C 3125 DB). Principal 
town of the Maraisburg district, 
64 km north-east of Cradock and 
48 km south of Steynsburg. It was 
laid out on the farm Boorfontein in 
1873-74 and attained municipal 
status in 1913. Originally it was 
named Maraisburg, after Daniel 
Marais, who played a leading role 
in its establishment. To avoid con- 
fusion with Maraisburg in Trans- 



vaal it was renamed Hofmeyr in 
1911, after Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr 
(Onze Jan), who achieved recog- 
nition of Dutch as an official 
language of South Africa. 

*Hogsback (C 3226 DB). Village 
27 km north-east of Alice and 
48 km south-west of Cathcart, to 
the south-east of Hogsback in the 
Amatole range. Said not to be 
named after the mountain for its 
resemblance to the back of a hog, 
but after Captain Hogg who was 
stationed at Fort Mitchell and who 
founded the village. Named Beleka- 
zana in Xhosa. 

*Hol River (C 3118 C-D). 
Tributary of the Olifants River. It is 
formed by the confluence of the 
Soutrivier and the Varsrivier and 
flows west past Lutzville and 
Koekenaap. The name is Afrikaans 



for 'hollow river'. The Khoekhoen 
name is Koangaap, 'around the 
back' (agterom). The Afrikaans 
form Holrivier is preferred for of- 
ficial purposes. 

*Holrivier see Hoi River 

Hommoequa (C 3324 DB). Khoek- 
hoen name for Cockscomb, also for 
the Great Winterhoek Mountains. 
The name means 'blue cloud (moun- 
tains)'. 

*Homtini (C 3322 DD). Mountain 
pass along the road past Rheenendal 
and Highway, north-east of Knysna 
and east of the Homtini River, a 
tributary of the Goukamma. Com- 
pleted by T C Bain in 1882. The 
name is of Khoekhoen origin and is 
said to mean 'difficult passage', or 
'mountain honey'. 

*Hondeklipbaai 



see Hondeklip Bay 

*Hondeklip Bay (C 3017 AD). Inlet 
and fishing village on the west 
coast, some 145 km south-east of 
Port Nolloth, 86 km north-west of 
Garies and 108 km south-west of 
Springbok. It is named after a rock 
(Afrikaans klip) 5 m tall which 
resembled a seated dog (hond) until 
its head was struck off by lightning. 
The Afrikaans form Hondeklipbaai 
is preferred for official purposes. 

Hooge Kraal (C 3422 AB). Former 
name of Pacaltsdorp. Of Dutch 
origin, the name means 'high-lying 
byre', 'village at a high elevation'. 

*Hoopstad (O 2725 DD). Town on 
the Vet River, 31 km south-east of 
its confluence with the Vaal and 
30 km west of Welkom. Laid out in 
1876 on the farm Kameeldoorns, it 



attained municipal status in 1905. It 
was originally named Hauptstad, 
after the surveyor, A P Haupt. 
Literally 'capital', this name met 
with disfavour, for Bloemfontein 
was the capital, and it was changed 
to Hoopstad, 'city (town) of hope'. 
Not to be confused with Hopetown, 
which is a different place. 

*Hopefield (C 3318 AB). Town east 
of Saldanha Bay, 40 km southeast of 
Vredenburg, 138 km north of Cape 
Town. Founded in 1852 on the farm 
Langekuil, it became a municipality 
in 1914. Named after two people 
who laid it out, Major William 
Hope, Auditor-General, and a Mr 
Field. 

*Hopetown (C 2924 CA). Town 

133 km north-east of Britstown and 

134 km south-west of Kimberley. It 
was founded in 1853 or 1854, and 



became a municipality in 1858. 
Generally accepted as having been 
named after Major William Hope, 
Auditor-General and Acting Secre- 
tary of the Cape, but there is a 
tradition linking the name to an 
ornament in the shape of an anchor, 
symbolizing hope. Hopetown was 
the site of the first discovery of 
diamonds; the famous Star of 
Africa came from the area. 

Horn River (N 2729). Tributary of 
the Tugela. It rises in the Drakens- 
berg and flows east past Ballen- 
geich. Translated from Zulu 
Mphondo, 'horn', the reference is 
to the perilousness of the river 
when in flood, comparable to the 
danger of the horn of an ox or bull. 

*Hotazel (C 2722 BB). Town serv- 
ing the manganese mines, 147 km 
north of Postmasburg and 46 km 



north-west of Kuruman. Takes its 
name from the farm on which it was 
laid out; a pun on 'hot as hell', 
referring to the weather when the 
farm was surveyed. 

Hottentot Bay (S 2614 BB). Inlet 
some 40 km north of Luderitz, 
50 km south of Spencer Bay, on the 
Atlantic seaboard. Probably named 
using the popular but outdated term 
for the Khoekhoen, this bay bore 
the Portuguese name Golfo de 
Santa Maria da Vitoria. 

Hottentots Holland (C 3418). 
Region between False Bay and the 
Palmiet River, in the Somerset West 
district. The name is encountered as 
early as 1657 and indicated that the 
area was regarded by the Khoek- 
hoen as their 'Holland' or mother 
country. The Hottentots Holland 



Mountains take their name from 
this region. 

Houhoek Pass (C 3419 AA). 
Mountain pass east of Sir Lowry's 
Pass, over the Hottentots Holland 
Mountains, south-east of the Krom 
River and north-east of Botrivier. 
The original pass went over a foot- 
hill of the Paardeberg. Explained as 
hout hoek or 'wood corner', hou 
hoek or 'hold corner'; R J Gordon 
in 1777 says it was so named 
because farmers had a difficult time 
crossing it. 

*Houtbaai see Hout Bay 

*Hout Bay (C 3418 AB). Inlet on 
the west coast of the Cape Penin- 
sula, north of the present Chapman's 
Bay. It was named a year after Van 
Riebeeck's landing at the Cape, on 
11 July 1653, because of fine forests 



encountered there; literally 'wood 
bay'. The town Hout Bay is an 
important fishing centre. The form 
Houtbaai is preferred for official 
purposes. 

Hout Bay River (C 3418). Alterna- 
tive name of Disa River; so named 
because it flows into Hout Bay. 

Houtema (C 3419). Khoekhoen 
name of the Palmiet River, north- 
westerly tributary of the present 
Palmiet River. It means 'snake 
river'. 

*Howick (N 2930 AC). Town near 
the Howick Falls, on the northern 
bank of the Mgeni River, 23 km 
north-west of Pietermaritzburg. 
Established in 1850, it was pro- 
claimed a township in 1916 and a 
borough in 1961. It was named after 
Viscount Howick, later to become 



Earl Grey, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies from 1846 to 1852. 

*Howieson's Poort 
see Howison's Poort 

Howison's Poort (C 3326 AD). 
Defile 8 km south of Grahamstown, 
in the Albany district. It was named 
after Captain Howison who con- 
structed the road through the defile. 
It is an important archaeological 
site. The incorrect spelling Howie- 
son's Poort is often encountered. 

Huab River (S 2013-2014). Rises 
west of Fransfontein and Khorixas 
and extends south-west to the 
Atlantic Ocean 10 km south-east of 
Toscanini. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and probably means 
'crooked bends'. 

Huigais (C 3318 CD). Khoekhoen 
name of Cape Town. Variously 



explained as 'veiled in clouds', 
'puff adder', 'place of snakes', 'nest 
of otters'; the name actually means 
'place of stone', referring primarily 
to the Castle and thence transferred 
to the city. 

*Humansdorp (C 3424 BB). Town 
93 km west of Port Elizabeth, north- 
west of Cape St Francis. Laid out in 
1849 on the farm Rheeboksfontein, 
it was administered by a church 
council until a village management 
board was instituted in 1896. 
Municipal status was attained in 
1900. It was named Humansdorp (at 
first Human se Dorp) after Matthys 
Gerhardus Human, owner of the 
farm Rheeboksfontein. 

Hunca (C 3226 DC-DB). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Kat River. Liter- 
ally 'cat river', after the wild-cats 



encountered there; Kat River is a 
translation. 

*Hutchinson (C 3123 CA). Village 
and railway junction 12 km south- 
east of Victoria West, 77 km west of 
Richmond. Founded in 1885, it was 
at first known as Victoria West 
Road, but it was renamed in 1901 
after Sir Walter F Hely-Hutchinson, 
Governor of Natal from 1893 to 
1901 and of the Cape Colony from 
1901 to 1910. 



I 

Ibequa River (C 3019). Tributary 
of the Kromme River in the Calvinia 
district. Named after the Ibequa 
Khoekhoen, also known as Abiquas, 
Hawequas, Obiquas, and so forth. 
The name Ibequa has also been 
applied to a geological series. 

Ibisi (Trsk 3029). Former name of 
Bisi; it is derived from Xhosa u-bisi 
and means 'milk'. 

*Idutywa (Trsk 3228 AB). Town 
some 132 km north-east of East 
London and 29 km north-west of 
Willowvale. It is named after a 
tributary of the Mbashe, the 
Dutywa. The name is derived from 
Xhosa ukuduba, 'to disturb', passive 
voice ukudutywa; thus 'the disturb- 
ed or disordered one', said to refer 
to the confusion and scattering of 



the Fingo and Thembu by the inva- 
sions of Mfecane and Zulu about 
1820. 

*Ifafa (N 3030 AD/BC). River 
which rises in the Ixopo district and 
flows south-eastwards into the 
Indian Ocean between Mtwalume 
and Sezela. The name is Zulu and 
has been said to mean 'the sprink- 
ling one', referring to drops caused 
by the turbulent torrent at rapids, or 
to the soft sound of drops condensed 
from the misty ravines falling onto 
the ground below. The name is also 
borne by a mission station, beach, 
post office and railway station. 

*Ifafa Beach (N 3030 BC). Holiday 
resort some 87 km south-west of 
Durban, at the mouth of the Ifafa 
River, between Bazley and Elysium. 
It takes its name from the river; see 
Ifafa. 



IGoli (T 2628 AA). Nguni name for 
Johannesburg, derived from the 
English word 'gold'; it means 'at the 
gold'. 

Ijsselsteijn Bay (C 3418 AB). Early 
name for Simon's Bay. Also 
encountered as Ysselstein Bay and 
Ijselstein Bay, it was so named after 
a ship of that name which sheltered 
there in 1671. In 1687 it was 
renamed after Simon van der Stel. 

Ikageng (T 2627 CA). Township 
near Potchefstroom. The name is 
Northern Sotho and means 'we built 
for ourselves'. 

Ikxab (C 3318 DC). Koranna name of 
Cape Town, said to be an adaptation of 
/UHkhaeb, 'stone place' (Castle); see 
Huigeis. It has no connection with 
Afrikaans Kaap(stad). 



Ilha Branca (C 3318 AC). Early name 
of Dassen Island. Portuguese for 
'white island', the name probably 
refers to the white guano deposited by 
sea-birds. 

Ilha Elizabeth (C 3318 AC). Early 
name of Dassen Island. See Isla 
d'Elizabeth. 

Ilheo da Cruz (C 3325 DD). Portu- 
guese name of St Croix Island. It 

means 'island of the Cross' and is also 
encountered as Ilheo da Santa Cruz 
('island of the Holy Cross'), Ilheus da 
Cruz and Ilheus de la Croix. The 
name was given in 1486 by the 
Portuguese mariner Bartolomeu Dias. 
Some of his men are said to have 
called it Penedo das Fontes, 'rock of 
fountains', after two springs of fresh 
water they found on it. 



Ilheos, Angra dos 
see Angra dos Ilheos 

Ilheos Chaos (C 3326 CD). Former 
name of Bird Island; it was given in 
1497 by Vasco da Gama and means 
'flat' or 'low islands'. 

Ilheos Siccos (C 2816 DC). Portu- 
guese name for Soco Reefs; it means 
'arid islands'. 

Ilheus da Cruz see St Croix Island 

Ilheus de la Croix 
see St Croix Island 

Illovo (N 3030 BB). Popular coastal 
resort on the Natal South Coast, 
between Winklespruit and Karridene, 
34 km south-west of Durban. It takes 
its name from the Lovu River. The 
adapted form Illovo has also been 
applied to a sugar estate and thence to 
a brand of golden syrup. 



lmbali (N 2930 CB). Township south- 
west of Pietermaritzburg. Of Zulu 
origin, the name is said to mean 'the 
flower'. The form iMbali has been 
officially approved. 

Imbubo (N 2930 CA). Zulu name 
for Swartkop, some 12 km west of 
Pietermaritzburg. Said to mean 
'covered with fur', referring to the 
snow usually covering it in winter. 

Impafana (N 2830). Zulu name for 
the Mooi River, tributary of the 
Tugela. It is said to mean either 
'little eland' (Or eas 'carina) or 'the 
greyish river'. Also encountered as 
Mpofana. 

*Impendle (N 2929 DB). Town 
48 km west of Pietermaritzburg and 
37 km north-east of Bulwer. It was 
founded in 1894 and since 1948 has 
been administered by a health 



committee. The name, of Zulu 
origin, means 'uncovered' or 
'exposed', referring to a hill west of 
the town. 

Imperaniberg (O 2827 DD). Form- 
er name of Mpharane, of which it is 
an adaptation. It means 'flat- 
topped'. 

Imvani (C 3227 AA). Settlement 
some 30 km north of Cathcart and 
30 km west of St Marks. It takes its 
name from the river nearby which in 
turn was named after a type of wild 
asparagus, A. stipulacens, the roots 
of which are eaten either raw or 
cooked. The form iMvani has been 
approved. 

Imvubu River (T 2527). Early 
name of the Magalies River. Of 
Zulu origin, the name means 
'hippopotamus'. 



Inachab (S 2717 BA). Tributary of 
the Konkiep River. The name is 
Khoekhoen and means 'river of 
many thorns', referring to the 
Tribulus terrestris or 'dubbeltjie' 
found there. 

*Inanda (N 2930 DB). Tributary of 
the Mgeni River, north-west of 
Durban. It takes its name from the 
Nanda Mountain. Of Zulu origin, 
the name means 'equally extending,' 
referring to the flat-topped nature of 
the mountain. In the Europeanized 
form Tnanda' it has been applied to 
a mission station, area, etc. 

*Indwe (C 3127 AD). Town some 
40 km south-east of Dordrecht and 
34 km north-west of Cala. It was 
founded in 1896 as a centre for low- 
grade coal-mining activities which 
started in 1867, and attained munici- 
pal status in 1898. It takes its name 



from the Indwe River, named after 
the blue crane (Tetrapteryx para- 
disea, Xhosa iNdwe), which occur- 
red there in great numbers. 

Infanta on River (C 3420 BD). 
Seaside resort at the estuary of the 
Breede River, at St Sebastian Bay, 
some 80 km south-east of Swellen- 
dam. Takes its name from Cape 
Infanta several kilometres to the 
south, and from its situation on the 
Breede River. 

Infante, Rio do see Ngagane 

Ingogo (N 2729 DB). Locality some 
25 km north of Newcastle, site of a 
battle on 8 February 1881, during 
the First Anglo-Boer War, in which 
British casualties numbered 76 
while Boer losses amounted to 8. 
The name is derived from that of the 



Ngogo River. The form iNgogo has 
been approved. 

*Ingwavuma (N 2732 AA). Village 
south of the Ngwavuma River, east 
of the Swaziland border, some 
80 km north of Mkuze and 44 km 
south-west of the confluence of the 
Ngwavuma and Pongolo rivers. The 
name, derived from that of the river, 
may mean 'the river is growling', 
referring to the roaring of a 
waterfall, or 'the leopard or cheetah 
is growling'. 

Injasuthi (N 2930). Zulu name of 
the Little Tugela River; derived 
from nja, 'dog', sutha, 'full'; the 
river when swollen by rains calls to 
mind a dog which has eaten to 
capacity. 

Inqu see Inxu 

Insuze see Nsuze 



Intabamnyama (Trsk 3027 DA). 
Peak some 30 km east-south-east of 
Sterkspruit. Derived from Xhosa, 
the name means 'black mountain'. 

Inxu (Trsk 3128). Tributary of the 
Tsitsa River; rises in the Drakens- 
berg near Ugie and flows eastwards 
to the confluence near Somerville. 
Probably a Xhosa adaptation of San 
or Khoekhoen gnu, 'wildebeest' 
(Connochaetes gnu). Also encount- 
ered as Inqu; iNxu has been approv- 
ed. 

Inyara (C 3226 CA). Xhosa name 
of Bedford, also encountered as 
iNyara. It is derived from Khoek- 
hoen and means 'place of many 
reeds'. 

*Irene (T 2528 CC). Village 13 km 
south of Pretoria and 10 km north of 
Olifantsfontein. Founded by Alois 



Hugo Nellmapius and named after 
his daughter, Irene Violet. It deve- 
loped after the Anglo-Boer War, and 
was administered by a health 
committee from 1947 to 1964, when 
it was incorporated into Lyttelton. 

*Isandlwana (N 2830 BC). 
Mountain some 16 km south-east of 
Rorke's Drift, 17 km south of 
Nqutu, and 64 km south-east of 
Dundee. Derived from Zulu, the 
name is said to refer to the 'third 
stomach' or reticulum of an ox, 
which the hill resembles. An entire 
British army of more than 770 was 
surrounded and killed by Zulus here 
on 22 January 1879. 

*Isando (T 2628 AA). Industrial 
township south-west of Kempton 
Park, 22 km east of Johannesburg. It 
was laid out on the farm Witkoppie 
and proclaimed on 21 December 



1949. The name is of Bantu origin 
and is said to refer to the sound of a 
hammer. 

Isateki (Swa 2631 BD). Peak in the 
Lebombo Mountains, south of 
Siteki. Derived from isaTeki, the 
name is said to mean 'place of much 
marrying'; after a successful cam- 
paign an impi was granted permis- 
sion by Chief Mzwasi to get married 
there. The town Siteki, formerly 
Stegi, may take its name from this 
peak. 

Isipingo (N 2930 DD). Seaside 
village and holiday resort 19 km 
southwest of Durban, near the Louis 
Botha Airport. It was proclaimed a 
township in 1925. Takes its name 
from the Sipingo River. 

*Isipingo Beach (N 2930 DD). 
Seaside resort immediately south of 



Louis Botha Airport, south-west of 
Durban, Derives its name from that 
of the Sipingo River which enters 
the sea there. Of Zulu origin, the 
name has been variously explained 
as referring to a type of vine 
growing along the banks (Scutia 
commersonil); to its winding course, 
reminiscent of twigs intertwined to 
construct a hut; to the ebb and flow 
of the river with the tide, etc. 

Isla de Cornelia (C 3318 CD). 
Former name of Robben Island; it 

was bestowed in 1601 by Joris van 
Spilbergen in honour of his mother. 

Isla d'Elizabeth (C 3318 AC). 
Early name of Dassen Island. It was 
bestowed by Joris van Spilbergen, 
Dutch explorer, in 1601, after his 
wife. Also encountered as Elizabeth 
Island and Ilha Elizabeth. 



*Ixopo (N 3030 AA). Town some 
96 km west-north-west of Park 
Rynie, 85 km south-west of Pieter- 
maritzburg and 100 km north-east of 
Kokstad. It was founded in 1878 and 
has been administered since 1931 by 
a health committee. At its establish- 
ment it was named Stuartstown, 
after Marthinus Stuart, the district 
magistrate. However, the Zulu 
name, after the Ixopo River, became 
general. It is said to mean 'marsh', 
referring to the squelchy sound 
made by hoofs being withdrawn 
from the mud. The forms Xobho and 
Xobo are encountered for the name 
of the river. This was the setting for 
Alan Paton's novel Cry the Beloved 
Country. 



Jabiesiefontein (C 2819 CC-2918 
BB). Former name of the Little Pella 
River. It is derived from Khoekhoen 
tsawi, 'black-ebony tree' (Euclea 
pseudebenus), and Afrikaans fontein, 
'spring'. 

Jacaranda City (T 2528 CA). Pop- 
ular name for Pretoria, referring to 
the jacaranda trees (Jacaranda 
acutifolia) lining the streets in many 
parts of the city, which present a 
beautiful spectacle in October when 
they come into bloom. These trees, 
indigenous to South America, were 
apparently introduced about 70 
years ago by J J Jameson, city 
engineer of Pretoria at that time. 

*Jacobsdal (O 2924 BA). Town on 
the Riet River, 20 km south-east of 
its confluence with the Modder 



River, 60 km south of Kimberley, 
and 154 km west of Bloemfontein. It 
was established in 1859 on the farm 
Kalkfontein and attained municipal 
status in July 1860. Named after the 
owner of the farm, Christoffel 
Johannes Jacobs. It is known for 
salt-pans nearby. 

Jacobsdal (T 2526 CA). Hamlet 
13 km south of Zeerust and 18 km 
north-east of Ottoshoop. It was laid 
out on the farm Vergenoegd and 
named after its owner, David 
Jacobs. 

*Jagersfontein (O 2925 CD). 
Mining town 11 km east of Faure- 
smith and 48 km north-west of 
Trompsburg. It was founded in 1878 
on the farm of the same name, 
proclaimed a town in 1882, was 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board from 1886, and attained 



municipal status in 1904. Named 
after the Griqua family of Evert 
Jagers who owned the farm and 
lived at the fountain. The second 
largest diamond in the world, the 
Excelsior, was discovered here in 
1893. 

Jahleel Island (C 3325). Island in 
Algoa Bay, near Brenton Island. 
Named after Sir Jahleel Brenton, 
Commander of the Cape Naval 
Squadron, by Captain Fairfax 
Moresby, who was surveying the 
coast in 1820. Formerly known as 
Coega Rock and Coega Island, from 
the river opposite the mouth of 
which it is situated. See Coega 
River. 

Jakarandastad (T 2528 CA). 
Afrikaans for Jacaranda City, 

popular name for Pretoria. 



James Mount (C 3318 CD). Early 
name (from 1620) applied to a pile 
of stones made on the upper part of 
Lion's Rump, and subsequently to 
that hill. Also encountered as King 
James his Mount, Jeames Mount, and 
Saint James Mount. It was named 
after King James of England. 

*Jamestown (C 3126 BB). Town 
55 km south of Aliwal North. 
Named after James Wagenaar, 
owner of the farm on which it was 
laid out. 

Jammerberg (O 2927 CA). Moun- 
tain several kilometres north-north- 
west of Wepener, on the Lesotho 
border. Afrikaans for 'mountain of 
regret', literally 'sorry mountain', 
the name is said to refer to an inci- 
dent in which hunters killed a ribbok 
ewe while she was giving birth and 
regretted what they had done. It 



would seem, however, that the name 
is translated from Khoekhoen 
Kouwe. 

*Jammerdrif (O 2927 CA). Ford in 
the Caledon River, some 4 km west- 
north-west of Wepener. Presumably 
takes its name from the Jammerberg 
nearby. 

Jan Dissels River (C 3219 AA/AC). 
Rises in the Cedarberg east of Clan- 
william and joins the Olifants River 
north of this town. Named after a 
botanist, Jan Dissel, who lived at 
Renosterbosch early in the 19th 
century. 

Jandisselsvleidorp (C 3218 BB). 
Early name (until 1814) of Clan- 
willian, bestowed in 1808. Named 
after Jan Disselsvlei, farm of the 
botanist Jan Dissel. 



*Jan Kempdorp (C 2724 DD). 
Town some 96 km north of Kimber- 
ley and 43 km west of Christiana, in 
the Vaalharts Irrigation Settlement. 
Laid out on the farm Andalusia, it at 
first bore that name. The first 
settlers bought plots in 1938, and 
the town was proclaimed in 1953 
and named afer General Johannes C 
J Kemp, a former Minister of Lands. 
Municipal status was attained in 
1967. Situated in the Cape and 
Transvaal, there was some confu- 
sion as to the administration. In 
1964 it was decided that it would 
fall under the Cape authorities. 

*Jansenville (C 3224 DC). Town on 
the Sundays River, 87 km south of 
Graaff-Reinet. Laid out on the farm 
Vergenoegd in 1854, it was pro- 
claimed in 1855 and became a 
municipality in 1881. Said to have 



been named after General Jan 
Willem Janssens (1762-1838), the 
last Batavian Governor of the Cape. 

*Jan Smuts Airport (T 2628 AA). 
Airport south of Kempton Park, 
some 20 km east of Johannesburg 
and 50 km south of Pretoria. Named 
after Jan Christian Smuts (1870- 
1950), Prime Minister of the Union 
of South Africa from 1919 to 1922 
and from 1939 to 1948. It was 
opened in April 1952 and became 
fully operational in June 1953. 
Modernized and extended in the 
seventies; new terminal buildings 
are under construction. 

J B M Hertzog Airport (O 2926 
BA). Airport east of Bloemfontein. 
It was named after James Barry 
Munnik Hertzog (1866-1942), 
founder of the National Party and 
Prime Minister of the Union of 



South Africa from 1924 to 1939. As 
a result of his efforts Afrikaans and 
English became the two official 
languages of South Africa. 

Jeffreysbaai see Jeffreys Bay 

* Jeffreys Bay (C 3424 BB). Fishing 
village and seaside resort some 
72 km west of Port Elizabeth and 
16 km east of Humansdorp, on the 
western shore of St Francis Bay. It 
developed from a trading post, was 
already a popular resort in 1868, 
was settled by members of the 
public from 1918, administered by a 
village management board from 
1926 and attained municipal status 
in 1968. The Jeffreys after whom it 
is named is variously identified as a 
trader, a ship-wrecked ship's captain 
who survived by building a hut from 
the wreckage, and a whaler from St 



Helena who opened the first 
commercial house there. 

J G H van der Wath Airport (S 

2618 CA). Airport some 7 km north- 
west of Keetmanshoop. It was named 
after Johannes Gert Hendrik van der 
Wath, Administrator of South West 
Africa from 1968 to 1971. 

*J G Strijdom Airport (S 2217 CA). 
Airport some 40 km east of Windhoek, 
at Ondekaremba. Opened in 1965, it 
was named after Johannes Gerhardus 
Strijdom (1893-1958), Prime Minister 
of South Africa from 1954 to 1958. 

J G Strijdom Tunnel (T 2430 DA). 
Road tunnel in the Abel Erasmus Pass, 
completed in May 1959. Named after 
a former Prime Minister of the Union 
of South Africa, Johannes Gerhardus 
Strijdom (1893-1958). 



Joeys (T 2628 AA). Common nick- 
name for Johannesburg. 

^Johannesburg (T 2628 AA). Gold- 
mining and industrial centre, largest 
city in South Africa, 56 km south of 
Pretoria, founded in 1886 on the farm 
Randjeslaagte. A health committee 
was instituted in 1887, a first elected 
town council took over the admini- 
stration in 1904, and city status was 
acquired in 1928. In was named after 
Johann Rissik, principal clerk of the 
office of the Surveyor-General of the 
Transvaal Republic, and Christiaan 
Johannes Joubert, Chief of Mining and 
member of the Volksraad. They 
recommended that the land be 
declared a gold-field, and that 
Randjeslaagte or Doornfontein be the 
site for the town. 

Jonkershoek (C 3318 DD). Valley 
between the Jonkershoek Mountains 



and the Stellenboschberg. Takes its 
name from a farm, Jan de Jonkers 
Hoek, granted in 1683 by Van der Stel 
to Johan Andriessen, nicknamed Jan 
de Jonker. 

Jordaan River (O 2828 AD). River 
rising in the Rooiberg north-east of 
Clarens and flowing north through 
Bethlehem. The reference is to the 
River Jordan which flows into the Sea 
of Galilee. 

*Joubertina (C 3323 DD). Town on 
the Wabooms River in the Langkloof, 
some 50 km north-west of Assegaai- 
bos, 70 km south-east of Avontuur 
and 213 km from Port Elizabeth. It 
was founded in 1907 and named 
after W A Joubert who was minister 
of the Dutch Reformed Church in 
Uniondale between 1878 and 1893. 



Juanasburg (N 2829 DD). Former 
name of Ladysmith, after Lady 
Juana, wife of Sir Harry Smith, 
Governor of the Cape from 1847 to 
1852. The name was also borne by a 
town on the Eastern Frontier; it was 
established in 1848 but destroyed by 
Xhosas on 25 December 1850. 

Jukskei River (T 2628 AA). Tribu- 
tary of the Hennops River. Rises in 
various sources, flows north-west- 
wards through the northern suburbs 
of Johannesburg, and joins the Hen- 
nops south of Hartebeespoort Dam. 
Afrikaans juksei means 'yoke-pin'; 
the name is said to have been given 
on 8 October 1853 by a prospector, 
Pieter Jacob Marais, who discovered 
traces of gold on the river-bank, and 
a yoke-pin lying there. 

Jutten Island (C 3317 B23). Island 
at the entrance to Saldanha Bay. 



Named Isle de Thomas Pan by 
French trappers in the 17th century. 
It was named Jutland Eijland by Jan 
Wouterssen in 16569 this form is 
regarded as erroneous, jut being a 
beach-comber. 

Juweel van die Karoo (C 3224 
BA). Popular name for Graaff- 
Reinet. The English equivalent, 
Gem of the Karoo, is a translation. 



K 

*Kaaimans River (C 3322 DC). 
River rising in the Outeniqua Moun- 
tains north of George and flowing 
south to enter the Indian Ocean near 
Wilderness, some 15 km south-east 
of George. Derived from Dutch or 
Afrikaans kaaiman, 'leguaan', a 
species of the monitor lizard, Vara- 
nus niloticus. The form Kaaimans- 
rivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Kaaimansrivier 
see Kaaimans River 

Kaap Agulhas see Cape Agulhas 

Kaap Columbine 
see Cape Columbine 

Kaap die Goeie Hoop 
see Cape of Good Hope 

Kaap Hangklip see Cape Hangklip 



Kaap Hermes see Cape Hermes 

Kaap Infanta see Cape Infanta 

Kaap Kruis see Cape Cross 

Kaap Maclear see Cape Maclear 

*Kaapmuiden (T 2531 CB). Village 
42 km east of Nelspruit and 53 km 
north-east of Barberton. It was 
founded in 1895. The name is 
derived from its situation where the 
Kaap River flows into the Crocodile 
River; it means 'Kaap mouth', 
muiden meaning 'mouth'. See Kaap 
River. 

Kaap Padrone see Cape Padrone 

Kaappunt see Cape Point 

Kaap Recife see Cape Recife 

Kaap River (T 2531 CB). Tributary 
of the Crocodile River. It rises 165 
some 15 km north-east of Barberton 



and enters the main stream at 
Kaapmuiden. Afrikaans for 'Cape 
river', the name is said to have been 
given by the Voortrekker M W 
Pretorius because the area, with the 
valley covered with mist, resembled 
the Cape of Good Hope; the names 
Kaapsehoop, Kaapvlakte and 
Duiwelskantoor were bestowed in 
conjunction with it. 

Kaap St Blaize see Cape St Blaize 

*Kaapsehoop (T 2530 DB). Hamlet 
founded in 1884 as a gold-mining 
camp, some 24 km south-west of 
Nelspruit. Formerly a gold-mining 
locality, it was named Kaapsehoop, 
Afrikaans for 'hope of the Cape', by 
optimistic prospectors who saw in the 
rugged landscape and bizarre rock 
formations a resemblance to the Cape 
of Good Hope. Now an important 
forestry centre. 



Kaapse Vlakte see Cape Flats 

*Kaapstad see Cape Town 

Kaap Voltas see Cape Voltas 

Kachatsus (S 2517 BB). Nama name 
for Gibeon. 'Place full of tiresome or 
tiring wars'. 

Kafferkuils River (C 3421 AB). 
Rises north-east of Riversdale, in the 
Langeberg, and flows 56 km south to 
enter the Indian Ocean at Still Bay. 
The river is named after a type of 
plant, Prionum palmita, which grows 
along it. Literally 'Kaffir penis', which 
the inflorescence resembles, 'kuiP 
being derived from 'kul'. 

Kagaberg (C 3226 CA). Mountain 
some 5 km north-west of Bedford. The 
name is derived from Khoekhoen 
/axa, 'reedy', 'abounding in reeds'. 
The name of the non-perennial stream 



rising southwest of it, eNyara, is a 
Xhosa adaptation of the same name. 

Kaggakoe (C 3326 AC). Khoekhoen 
name of Rietberg. The-Afrikaans 
name, meaning 'reed mountain', is a 
direct translation. 

Kaiingveld (C 2920-3021). Region 
at the point of contiguity of the 
Carnarvon, Kenhardt and Prieska 
districts. Probably named after 
quartz pebbles resembling greaves, 
kaiings in Afrikaans. The Kaiing- 
bult (Afrikaans for 'greaves hill') 
south and west of the Prieska- 
Marydale line has the same origin. 

*Kakamas (C 2820 DC). Town on 
the Orange River, 80 km southwest 
of Upington and 40 km west of 
Keimoes. It grew from an irrigation 
settlement established in 1898 for 
farmers left destitute by the severe 



drought of 1895-97 and the rinder- 
pest epidemic of 1897. It was laid 
out in 1931, came under a village 
management board in 1948 and 
attained full municipal status in 
1964. Of Khoekhoen origin, the 
name has been explained in a 
number of ways, the most accept- 
able being 'place of drinking (water 
by stock)'. Gave its name to the 
finest yellow clingstone peach. 

Kalahari (2020-2428). Region 
extending some 930 000 square 
kilometres over the eastern portion 
of South West Africa/Namibia, part 
of the Republic of South Africa 
north of the Orange River and into 
neighbouring Botswana and Zim- 
babwe. It is characterized by a lack 
of surface water, and the name is 
said to be derived from a Bantu 



word kgalagadi denoting this 
characteristic. 

*Kalkbaai see Kalk Bay 

*Kalkbank (T 2329 CB). Archaeo- 
logical site some 64 km north-west 
of Pietersburg. Discovered in 1947 
and excavated in 1954 and 1966, it 
indicates economic activity of 
Middle Stone Age man more than 
15 000 years ago. An Afrikaans 
name, it means 'limestone sill'. 

*Kalk Bay (C 3418 AB). Seaside 
village and holiday resort 27 km 
south of Cape Town, situated on the 
western shore of False Bay between 
St James and Fish Hoek. Used as a 
fishery and whaling station between 
1806 and 1811, a fishing village 
developed by the 1860s. With 
Muizenberg it became a munici- 
pality in 1893 and in 1913 it was 



incorporated into Cape Town 
municipality. The name is of Dutch 
or Afrikaans origin and means 
'chalk' or 'limestone bay', referring 
to lime-kilns employed here in the 
17th century. The form Kalkbaai is 
preferred for official purposes. 

*Kalkfeld (S 2016 CC). Village 
74 km north of Omaruru and 70 km 
south of Otjiwarongo. It developed 
from a railway-station built there in 
1905 and was proclaimed a town- 
ship in 1959. A village management 
board was set up in 1963. The name 
is German and refers to limestone 
deposits occurring in the area. The 
Herero name is Okovakuatjivi. 

*Kalkrand (S 2417 BA). Village 
74 km north of Mariental and 
200 km south of Windhoek. It 
derives its name, which means 



'limestone ridge', from its proximity 
to the escarpment called Die Kalk. 

*Kalkrand (S 2517 B-2518 A). 
Afrikaans name of the Weissrand; it 
means 'limestone ridge', 'limestone 
escarpment'. It is more widely 
known as Die Kalk, 'the limestone'. 

*Kamanjab (S 1914 DB). Village 
170 km west-north-west of Outjo 
and 160 km east-south-east of 
Sesfontein. It was declared a town- 
ship in 1958. The name, of Herero 
origin but adapted, is said to mean 
'large rocks' with reference to 
granite blocks occurring there; 
alternatively 'place of stones'. 

Kamdebo(o) see Camdebo 

*Kamiesberg (C 3018 AA-AC). 
Mountain range in Namaqualand, 
extending approximately from the 
Richtersveld in the north to Garies 



in the south. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and probably 
means 'grass veld mountain'. 

*Kamieskroon (C 3017 BB). 
Village in Namaqualand, 67 km 
south of Springbok and 46 km north 
of Garies. It came into being in 1924 
when the village of Bowesdorp 
moved there from a situation 7 km 
to the south where there was a lack 
of water. 'Crown (Afrikaans kroon) 
on the Kamies(berg)', referring to a 
peculiar rock formation on a 330 
metre peak. 

Kammaghaap (C 2820). Khoek- 
hoen name of Hartbees River. Liter- 
ally 'river of many hartebeests', so 
that the present name is a trans- 
lation. 

*Kammanassie (C 3322-3323). 
River rising 16 km east of Union- 



dale between the Kouga and 
Outeniqua mountains and flowing 
120 km westwards to join the 
Olifants River 2 km east of Oudts- 
hoorn. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and probably means 
'washing water', 'washing river'. 

Kammanassie Mountains (C 3322 
DA-DB). Range east of Oudts- 
hoorn, between the Outeniqua 
Mountains and the Swartberg. They 
take their name from the Kamma- 
nassie River. 

*Kampsbaai see Camps Bay 

*Kango see Cango 

Kannakamkanna (C 3419 BB). 
Khoekhoen name of Riviersonder- 
end. Probably the Afrikaans name 
is a translation, ie 'river without 
end'. 



Kannaland see Cannaland 

Kanoep (C 3017 AD). Khoekhoen 
name for the Spoeg River, 'spit 
river'. From !hanu; the Afrikaans 
name is a translation. 

*Kanoneiland (C 2821 CA). Island 
14 km long and 3 km wide in the 
Orange River, 32 km south-west of 
Upington, site of an intensive irri- 
gation scheme started about 1940. 
Afrikaans for 'cannon island', the 
name is partly translated from 
Khoekhoen Keboes, an onomato- 
poeic rendering of a cannonshot, 
said to have originated about 1878 
in punitive expeditions against 
Korana freebooters. 

Kaokoveld (S 1712-1813). Region 
comprising the north-western part 
of South-West Africa/Namibia, 
bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in 



the west, the Kunene River in the 
north, the Hoanib River in the 
south, and a line running north and 
south about 14 east latitude. The 
name is derived from Herero 
okoako, meaning 'the left arm', 
referring to the situation on the left 
bank of the Kunene. 

*Karasburg (S 2818 BA). Village 
728 km south of Windhoek, 51 km 
north of Warmbad, and 107 km 
north-west of Onseepkans. Known 
to the Nama as Nomsoros, it first 
bore the name Kalkfontein-Suid, but 
this was changed in 1939 to 
Karasburg, to avoid confusion with 
Kalkfontein. It was proclaimed a 
town in 1938; a village management 
board was instituted in 1939, and a 
town council took over the admini- 
stration in 1947. The name is 



derived from that of the Karas 
Mountains. 

Karas Mountains (S 2718 BB). 
Consisting of the Little and Great 
Karas Mountains, parallel ranges 
extending north and south between 
Keetmanshoop and Karasburg, 
separated by a valley about 30 km 
wide. The Great Karas Mountains 
are about 100 km in length and the 
Little Karas Mountains extend about 
40 km. The name Karas is Khoek- 
hoen and has been said to mean 
'gravelly soil' or 'rocky'. 

*Karatara (C 3322 DD). Settlement 
and forestry station on the Karatara 
River which flows southwards into 
Swartvlei. It is situated 5 km west of 
Barrington and some 40 km north- 
west of Knysna. It was founded in 
1941. The name is of Khoekhoen 
origin and probably means 'horse 



hill', after a hillock to the north. 
Previously the Karatara River was 
known as the Tsao or Witterivier. 

*Kareedouw (C 3324 CD). Town 
114 km east-south-east of Avontuur, 
3 km west of Assegaaibos and 
50 km west of Humansdorp. It was 
founded in 1905. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and has been said 
to mean 'karee pass', after karee 
trees (Rhus spp.), or 'white gorge'. 
More probably, however, the pass 
was named after a Khoekhoen tribe 
which lived there, the 'A' Caree. 

*Kareefontein (O 2926 DA). Early 
name of Dewetsdorp. 'Karee foun- 
tain', from the kareeboom (Rhus 
sp.). 

*Karibib (S 2115 DD). Village 
192 km north-west of Windhoek, 
32 km east of Usakos and 66 km 



south of Omaruru. It developed from 
a trading post, followed by a 
Rhenish mission station in 1902. 
The name is of Khoekhoen origin 
and refers to a type of plant, of the 
Moraea species found there. Marble 
of high quality is quarried there. 

Kariega River (C 3325 AC-AD). 
Rises north-west of Uitenhage in 
the Great Winterhoek Mountains 
and flows eastwards to its conflu- 
ence with the Sundays River 8 km 
west of Kirkwood. The name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'(river of) many steenbok'. 

Kariega River (C 3326 AD-DA). 
Rises west of Grahamstown and 
flows southwards, entering the 
Indian Ocean some 3 km to the east 
of the mouth of the Bushmans 
River. Derived from Khoekhoen, 



the name means '(river of) many 
steenbok'. 

Karkloof River (N 2930). Rises 
south-east of Mooi River and flows 
south-east into the Albert Falls 
Dam some 15 km north of Pieter- 
maritzburg. Afrikaans for 'horse- 
cart ravine', the name is said to 
refer to a steep gorge on the road 
from Howick where in 1845 a 
farmer's cart was overturned and 
wrecked when his horses took 
fright. The Zulu name is 
Mlambomunye, 'one stream', 
'another stream'. 

Karoo (C 3019-3225). Semi-desert 
region encompassing more than 
half of the Cape Province, bounded 
by the Langeberg in the south and 
extending eastwards to Cradock, 
Pearston, Somerset East and 
Venterstad, and northwards into the 



Orange Free State. Also encoun- 
tered as Carro, Caro, Carrow, 
Karo, Karroo, Kuru and Xhaeruh, 
the name is of Khoekhoen origin 
and means 'hard', 'dry'. Sub- 
divisions include the Great Karoo 
north of the Swartberg, the Little 
Karoo between the Langeberg and 
the Swartberg, the Bo-Karoo north- 
west of Carnarvon, and so forth. 

*Karridene (N 3030 BB). Seaside 
resort at the mouth of the Umzim- 
baza River, 37 km south-west of 
Durban, between Illovo Beach and 
Umkomaas. Named after Lieute- 
nant-Colonel Walter Karri-Davis, a 
mining magnate and owner of the 
ground where it was laid out. 

Karringmelksrivier (C 3419). 
Rises in the Akkedisberg and flows 
north-west to join the Kleinrivier at 
Oudekraal. Said to be an adaptation 



of Karel Nel, the name of an early 
inhabitant of the region, and not 
from Afrikaans karringmelk, 
'buttermilk'. 

*Kasouga (C 3326 DA). Settlement 
some 10 km north-east of Kenton on 
Sea, near the mouth of the Kasuka 
River. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and means 'place of 
many tigers (leopards)'. The river 
name Kasuka has the same meaning; 
it is a Xhosa adaptation. 

Kasuka River (C 3326 DA). Rises 
in the hills between Bathurst and 
Kenton on Sea and flows south-east 
to enter the Indian Ocean near 
Kasouga, some 6 km north-east of 
the mouth of the Kariega River. Of 
Khoekhoen origin but adapted to 
Xhosa, the name means 'many 
tigers' (ie leopards). 



Kat River (C 3226 DB-DC). Tribu- 
tary of the Great Fish River. It rises 
in the Winterberg 30 km north of 
Fort Beaufort and flows south to 
enter the Fish north-east of Fort 
Brown. Afrikaans for 'cat river', the 
name is translated from Khoekhoen 
Hunca, probably referring to wild- 
cats which were encountered there. 
It gave its name to the Katberg, the 
Katberg Pass and the Kat River 
Settlement. 

Kaukauveld (1820-2022). Region 
bounded by the Okavango River in 
the north, the Omuramba Omatako 
in the north-west and west, the 
Sandveld in the south and the Oka- 
vango Swamps in the east. Named 
after the Kaukau San, also known as 
the Auen. 

Kayeni (N 3030 CB). Stream some 
9 km east of Pietermaritzburg. 



Derived from Zulu, the name means 
'place of the Natal thorn trees' 
(Acacia natalitia). 

K D Matanzima Airport (Trsk 
3128 DA). Airport some 12 km 
northwest of Umtata. Presumably 
named after Chief Kaizer 
Matanzima (1915-), Prime Minister 
of Transkei from 1963 to 1986. 

Keboes (C 2821 CA). Khoekhoen 
name of Kanoneiland. The name, an 
onomatopoeic rendering of the 
sound of a cannon (kanon in 
Afrikaans), is said to refer to 
punitive expeditions against free- 
booters about 1878. 

Keeromsberg (C 3319 DA). 
Mountain some 15 km north-east of 
Worcester and 11 km south-west of 
De Dooms. The name is Afrikaans 
for 'turn around mountain', indica- 



ting that it was impossible to con- 
tinue. The names of the Keeroms 
River and the Keerom Dam into 
which it flows have the same origin. 

*Keetmanshoop (S 2618 CA). 
Town 502 km south of Windhoek. 
Founded as a Rhenish mission 
station in 1866, it developed into a 
town, being administered by a town 
council after 1909 and attaining 
municipal status in 1913. It was 
named after Johann Keetman, 
chairman in 1866 of the Rhenish 
Missionary Society. The Nama 
name of the place, Nugoaes, means 
'black mud'. 

*Keimoes (C 2820 DB). Town on 
the northern bank of the Orange 
River, 43 km south-west of 
Upington and 76 km north of Ken- 
hardt. It attained municipal status in 
1949. The name is of Khoekhoen 



origin and means 'large eye', ie 
spring or fountain. 

Kei River (Trsk 3227-3228). River 
rising in a great semi-circle of head- 
waters and flowing into the Indian 
Ocean at Kei Mouth, north-east of 
East London. The major tributaries 
are the White Kei, the Black Kei, 
and the Tsomo. Of Khoekhoen 
origin, the name Kei means 'sand 
(river)'. The Transkei takes its name 
from this river. 

*Kei Road (C 3227 DA). Village 
27 km north-east of King William's 
Town and 24 km south-east of 
Stutterheim. It was so named after 
its situation on the military road 
between King William's Town and 
the Kei River. 

Keisie River (C 3320). Tributary of 
the Kingna River. It flows east 



along the northern circle of the 
Langeberge and bends south to unite 
with the Kingna south-west of 
Montagu. The name is of Khoek- 
hoen origin and means 'ugly'. The 
reference is not clear. 

*Keiskammahoek (Cis 3227 CA). 
Town on the Keiskamma River, 
42 km north-west of King William's 
Town and 37 km south-west of 
Stutterheim. Originally a frontier 
post, it became a village after 1853 
and attained municipal status in 
1904. Takes its name from the 
Keiskamma River. 

Keiskamma River (C 3327). Rises 
in the Amatole Mountains in the 
Middeldrift and Victoria East 
districts, and flows in a south- 
easterly direction, entering the 
Indian Ocean at Hamburg, 50 km 
south-west of East London. The 



name is of Khoekhoen origin and 
means 'puffadder river'. The 
Portuguese name for this river was 
Rio de Sao Christovao. 

Keiweg see Kei Road 

*Kempton Park (T 2628 AA). 
Town about 45 km south of Pretoria 
and 27 km east-north-east of Johan- 
nesburg. It was founded in 1903 on 
the farm Zuurfontein, acquired a 
health committee in October 1935 
and achieved municipal status in 
October 1942. It is said to have been 
named after Kempten in Germany, 
home of the owner of the farm, Karl 
F Wolff. Another explanation is that 
he named it after Kempton Park, a 
horse-racing centre in England. 

*Kenhardt (C 2921 AC). Town on 
the Hartbees River, 110 km south of 
Upington and 227 km north-west of 



Carnarvon. It was founded in 1876, 
a village management board was 
instituted in 1881, and municipal 
status achieved in 1909. The origin 
of the name is unknown. 

Kerete (C 3119 DA). Khoekhoen 
name of Rebunieberg, meaning 'do 
not call'; the reference is unknown. 

*Kerkenberg (O 2829 CA). Moun- 
tain in the Drakensberg, near the 
Natal border, some 30 km east of 
Witsieshoek. Named thus in Novem- 
ber 1837 by the Reverend Erasmus 
Smit after three adjoining open 
spaces which he felt would serve 
admirably as a place of worship. 

*Kestell (O 2828 BC). Town 46 km 
west of Harrismith and 45 km east 
of Bethlehem. It was laid out in 
1905 on the farms Mooifontein and 
Driekuil, acquired a village manage- 



ment board in 1906 and became a 
municipality in 1906. Named after 
the Reverend John Daniel Kestell 
(1854-1941), minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church, author and 
cultural leader. 

*Keurbooms River (C 3323). Rises 
in the Outeniqua Mountains and 
flows south-east and south to enter 
the Indian Ocean at Plettenberg Bay. 
Named after the keurboom trees 
(Virgilia capensis), growing along 
the banks. The form Keurbooms- 
rivier is preferred for official use. 

Kgalagadi (Bots 2522-2622). Dis- 
trict of which Tsabong is the head- 
quarters, bordered by the Nossob 
River in the west and the Molopo in 
the south. The name is Tswana and 
is said to mean 'semi-desert'. 



Kgatleng (Bots 2426). District of 
which Mochudi is the capital and 
through which the Notwane River 
flows. Probably named after the 
Bakgatla tribe which lives there. 

Khahlamba (C 3027). Zulu name of 
the Witteberge, spurs of the 
Drakensberg. Said to mean 'any- 
thing thrown on a heap', 'a barrier 
as of pointed spears' etc, referring 
to the rugged appearance of these 
mountains. See Drakensberg for 
alternative spellings. 

Khambathi (N 2930). Zulu name 
for Table Mountain 20 km east of 
Pietermaritzburg. Meaning 'camel- 
thorn tree', it was bestowed because 
it has a flat top, just as this tree has. 

Kharaes (C 2821 AC). Khoekhoen 
name of Upington, meaning 'place 
of gravel', referring to the stones 



washed by the Orange River. The 
spellings Karis and Kharahes are 
also encountered. 

Khomas-Hochland (S 2216). Pla- 
teau west of Windhoek, north-west 
of the Kuiseb River and south-east 
of the Swakop River. The element 
Khomas is of Khoekhoen origin and 
signifies hilly or mountainous, 
rough terrain. Hochland is German 
for 'plateau', 'highland'. 

*Khorixas (S 2014 BD-2015 AC). 
Principal town of Damaraland, 
28 km south-south-west of Frans- 
fontein and 135 km west-south-west 
of Outjo. Of Khoekhoen origin, the 
name refers to a type of tree 
growing there, 'waterbos' in Afri- 
kaans, with edible berries resem- 
bling currants; possibly Salvadore 
persica. The town was formerly 
known as Welwitschia. 



*Khutsong (T 2627 AD). Township 
to the north-west of Carletonville. 
The name means 'place of rest'. 

*Kimberley (C 2824 DD). City 
180 km west-north-west of Bloem- 
fontein, 470 km south-west of 
Johannesburg and 980 km north-east 
of Cape Town. It developed from a 
diamond-mining camp known as 
Colesberg Kopje, De Beers New 
Rush and Vooruitzicht, the latter 
after the farm on which it 
originated. In 1873 it was declared a 
township and in 1877 attained 
municipal status. City status was 
attained in 1912. It was named after 
the British Colonial Secretary, the 
Earl of Kimberley. Tourist attrac- 
tions include the Big Hole and the 
diamond-mining museum. 

King Charles Mount (C 3318 CD). 
Early name (about 1624) for Devil's 



Peak. Named after King Charles I of 
England. At first the name was 
borne by part of Lion's Rump, but it 
was apparently transferred to the 
more imposing peak in deference to 
the monarch. 

King George's Cataract (C 2820). 
Name given by the missionary 
George Thompson to the Augrabies 
Falls; after King George IV of 
England. 

King James his Mount (C 3318 
CD). Early name for Lion's Rump. 

Also encountered as James' Mount, 
Jeames Mount and Saint James 
Mount, it was named after King 
James of England. 

*Kingsborough (N 3030 BB). 

Borough on the Natal South Coast, 
32 km south-west of Durban. 
Originally known as Southern Um- 



lazi, it comprises the holiday resorts 
Doonside, Illovo Beach, Karridene, 
St Winifred's Beach, Warner Beach 
and Winklespruit. It became a town- 
ship in October 1942 and reached 
borough status in August 1952. 
Probably named after Richard Philip 
(Dick) King (1811-1871) who rode 
along here from Durban to 
Grahamstown on horseback to 
secure assistance for beleaguered 
British troops in 1842. 

*King William's Town (C 3227 
CD). Town on the Buffalo River, 
54 km north-west of East London. 
Founded in 1835 on the site of a 
mission station established in 1825, 
it became the headquarters of the 
Province of Queen Adelaide, and in 
1847 the capital city of British 
Kaffraria. In 1861 it acquired civil 
status and was proclaimed a 



borough. It was named after King 
William IV of England. 

*Kinira (Trsk 3028 B). Tributary of 
the Mzimvubu. It rises in the 
Drakensberg north-east of Matatiele 
and flows south and south-east to 
join the main stream north-east of 
Mount Frere. Also encountered as 
Kenegha, Kenigha, Kenera and 
Kiniha, the name is said to be 
adapted from Khoekhoen and to 
mean 'many eland'. 

*Kinross (T 2629 AC). Village on 
the watershed between the Atlantic 
and Indian Oceans, between Devon 
and Trichardt, 42 km west of Bethal, 
19 km east of Leslie and about 
70 km north-north-east of Stander- 
ton. Proclaimed a village in Decem- 
ber 1915, it acquired municipal 
status about 1965. Named after 
Kinross in Scotland, some say by 



engineers constructing the Springs- 
Breyten railway, others by the 
surveyor of the town. 

*Kirkwood (C 3325 AD). Town in 
the Sundays River Valley, 80 km 
north-west of Port Elizabeth and 
51 km north of Uitenhage. It was 
called Bayville in 1885 but re- 
established in 1913 on the farm 
Gouvernementswoning and named 
after John Somers Kirkwood, who 
pioneered the development of 
irrigation locally. It acquired 
municipal status in March 1950. 

*Klaarstroom (C 3322 BC). 
Village at the northern end of 
Meiringspoort, about 60 km east of 
Prince Albert and 95 km north-west 
of Uniondale. Originally named 
Pietersburg, its present name, 
Afrikaans for 'clear stream', 
probably refers to waters flowing 



from the Swartberg into the 
lowlands. 

Klaarwater (C 2823 CC). Early 
name of Griquatown. Afrikaans for 
'clear water', the name is translated 
from Khoekhoen Gattikamma. 

Klapmutskop (C 3318 DD). Hill 
near Klapmuts station, 11 km south- 
west of Paarl and 16 km north of 
Stellenbosch. Named after a type of 
Dutch cap with ear-flaps, because 
the hill has trees on top and down 
two sides. The station was called 
Bennettsville, after a person of the 
name Bennett who offered land for 
sale. The name occurs as 
Clapmusbergh in documents dating 
from 1657. 

*Klapperkop (T 2528). Hill south- 
east of Pretoria, on which is situated 
Fort Klapperkop. 'Rattle hill', the 



name is derived from the Afrikaans 
hotter klapper, after the Strychnos 
pungens which grows on the hills, 
the fruit of which is edible and the 
seeds of which rattle in the dried 
fruit. 

*Klawer (C 3118 DC). Town 24 km 
west-south-west of Vanrhynsdorp 
and 283 km north of Cape Town. 
From the Afrikaans word for a type 
of wild clover which grows there 
after the rains. 

*Klein-Brakrivier 
see Little Brak River 

*Kleinmond (C 3418 BC). Town 
and seaside resort in Sandown Bay, 
16 km east of Betty's Bay and 
101 km south-east of Cape Town. 
Proclaimed a township in 1929, it 
acquired municipal status in 1959. It 
was originally named Kleinmond- 



strand, 'small mouth beach', be- 
cause of its situation at the 'small 
mouth' of the Bot River, which 
forms a lagoon for the greater part 
of the year. In 1960 the name was 
shortened to Kleinmond. The 
Afrikaans author D F Malherbe had 
a seaside cottage there and it was 
the setting of his novel Hans die 
Skipper. 

*Kleinsee (G2917 CA). Village just 
south of Grootmis, at the mouth of 
the Buffets River, 72 km south-east 
of Port Nolloth and 105 km west of 
Springbok. Known for its diamond- 
mining operations. Founded after 
1927. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'small sea', referring to a 
lagoon at the mouth of the Buffets 
River. 

*Klerksdorp (T 2626 DC). Town 
on the Schoonspruit, 166 km south- 



west of Johannesburg and 138 km 
north of Welkom. Already settled by 
1837 and named by 1853, it devel- 
oped rapidly after the discovery of 
gold in 1886 and acquired municipal 
status in 1903. It was named after 
the first landdrost, Jacob de Clerq 
(popularly De Klerk) (1791-1888). 
The mines here are very rich and 
produce 11 per cent of the world's 
free gold. 

*Klipplaat (C 3324 AB). Town in 
the Jansenville district, some 
200 km north-west of Port Elizabeth 
and 75 km south-east of Aberdeen. 
It takes its name from large slabs of 
rock on the surface of the ground; 
from Afrikaans klip, 'stone', 'rock'; 
plaat, 'sheet', 'slab'. 

*Klip River (N 2829 BC-DB). 
Tributary of the Tugela River, rising 
near Van Reenen's Pass and flowing 



south to its confluence with the 
Tugela some 19 km south-east of 
Ladysmith. Afrikaans for 'stone 
river', the name has been given to 
the district. The form Kliprivier is 
preferred for official use. 

*Kliprivier see Klip River 

*Kloof (N 2930 DD). Town 
between Pinetown and Emberton, 
27 km north-west of Durban. 
Proclaimed a town in 1942, it 
became a municipality in 1961. 
Originally it was named Kranzkloof, 
from Afrikaans krans, 'cliff and 
kloof, 'ravine', after a gorge flanked 
by steep cliffs. The respective 
names were transferred to the Kloof 
Falls and the Kranzkloof Nature 
Reserve. 

Kloof Nek (C 3318 CD). Saddle 
connecting Lion's Head to Table 



Mountain. 'Ravine', 'col', or 
'saddle'. The kloof was named by 
1653. The nek was formerly also 
known as Vlaggemans Hoogte. 

Knersvlakte (C 3118 BC). Arid 
region bounded by the Hardeveld in 
the west, the Bokkeveld Mountains 
in the east, the Kliprante in the north 
and the Olifants River in the south. 
Afrikaans for 'gnashing flat', the 
name would appear to refer to the 
harsh, waterless landscape and the 
misery it occasioned travellers in 
former times. It has also been 
explained as named after a person 
called Knecht, or servants (Dutch 
knecht); the spelling Knechtsvlakte 
does occur. 

*Knysna (C 3423 AA). Town on the 
Knysna Lagoon, at the mouth of the 
Knysna River, 68 km east of George 
and 33 km west of Plettenberg Bay. 



It was formed in 1882 by the amal- 
gamation of two hamlets, Melville, 
founded in 1825, and Newhaven, 
founded in 1846. Municipal status 
was attained in 1881. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and probably 
means 'ferns' or 'fern-leaves'. 

*Koes (S 2519 CC). Village 145 km 
north-east of Keetmanshoop and 
66 km south of Eindpaal. 
Proclaimed a township in 1952, it 
came under the administration of a 
village management board in 1957. 
The name is of Khoekhoen origin 
and means 'place of villains', 'place 
where dishonest people were found'. 

Koesberg (O 3026 BD). Mountain 
about 10 km west-north-west of 
Zastron and 20 km north-east of 
Rouxville. The name is presumably 
derived from the San word for a 
type of jackal, Vulpes chama. 



*Koffiebaai see Coffee Bay. Both 
forms have approved status, but the 
latter is preferred for official use. 

*Koffiefontein (O 2925 AC). Town 
on the Riet River, 55 km northwest 
of Fauresmith, 42 km south-east of 
Jacobsdal and 58 km southwest of 
Petrusburg. It grew from a diamond- 
diggers' camp and was proclaimed a 
town in 1892. Municipal status was 
subsequently acquired. Literally 
'coffee fountain', the origin of the 
name is uncertain. 

Koffierivier (C 3127). Alternative 
name of Maxongo. Afrikaans for 
'coffee river', the name may refer to 
the colour of the water when the 
river is in flood, or to the practice in 
former times of stopping there to 
drink coffee. 

Kogmanskloof see Cogmans Kloof 



Koignas (C 3219). Khoekhoen name 
for the Dwars River. It means 
'transverse river', 'athwart river', so 
that the Afrikaans name is a 
translation. 

*Kokstad (C 3029 CB). Principal 
town of the district of Mount Currie, 
164 km north-east of Umtata and 
72 km east-south-east of Matatiele. 
It was founded in 1871 by the 
missionary William Dower, and 
became a municipality in April 
1892. Named after the Griqua chief, 
Adam Kok III (1811-1875) who in 
1862 led his followers there from 
Philippolis. 

*Kolmanskop (S 2615 CA). Ghost 
town and station 16 km southeast of 
Luderitz. Founded as the result of 
the discovery of diamonds in 1908. 
Said to be an adaptation of the 
surname Coleman. 



*Komaggas (C 2917 DC). Settle- 
ment 40 km south-west of Spring- 
bok and 45 km north of Soebats- 
fontein, on the Kamaggas River, a 
tributary of the Buffels River. 
Founded as a station of the London 
Missionary Society in 1829, it was 
taken over by the Rhenish Mission- 
ary Society in 1843 and by the 
Dutch Reformed Church in 1936. 
Variously explained as 'abundance 
of maws of animals' and 'place of 
many wild olive-trees'; the latter 
explanation is probably correct. 

*Komatipoort (T 2531 BD). Town 
at the confluence of the Komati and 
Crocodile rivers, 93 km north-west 
of Maputo and 120 km east of 
Nelspruit. Named after the gorge 
(Afrikaans poort) 200 m deep which 
the Komati River has cut through 
the Lebombo Mountains. The word 



Komati is of Swazi origin and 
means 'river of cows', ie hippos. 

Komati River (T 2530-2632). Rises 
near Ermelo and flows 700 km east, 
then north and then south to enter 
the Indian Ocean in Delagoa Bay 
21 km north of Maputo. Derived 
from Swazi, the name is said to 
mean 'river of cows', meaning 
'hippos'. Other names borne by this 
river include Incomati, King George 
River, Manice, Manissa, Oelwand- 
hla, Oemkomagati, Oemkomagazi 
and Oemkomanzi. 

*Komga (C 3227 DB). Town 64 km 
north of East London and 55 km 
east of Stutterheim. It was founded 
as a farming centre in 1877 on the 
site of a military camp established 
in 1854, and acquired municipal 
status in 1904. Of Khoekhoen 
origin, the name probably does not 



mean 'brown', as has been stated, 
but 'lots of clay', 'clayey'. 

*Kommadagga (C 3325 BB). 
Settlement 28 km west-north-west 
of Riebeek East and 49 km north of 
Paterson. The name is Khoekhoen 
and probably means 'oxland' or 'ox 
hill'. The origin is uncertain. 

*Kommetjie (C 3418 AB). Seaside 
village on the western coast of the 
Cape Peninsula, about 7 km north- 
west of Scarborough, and south- 
west of Noordhoek. The Afrikaans 
name means 'little basin'. 

*Kommetjiesvlakte (C 3227). 
Region between the Amatole Moun- 
tains and the sea, situated roughly 
between Breakfast Vlei and the 
Great Fish River. Afrikaans for 
'plain of little depressions' or 'small 
hollows flat', the name refers to 



numerous depressions on an average 
3 m x 2 m big, and so close together 
that a wagon could not fit between 
them. The name has been adapted to 
Committees Flats. Also known as 
Amalinda, from Xhosa meaning 
'wait'. This was the scene of a battle 
in 1818 between the Xhosa chiefs 
Ndhlambe and Gaika. 

*Kompasberg see Compassberg 

*Komsberg (C 2820 DD). Mountain 
some 18 km south-west of Keimoes 
and 26 km east-south-east of Kaka- 
mas. Derived from Khoekhoen, the 
name probably means 'rough moun- 
tain', skurweberg in Afrikaans. 

Konakwasberg (C 3118 CD). 
Mountain in the Vredendal district, 
south of the mouth of the Olifants 
River. Probably not named after the 
Konaqua or Gonaqua Khoekhoen, as 



has been stated, but derived from 
Khoekhoen and meaning 'cow 
marsh mountain'; the modern name 
Koeivleiberg is a translation. The 
forms Kannakies and Knakkiesberg 
are derived from it. 

Koningsberg (N 2729 DD). Moun- 
tain 1 995 m high, 16 km to the west 
of Newcastle and about 25 km 
south-east of Memel. It appears to 
take its name from Konigsberg in 
Germany, birthplace of the Reve- 
rend A Prozesky who founded the 
Konigsberg station of the Berlin 
Missionary Society here in 1868. 
Literally 'king's mountain'. 

Konkiep River (S 2616-2816). 
Tributary of the Fish River. It rises 
in the Rooirand near Helmering- 
hausen and flows south past 
Bethanien and Goageb to enter the 
Fish east of Verneukberg. The name 



is an adaptation of Goageb, Khoek- 
hoen for 'twin river'. 

*Koo (C 3319 DB). Region between 
Montagu and Matroosberg station. 
Of Khoekhoen origin, the name 
refers to the Fockea edulis growing 
there. It has been adopted as brand- 
name for canned fruit, vegetables 
and jams. 

Koonap River (C 3226 BC-CB- 
DB). Tributary of the Great Fish 
River, which rises in the Winterberg 
and flows south-west past Adelaide 
and then south-east to enter the 
mother stream 35 km north of 
Grahamstown. The name, of Khoek- 
hoen origin, may mean 'murder 
hole'. The incident to which the 
name refers has been forgotten. 

*Koopmansfontein (C 2824 AA). 
Village 61 km north-west of Barkly 



West, 115 km east of Postmasburg, 
between Kimberley and Hotazel. 
Said to have been named after a 
Griqua called Koopman, who lived 
at the fountain. 

*Koppies (0 2727 BA). Town 
63 km north-east of Kroonstad, 
48 km west of Heilbron and 42 km 
south-south-east of Parys. It was 
laid out as a township in 1910 and 
became a municipality in 1926. For- 
merly Kopjes, meaning 'hills', the 
name is derived from that of the 
farm on which it was laid out, 
Honingkopjes, Dutch for 'honey 
hills', and has nothing to do with 
wild sage or vaalbos 

(Tarchonanthus camphor atus). That 
Koppies, to which Pettman referred 
in South African Place Names, is 
situated in Griqualand West. 



*Korannaberg (C 2722). Mountain 
forming an extension of the Lang- 
berg northwards from Dibeng: 
Named after the Kora or Koranna, 
an important Khoekhoen people. 

Korannaland (C 2820). Region 
inhabited by and named after the 
Koranna (Korana, Koraqua, etc.) 
Khoekhoen. From about 1773 to 
1870 the name was applied to the 
Orange River Valley from Koegas 
westward to the Augrabies Falls. It 
was also used to designate the entire 
area forming the present district of 
Gordonia. 

*Koringberg (C 3318 BA). Village 
146 km north-north-east of Cape 
Town and 17 km north of Moorrees- 
burg. Founded at Warren's Camp in 
1923, it was thus named because it 
is situated in a wheat growing area. 



The name is Afrikaans and means 
'wheat mountain'. 

Korouw (C 3227). Khoekhoen name 
of the Nkolo, a tributary of the 
Nahoon River. The Xhosa name is 
adapted from the Khoekhoen which 
means 'claw'. 

Kosi Bay (N 2632 DD). Lagoon on 
the eastern seaboard, just south of 
Ponta do Ouro, north of Boteler 
Point, several kilometres south of 
the Mocambique border. The name 
is said to be derived from Zulu 
ukosi or ukozi, for the black eagle 
(Aquila verreauxi). Another expla- 
nation links the name with that of 
the Mkuze River, said to have been 
applied here in error by Captain W F 
Owen who surveyed the coast in 
1822. 



Kosmos (T 2527 DB). Township 
and pleasure resort on the western 
shore of the Hartebeespoort Dam. 
Derived from the Greek word for the 
universe, the name was given by 
Johan Schoeman, founder of the 
township, inspired by the serenity of 
a moonlit night while he was rowing 
on the dam. 

*Koster (T 2526 DD). Town 58 km 
south-west of Rustenburg and 72 km 
west-north-west of Magaliesburg. It 
was founded on the farm Klein- 
fontein in 1913, and has been 
administered by a village council 
since January 1931. Said to have 
been named either after Dr Herman 
Jacob Coster (1866-1899), State 
Attorney of the South African 
Republic, after its surveyor, or after 
Bastiaan Hendricus Koster, owner 



of the farm Kleinfontein. The latter 
explanation seems most plausible. 

*Koue-Bokkeveld 
see Cold Bokkeveld 

Koueveld (C 3223-3224). Region 
with the Sneeuberg extending across 
it, between Graaff-Reinet and 
Murraysburg. Takes its name from 
the climate in winters when the 
mountains are covered with snow. 
Afrikaans, 'cold veld'. 

Kouga (C 3323-3324). Tributary of 
the Gamtoos, rising 5 km south of 
Uniondale and flowing eastwards 
through the Joubertina, Hankey and 
Humansdorp districts, entering the 
Gamtoos some 35 km north-west of 
Humansdorp, just west of Andries- 
kraal. The name is Khoekhoen and 
means 'many hippos'. The Kouga 
Mountains to the north and the 



Kouga region take their names from 
this river. 

*Koup see Goup 

Kouwe (O 2927 CA). Khoekhoen 
or San name of Jammerberg. It 
means 'mountain of regret', so that 
the Afrikaans name is a translation. 

Kowie (C 3326 BC-DB). River 
with a tidal mouth navigable for 
35 km. It rises south of 
Grahamstown and flows 60 km in a 
southeasterly direction, entering the 
Indian Ocean at Port Alfred. The 
name is probably derived from 
Khoekhoen and means 'pipe river'. 

Kowyn's Pass (T 2430 DD). Moun- 
tain pass in the Drakensberg, 
between Graskop and Bosbokrand. 
Named after a former tribal chief. 



*Kraai River (C 3223-3224). River 
which rises in the Kamdeboberg 
and flows south and then east past 
Aberdeen. Not Afrikaans for 'crow 
river', but derived from Khoekhoen 
karee, referring to the kareeboom 
(Rhus sp.). The name is also 
encountered as Kalij and Rare. The 
form Kraairivier is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Kraairivier see Kraai River 

Kraairivier (C 3026-3027). Tribu- 
tary of the Orange. It rises west of 
Naude's Nek in the Barkly East 
district and flows in a westerly 
direction through the Lady Grey 
district, entering the main stream 
5 km north-east of Aliwal North. 
Although the name appears to be 
Afrikaans for 'crow river', it is an 
adaptation of 'Grey river', after 
General Henry George Grey. He 



was commander of the troops when 
the name was applied by Colonel R 
Collins in 1809, and later became 
Acting Governor of the Cape 
Colony. 

Kraggakamma (C 3325-3425). 
Region comprising the promontory 
between St Francis Bay and Algoa 
Bay, between the Van Stadens and 
Swartkops rivers. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and probably 
means 'place of fresh water'. 

*Krakeel River (C 3323 DD). 

Tributary of the Kouga; rises to the 
north of Formosa Peak in the Tsitsi- 
kamma Mountains and flows 
northwards to join the main stream. 
From Dutch krakeel, meaning 
'quarrel', the name is said to be 
derived from a 'quarrel' which 
results during floods at the conflu- 
ence of the river with a tributary 



previously called the Apple River. 
The name has been transferred to 
the village. 

*Krakeel River (C 3323 DD). 

Village in the Langkloof, east of 
Avontuur and some 200 km from 
Port Elizabeth. The name is taken 
from that of the river. The form 
Krakeelrivier is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Krakeelrivier see Krakeel River 

*Kranskop (N 2830 DD). Town 
some 37 km north-east of Greytown 
and 32 km south of Jameson's Drift 
in the Tugela. It was founded in 
1894 and has been administered by a 
health committee since 1936. 
Originally Hopetown, it was renam- 
ed to avoid confusion with Hope- 
town in the Cape. It takes its name 
from a prominent peak of 1 127 m 



with almost vertical faces; the 
Afrikaans name means 'cliff hill'. 
The Zulu name is Ntunjambili, 'two 
openings'. 

Krokodilrivier 
see Crocodile River 

Kromellenboogspruit (O 2925). 
Tributary of the Riet River. It rises 
near Jagersfontein and flows north 
to enter the main stream east of the 
Kalkfontein Dam. Dutch for 
'crooked elbow stream', the name 
refers to a sharp bend in its course. 

Kromelmboogspruit (O 2627 D- 
2727 D). Tributary of the Vaal 
River. It rises near Heilbron and 
flows north-west to enter the Vaal 
between Parys and Sasolburg. The 
name is Afrikaans and means 
'crooked elbow stream'. 



*Kroonstad (O 2727 CA). Town on 
the Vals River, 217 km northeast of 
Bloemfontein and 208 km south- 
west of Johannesburg. It was laid 
out on the farm Klipplaatsdrift in 
1855. Generally accepted to have 
been named after Kroondrift, a ford 
so called because a horse named 
Kroon broke its leg there. Explana- 
tions linking the name to Kronstadt 
near Leningrad and to the English 
Crown (Afrikaans kroon) are 
dismissed. 

Kruger National Park (T 2230- 
2531). Game reserve in the north- 
eastern Transvaal, bounded in the 
north by the Limpopo River, in the 
east by Mocambique, in the south by 
the Crocodile River and in the west 
by a surveyor's line. Founded in 
1898, it was gradually enlarged and 
named after Stephanus Johannes 



Paulus Kruger (1825-1904), last 
President of the South African 
Republic. 

*Krugersdorp (T 2627 BB). Town 
33 km west of Johannesburg, 61 km 
south-west of Pretoria and 88 km 
south-east of Rustenburg. It was laid 
out in 1887 on the farm Paardekraal 
as public gold-diggings. A health 
board was established in 1902 and 
municipal status attained in 1903. 
Named after President Stephanus 
Johannes Paulus Kruger of the 
South African Republic. 

Krugerskop (O 3025 BD). Hill 
some 5 km north-west of Bethulie. 
Named after Harm Kruger, owner of 
the farm on which it is situated. It 
was named Prins Willem de V Berg, 
after Prince William of Orange. 



*Krugerspos (T 2430 DC). Hamlet 
25 km north-east of Lydenburg and 
25 km south-west of Ohrigstad. It 
was named after Pieter Ernst 
Kruger, owner of the farm on which 
it was laid out. 

*Kruis River (C 3323 CC). Tribu- 
tary of the Knysna River. It rises 
near Dieprivier and flows west to 
enter the main stream north-west of 
Maraiskop. Meaning 'transverse 
water', 'athwart river', this Afri- 
kaans name is translated from 
Khoekhoen Goegamma. The form 
Kruisrivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Kruisrivier see Kruis River 

Kub (S 2417 AB). Settlement on the 
Fish River, in the Rehoboth district, 
19 km west of Kalkrand and 92 km 
north-east of Maltahohe. Founded 



about 1899. The name is derived 
from Nama //khub, 'thorn', so called 
after the numerous Acacia trees 
along the river. The first school for 
whites in South-West Africa 
/Namibia was opened herein 1903. 

Kubiskou Mountains (C 3019 CD). 
Range several kilometres northwest 
of Loeriesfontein. The name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'bald-headed fountain mountain'. 

*Kuils River (C 3318 DC). Rises 
south of Durbanville and flows 
southwards across the Cape Flats, 
losing itself in the sands near False 
Bay. Originally named De Kuylen, 
'the pools', because in summer it 
often dried up, leaving only a series 
of pools. The present Afrikaans 
name has the same meaning. The 
form Kuilsrivier is preferred for 
official purposes. 



*Kuils Rivier (C 3318 DC). Town 
in the Stellenbosch district, 25 km 
east of Cape Town. Originally De 
Cuylen, it was a post of the Dutch 
East India Company. It developed 
into a village during the 18th cen- 
tury and attained municipal status in 
1950. Takes its name from the river, 
in which there are many pools, 
Afrikaans kuil. 

*Kuilsrivier see Kuils River 

Kuiseb River (S 2314-2316). Rises 
in the Khomas-Hochland and 
extends south-west and then north- 
west to lose itself in the sand south 
of Walvis Bay. The name is derived 
from Khoekhoen and probably 
means 'root river', after edible roots 
growing there. The Kuiseb forms an 
effective barrier to the sand-dunes to 
the south, as may be seen from 
satellite photographs. 



Kunene River (S 1711-1714). Rises 
at 12°40'S in Angola, flows south 
for 650 km and then westwards for 
some 300 km between Angola and 
South-West Africa/Namibia, enter- 
ing the Atlantic Ocean at 17° 15' S. 
Derived from an indigenous word, 
okunene, 'on the right (northern) 
side', referring to Angola. Known to 
early travellers as the Nourse, to the 
Ovambo as the Omulonga, and to 
the Herero as Omuronga, meaning 
'stream'. 

Kuniab River (S 2817 BB). Tribu- 
tary of the Gamkab River, joining it 
some 40 km north-east of Gamkab- 
mond on the Orange River. Of 
Khoekhoen origin, the name 
probably means 'nose river', referr- 
ing to a bluff or headland shaped 
like a nose. 



Kurukuru (C 3325-3326). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Suurberg and 
Suurveld. It means 'to make sour', 
referring to the sour, hard type of 
grass growing there. The Afrikaans 
component Suur, 'sour', is thus a 
translation. 

*Kuruman (C 2723 AD). Town, 
centre of mining activities, 160 km 
south-west of Vryburg and 232 km 
north-west of Kimberley. Laid out 
in 1887 on the left bank of the 
Kuruman River, it was administered 
by a village management board 
from 1913 and attained municipal 
status in 1916. The name is 
sometimes said to be derived from 
Tswana kurwana ('gourd') or from 
kludu ('tortoise'). It may be derived 
from Khoekhoen, meaning 'where 
wild tobacco stands'. 



Kwacao (C 3321-3322). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Olifants River; it 
means 'elephant river', so that the 
Afrikaans name is a translation. 

*KwaMashu (N 2930 DD). 
Township some 19 km north of 
Durban. Started in 1958 and com- 
pleted in 1969. The name is a Zulu 
adaptation of Marshall and means 
'the place of Marshall', referring to 
Sir Marshall Campbell (1848- 
1917), former member of the 
Legislative Assembly of Natal. 

*KwaMbonambi (N 2832 CA). 
Village, centre of sugar and timber 
areas, in the Lower Umfolozi 
district, 29 km north-east of 
Empangeni, 30 km south-west of 
Mtubatuba and 30 km north of 
Richards Bay. Zulu, 'place of the 
Mbonambi', a tribe which lived 
there, the name means 'ill-omen'. 



KwaMondi (N 2831 CD). Station 
of the Norwegian Missionary 
Society, 5 km from Eshowe. It was 
founded in 1860 by Bishop H P S 
Schreuder. The name is Zulu and 
means 'the place of Mondi'. Mondi is 
an adaptation of Ommund, referring to 
Ommund Oftebro, the first pastor there. 

KwaNogqasa (N 2930 AC). Zulu 
name of Howick and the Howick Falls. 
It means 'place of the tall (high) 
pouring one', referring to the waterfall. 

*Kwelera (C 3227-3228). River which 
rises south of Komga and flows south- 
south-east to enter the Indian Ocean 
about 5 km north-east of Gqunube 
Mouth at Gonubie. Presumably derived 
from Goerecha, a Khoekhoen name 
meaning 'many aloes'. 

*Kwenxura (C 3228). River which 
flows south-east and enters the Indian 



Ocean 5 km north-east of Cintsa Mouth 
and 10 km west-south-west of Haga- 
Haga. Presumably an adaption of 
Quenoncha, a Khoekhoen name 
encountered as early as 1752 and 
translated as 'people's ears'. 

*Kyalami (T 2628 AA). Motor-racing 
track 25 km north of Johannesburg. 
Started in 1961, it was widened and 
resurfaced in 1967. The name is of 
Zulu origin and means 'my home'. 



*Laaiplek (C 3218 CC). Former name 
of Velddrif. Afrikaans, the name means 
'loading-place'. 

*Ladismith (C 3321 AD). Town at the 
southern foot of the Little Swartberg, 
82 km south of Riversdale and 35 km 
west of Calitzdorp. It was laid out in 
1852 on the farm Elandsvlei, a 
municipality was instituted in 1862, 
and an elected municipal council 
installed in 1903. It was at first named 
Lady Smith, after the wife of Sir Harry 
Smith (1787-1860), Governor of the 
Cape Colony from 1847 to 1852. To 
avoid confusion with Ladysmith in 
Natal, established in 1850, the name 
was changed in 1879 to Ladismith. 

*Ladybrand (O 2927 AB). Town at 
the foot of the Platberg, 126 km east of 
Bloemfontein, 37 km south-east of 



Clocolan and 19 km north of Maseru. It 
was founded in 1867 on the farm 
Mauershoek and attained municipal 
status in 1904. Named after Lady 
Catharina Frederica Brand, wife of Sir 
Christoffel Brand (1797-1875), first 
Speaker of the Cape Legislative 
Assembly. 

*Lady Frere (Trsk 3127 CA). Princi- 
pal town of the Glen Grey district, 
situated on the Cacadu River, 51 km 
north-east of Queenstown and 53 km 
south-west of Cala. It was established 
in 1879, was administered by a village 
management council from 1886, and 
became a municipality in 1900. Named 
after the wife of Sir Bartle Frere (1815- 
1884), Governor of the Cape Colony 
from 1877 to 1880. 

*Lady Grey (C 3027 CA). Town at the 
foot of the Witteberge, 63 km east of 
Aliwal North and 93 km north-west of 



Barkly East. It was founded in 1858 on 
the farm Waaihoek and attained muni- 
cipal status in October 1893. Named 
after the wife of Sir George Grey 
(1812-1898), Governor of the Cape 
Colony from 1854 to 1859. 

*Ladysmith (N 2829 DD). Town on 
the Klip River, 251 km northwest of 
Durban, 25 km north of Colenso and 
60 km south-east of Van Reenen's 
Pass. It was founded in December 
1847, proclaimed in June 1850, became 
a township in 1882 and a borough in 
1889, At first known as Windsor, after 
a trader named George Windsor, it was 
renamed after the wife of Sir Harry 
Smith (1787-1860), Governor of the 
Cape Colony from 1847 to 1852. 

*Laersdrif (T 2529 BD). Town on 
the Steelpoort River, 27 km south- 
west of Roossenekal, 72 km north- 
east of Middelburg and 11 km north- 



east of Stoffberg. It was founded in 
1907 on the farms Swartkoppies and 
De Lagersdrift, and proclaimed a 
township in July 1953. It takes its 
name from the latter farm, which in 
turn was named after a ford (Afri- 
kaans drif, Dutch drift) at which a 
Boer commando laagered during the 
Mapoch War of 1882; a laager is 
laer in Afrikaans. 

*Laingsburg (C 3320 BB). Town 
on the Buffels River, a tributary of 
the Groot River, 274 km north-east 
of Cape Town and 125 km south- 
west of Leeu-Gamka. It was estab- 
lished on the farm Vischkuil aan de 
Buffels Rivier in 1881 and became a 
municipality in' 1906. Named after 
John Laing, Commissioner of 
Crown Lands in the Cabinets of 
Sprigg and Rhodes. 



Laing's Nek (N 2729 DB). Low 
mountain pass in the Drakensberg, 
some 8 km south of Volksrust and 
34 km north of Newcastle. Named 
after the owner of a farm at its base, 
a certain Laing. Scene of military 
action between the Boers and the 
British in January 1881. Sometimes 
called Lang's Nek or Langnek. 

Lake Arthur (C 3225 BB). Storage 
dam in the Tarka River, 21 km east- 
south-east of Cradock. Started in 
1921 and completed in 1922, it was 
named after Prince Arthur of 
Connaught (1883-1938), Governor- 
General of the Union of South 
Africa from 1920 to 1924. 

*Lake Chrissie (T 2630 AC). 
Natural pan 9 km long and 3 km 
wide, 24 km east of Breyten and 
32 km north-east of Ermelo. Named 
by Alexander McCorkindale, foun- 



der of the New Scotland settlement, 
after Christina Pretorius, daughter of 
Marthinus Wessel Pretorius. The 
form Chrissiesmeer is preferred for 
official use. 

Lake Fundudzi (Ven 2230 CD). 
Natural lake 5 km long and 3 km 
wide in the Soutpansberg Moun- 
tains, Sibasa district, some 20 km 
north-west of Thohoyandou. Sacred 
to the Bavenda. The name is 
possibly derived from the Venda 
verb meaning 'to bow', since the 
Bavenda bow with backs turned 
towards the lake in respect for a god 
of agriculture said to live in it. 
Another meaning given is 'the lake 
that covers a village', derived from 
a legend. Crocodiles are abundant 
and are considered sacred. In earlier 
times corpses were thrown into the 
lake to be devoured by them. 



Lake Marais (C 3319 CB). 
Alternative name for Brandvlei 
Dam. 

Lake Mentz (C 3325 AA). Dam in 
the Sundays River, some 15 km 
south-east of Waterford. Named 
after Colonel H Mentz, a former 
Minister of Water Affairs and 
Irrigation. 

Lake Ngami (Bots 2022 BC). 
Situated at the southern portion of 
the Okavango Delta, 80 km south- 
west of Maun. The name is said to 
be derived from San and to mean 
'giraffe', from the verb 'to rock', 
referring to the gait of these 
animals. The lake, fed by the Ngabe 
River (which probably has the same 
meaning), was discovered by 
Oswald, Murray and Livingstone in 
1849. 



Lake St Lucia (N 2732-2832). 
Freshwater lagoon some 10 km east 
of Hluhluwe. The northern part of it 
falls within a restricted missile 
range. The name is derived from 
Santa Lucia, given by Portuguese 
explorers in 1507. 

Lake Sibayi (N 2732 BC). 
Freshwater lake 8 km long and 5 km 
wide west of Hully Point. The name 
is derived from Zulu isibaya and 
means 'cattle-pen', 'circle', 'enclo- 
sure'; the land-locked lagoon 
reminded the cattle-keeping Zulu of 
this type of byre. 

*Lambertsbaai see Lambert's Bay 

*Lambert's Bay (C 3218 AB). Inlet 
in the Atlantic seaboard, 64 km west 
of Clanwilliam and 290 km north of 
Cape Town. It was named after Sir 
Robert Lambert, commander of the 



naval station at the Cape from 1820 
to 1821. Gave its name to the 
fishing village founded on the farm 
Otterdam in 1913, proclaimed a 
local area under a divisional council 
in 1929 and administered by a 
village management board since 
1934. 

*Lamontville (N 2930 DD). Town- 
ship south of Durban, on the Umlaas 
River and next to Mobeni. It was 
laid out in 1930 and named after the 
Reverend Archibald Lamont, then 
Mayor of Durban. 

Land van Waveren (C 3319). 
Region north of the Drakenstein 
Mountains, approximately corres- 
ponding to the present Tulbagh 
district. The name was bestowed in 
1699 by Willem Adriaan van der 
Stel in honour of the Oetgens van 
Waveren family, from which his 



mother was descended. Before this 
date, but also subsequent to it, the 
region bore the name Roodezand. 

*Langa (C 3318 DC). Township on 
the Cape Flats, 11 km southeast of 
the centre of Cape Town. Laid out 
in 1927. The name is Xhosa and 
means 'sun'. 

*Langberg (C 2822). Mountain 
range in the Northern Cape, extend- 
ing some 130 km from the north 
bank of the Orange River west of 
Prieska northwards to link up with 
the Korannaberg in the Postmasburg 
district. As regional name it 
includes the area from Boegoeberg 
northwards to Dibeng. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'long moun- 
tain'. 

*Langebaan (C 3318 AA). Village 
on the eastern shore of the Lange- 



baan Lagoon, the long inlet south of 
Saldanha Bay. Founded about 1870, 
it developed into an important 
fishing village and popular holiday 
resort. The name means 'long track' 
or 'course', and refers to the long 
stretch of beach. 

Langeberg (C 3319-3322). Moun- 
tain range extending about 200 km 
from Worcester, past Robertson, 
Montagu and Swellendam, to the 
proximity of George. The name is 
Dutch and means 'long mountain'. 

Langkloof (C 3322-3323). Valley 
160 km long and 8 to 16 km wide, 
between the Kammanassie and 
Kouga mountains in the north and 
the Tsitsikamma Mountains in the 
south, stretching from Herold, north 
of George, to Heights station, 12 km 
east of Joubertina. The name. 



meaning 'long ravine', was given by 
Isaq Schrijver in 1689. 

Lavumisa (Swa 2731 BD). Town in 
the Shiselweni district, some 
145 km south-east of Piet Retief and 
115 km south of Siteki, on the 
south-eastern border with Transvaal. 
Formerly named Gollel, the town 
was bisected by the Transvaal- 
Swaziland border, and the part in 
Swaziland renamed Lavumisa. The 
spelling of the name of the portion 
in Transvaal was changed to Golela. 

*Lawley (T 2627 BD). Township 
some 8 km south of Lenasia. Named 
after Sir Arthur Lawley, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Transvaal from 1902 to 
1906, when he became Governor of 
Madras. 

Leabua Jonathan Airport (Les 
2927 BC). Airport situated east of 



Maseru. Named after Leabua 
Jonathan (1914- ), Prime Minister of 
Lesotho from 1965 to 1986. 

Leandra (T 2628 BD). Township 
some 45 km east-south-east of 
Springs, comprising the former 
Eendrag and Leslie. The name is a 
combination of Leslie and Eendrag. 

Lebombo Mountains (2331-2732). 
Mountain range extending some 
800 km from beyond the Mkuzi 
River in the south past the Kruger 
National Park to south of the 
Limpopo River. It generally follows 
the borders between Transvaal and 
Mocambique and between Swazi- 
land and Mocambique. The name is 
said to be of Zulu origin and to 
mean 'big nose', ie 'big ridge'. 

*Leeudoringstad (T 2725 BA). 

Town 29 km east of Wolmaransstad, 



27 km north-east of Makwassie and 
253 km south-west of Johannesburg. 
It was laid out on the farm Rietkuil 
in 1918 and proclaimed in Decem- 
ber 1920. A health committee was 
instituted in 1927 (some say 1932), 
and a village council in October 
1958. Took its name from Leeuw- 
doorns, a railway station established 
in 1908. Scene of a disaster in 1932 
when a train with a cargo of dyna- 
mite blew up. The name is Afri- 
kaans for 'lion-thorn city', after the 
Harpagophytum procumbens which 
grows there. 

*Leeu-Gamka (C 3221 DB). Town 
at the confluence of the Leeu and 
Gamka rivers, 56 km north of Prince 
Albert and 78 km south-west of 
Beaufort West. Formerly the name 
was Fraserburg Road. The name is 
tautological, Leeu being Afrikaans 



for 'lion' and Gamka being Khoek- 
hoen for 'lion river'. 

Leeukop (C 3318 CD). Afrikaans 
name of Lion's Head; it has the 
same meaning. 

*Leeurivier (C 3222). Western 
tributary of the Gamka. Afrikaans 
for 'lion river', it has the same 
meaning as Gamka. 

*Leipoldtville (C 3218 AB). 
Village 40 km west-south-west of 
Clanwilliam and 27 km south-east 
of Lambert's Bay. Named after the 
Reverend C F Leipoldt, Dutch 
Reformed minister of Clanwilliam 
from 1884 to 1910 and father of the 
Afrikaans poet C Louis Leipoldt. 

*Lenasia (T 2627 BD). Township 
32 km south-west of the centre of 
Johannesburg, near Lenz. It was 
established in 1958. The name is 



probably derived from Lenz, plus 
the fact that Asians reside there. 

*Leonardville (S 2318 DB). Village 
on the Nossob River, 193 km north- 
east of Mariental, 97 km north-west 
of Aranos and 137 km south of 
Gobabis. Laid out on the farm 
Pretorius, it at first bore this name, 
but was subsequently renamed after 
the Reverend E J Leonard, a pioneer 
minister of the Dutch Reformed 
Church. 

Leribe (Les 2828 CC). Village 
some 20 km east of Ficksburg and 
32 km south-west of Butha Buthe. 
The name, given in 1853 by Mola- 
po, son of Moshesh, is said to mean 
either 'forehead', referring to a 
nearby rock shaped like a baboon's 
forehead, or 'undulating', referring 
to the appearance of the mountain 
slopes. Formerly it was known as 



Hlotse Heights, from its situation 
above the Hlotse River. 

*Leslie (T 2628 BD). Village 63 km 
west of Bethal and 56 km east- 
south-east of Springs. Administered 
by a village council, it was laid out 
on the farm Brakkefontein and 
proclaimed in December 1939, an 
extension being proclaimed in 
December 1957. Thought to be 
named after Leslie in Scotland. 
Marsh-gas from subterranean 
sources occurs; one has been 
burning continuously since 1936. 

Letaba (T 2330-2331). More 
correctly Great Letaba; tributary of 
the Olifants River. It rises near 
Haenertsburg at the northern extre- 
mity of the Drakensberg and flows 
eastwards for almost 100 km to its 
confluence with the main stream 
near the border of Mocambique. The 



name is derived from Northern 
Sotho le hlaba, dialectically le thaba, 
'sandy river'. The district of Letaba, 
with Tzaneen as principal town, 
takes its name from the river. 

*Letshoyang (T 2229). Former 
name of the salt-pan to the north- 
west of the Soutpansberg, which 
takes its name from it, ie 'place of 
salt'. 

*Levubu (T 2330 AB). Village 
some 10 km south-west of Remban- 
der. Takes its name from the 
Luvuvhu (or Levubu) River. 

*Leydsdorp (T 2330 DC). Ghost 
town 11 km south-west of Grave- 
lotte and 53 km south-east of 
Tzaneen. It developed from a gold- 
mining camp and was proclaimed in 
1890, but was virtually abandoned 
when gold was discovered on the 



Witwatersrand. Named after Willem 
Johannes Leyds (1859-1940), State 
Secretary of the South African 
Republic from 1888 to 1897. 

*Libode (Trsk 3129 CA). Village 
some 28 km east-north-east of 
Umtata and 75 km west-north-west 
of Port St Johns. Said to have been 
named after a former Pondo chief, 

*Lichtenburg (T 2626 AA). Town 
214 km west of Johannesburg and 
63 km south-east of Mafikeng. 
Founded in 1866 and proclaimed in 
April 1873, it became a municipality 
in 1904. Derived from Dutch lichten, 
'lights', the name is said to refer to 
a remark by President T F Burgers 
while proclaiming the town that it 
would be a shining beacon in the 
Western Transvaal, or to have been 
named after Lichtenburg near 
Durbanville in the Cape, where the 



lights of transport-riders could be 
seen from a distance. Scene of a 
diamond rush in the old days. 

*Lidfontein (S 2418 AA). Centre 
with postal and trading facilities in 
the Rehoboth district, 85 km north- 
east of Mariental. Afrikaans for 
'joint fountain', the name is a 
translation of Khoekhoen Anis. The 
reason for the name is not known. 

Liesbeek River (C 3418 AA). 
Tributary of the Black River, rising 
above Kirstenbosch on the eastern 
slopes of Table Mountain, and 
entering the main stream south of 
Observatory. The name is derived 
from Dutch, lies being a water-plant 
found in the Netherlands and proba- 
bly misapplied to a swamp-grass, 
Diplachne fusca; beek is a little 
stream. Originally this brook bore 



the names Amstel, Zoete and 
Varsche Rivier. 

Limietberg (C 3319 CA). Portion of 
a mountain range between the 
Elandskloof Mountains and Hawe- 
kwas Mountains, separating Wel- 
lington from the Tulbagh Valley. 
Said to have been the boundary or 
limit (Dutch limiet) of the Cape 
Colony at one stage. . 

*Limpopo (T 2228-2229). Second 
largest African river entering the 
Indian Ocean. It rises as the Marico 
and Crocodile, which unite and flow 
eastwards, debouching 80 km north 
of Delagoa Bay. Known to the 
Portuguese as Rio do Cobre, Rio do 
Ouro, to the Venda as Vhembe, to 
the Zulu as ukupopoza, and to the 
tribes of Mocambique as Mogom- 
bene Mele. Said to be derived from 
Ndebele ilimphopho, 'the river of 



the waterfall', applying to its upper 
course where such a feature occurs. 

*Lindley (O 2727 DD). Town 
60 km north-west of Bethlehem and 
78 km south-east of Kroonstad. It 
was laid out on the farm Brandhoek 
in 1875, proclaimed a town in May 
1878, donated to the Dutch 
Reformed Church Council in 1885, 
and transferred to the municipality 
in December 1891. Named after 
Daniel Lindley (1801-1881), Ameri- 
can Presbyterian missionary who 
became the first ordained minister to 
the Voortrekkers in January 1840. 
Razed to the ground in February 
1902 by British troops but later 
rebuilt. 

Lion's Head (C 3318 CD). Peak 
adjacent to and north-west of Table 
Mountain, named for its resem- 
blance to the head of a lion, or 



because there were many lions on it. 
It was known as Sugar Loaf in 
early times, because of its resem- 
blance to the conical loaf in which 
sugar was then supplied to grocers 
and from which it was chipped for 
sale to the public. The Dutch name 
was Suijkerbroot, sugar-loaf. 

Lion's Rump (C 3318 CD). Lower 
portion of the hill adjacent to and 
north-north-west of Table Moun- 
tain, adjoining Lion's Head. This 
hill is said to resemble a reclining 
lion, and the various parts were 
given names of parts of the body - 
head, rump and tail. The original 
Dutch names were translated. 
Lion's Rump formerly also bore the 
names King Charles' Mount and 
King James' Mount. 

Lion's Tail (C 3318 CD). Former 
name of Signal Hill, it was trans- 



lated from the Dutch Leeuwe Staart. 
It also bore the name of James' 
Point. 

*Little Brak River (C 3422 AA). 
Rises in the Outeniqua Mountains 
and flows 27 km southwards to 
enter the Indian Ocean between 
Mossel Bay and the mouth of the 
Great Brak River. The name is 
derived from the saline or brackish 
quality of the water. 

*Little Brak River (C 3422 AA). 
Seaside resort and town at the 
mouth of the Little Brak River 
13 km north of Mossel Bay, from 
which it takes its name. The form 
Klein-Brakrivier is preferred for 
official use. 

*Llandudno (C 3418 AB). Seaside 
settlement in the Wynberg district, 
on the west coast of the Cape 



Peninsula, 19 km south-west of 
Cape Town. Named after Llandu- 
dno in Wales. 

*Lobamba (Swa 2631 AC). Princi- 
pal royal village, situated 18 km 
south of Mbabane, in the Hhohho 
district, at the eastern part of the 
Enzulwini Valley. 

Lobatse (Bots 2525 BA). Town 
76 km north of Mafikeng and 
58 km north-west of Zeerust. Estab- 
lished early in the 20th century by 
the British South Africa Company, 
it has become an important indus- 
trial and administrative centre. The 
name is of Tswana origin and 
apparently means 'lumps of wood', 
referring to the appearance of hills 
in the vicinity. 

Loerie (C 3325 CC). Settlement 
some 25 km north-east of Jeffreys 



Bay and 11 km north-north-west of 
the mouth of the Gamtoos River. 
Said to take its name from the 
loeries or louries, a type of parrot 
(Turacus corythaix) occurring there. 

*Loeriesfontein (C 3019 CD). 
Town some 90 km north-west of 
Calvinia and 122 km north-east of 
Vanrhynsdorp. Attained municipal 
status in 1958. Said to have been 
named after large numbers of louries 
(Turacus corythaix), 'loerie' in 
Afrikaans, formerly occurring there. 
Conversely, it has been pointed out 
that louries do not occur here, and 
that the name is derived from the 
Afrikaans verb loer, 'peer', 'peep', 

'spy'. 

Lombardskop (N 2829 DD). Hill 
some 5 km from Ladysmith. Prob- 
ably named after Commandant Jan 
le Grange Lombard, one of the 



officers who invaded Natal in the 
Anglo-Boer War. During the Siege 
of Ladysmith a cannon was 
positioned on this hill. 

*Londina (T 2530). Region in the 
Lydenburg district, established in 
1867 by Alexander McCorkindale as 
a colony for Scottish immigrants. 
Presumed to be named after London 
in England. 

Londina South (T 2730 BB). Now 
Piet Retief. 

Long Tom Pass (T 2530 CA). 
Mountain pass between Lydenburg 
and Sabie, in the Drakensberg. Said 
to be named after a Creusot artillery 
piece, popularly called 'Long Tom', 
used by the Boers in the Second 
Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), and 
abandoned there. Two of these guns 



were taken over the pass by General 
Louis Botha in 1900. 

*Lootsberg (C 3124 DC-DD). 
Mountain between the Graaff-Reinet 
and Middelburg districts, in the 
Sneeuberg, on the eastern side of the 
basin in which Bethesda Road is 
situated. According to tradition the 
name was given because a certain 
Hendrik Loots was killed when his 
carriage overturned on the old pass. 

Lootsberg Pass (C 3124 DC). 
Mountain pass over the Sneeuberg 
between Middelburg and Graaff- 
Reinet, highest in the Karoo. Said to 
have been named after Hendrik 
Loots who was killed when his 
carriage overturned there. 

Lord Hill (S 2718 BA). Highest 
peak in the Great Karas Mountains, 
88 km south-east of Keetmanshoop. 



Named thus about 1836 by Sir 
James Edward Alexander after Lord 
Hill, who in 1828 succeeded the 
Duke of Wellington as Commander- 
in-Chief of the British Army. The 
German name of this peak is 
Schroffenstein. 

*Loteni see Lotheni 

Loteni Nature Reserve (N 2929 
AD-BC). Situated some 28 km north 
of Himeville and 7 km east of 
Lesotho. Takes its name from the 
Lotheni River. 

*Lothair (T 2630 AD). Village on 
the Bonny Brook, 65 km northeast 
of Ermelo and 29 km south-east of 
Chrissiesmeer. Situated in the area 
settled by Scottish immigrants, it 
was surveyed in 1878 and named 
after Lothair, the novel written by 



the Earl of Beaconsfield and 
published in 1870. 

Lotheni (N 2929 AD-DA). Tribu- 
tary of the Mkomazi. It rises in the 
Drakensberg south-west of Giant's 
Castle and flows south-east to enter 
the main stream south-west of 
Trafalgar Kop. Of Zulu origin, the 
name is said to mean 'at the ash', ie 
'ash river', referring to the grey and 
black stones which resemble ash. 

*Louis Botha Airport (N 2930 
DD). Situated south of the Mlazi 
Canal and east of Isipingo, about 
20 km south-west of Durban. Named 
after General Louis Botha (1862- 
1919), Boer leader, Prime Minister 
of Transvaal from 1907 and first 
Prime Minister of the Union of 
South Africa from 1910 to 1919. 



*Louis Trichardt (T 2329 BD). 
Principal town of the Soutpansberg 
district, 111 km north-east of 
Pietersburg. It was laid out on the 
farms Bergvliet and Rietvlei, sur- 
veyed in 1898 and proclaimed in 
February 1899. Municipal status 
was achieved in 1934. Named after 
Louis Trichardt (1783-1838), the 
Voortrekker leader. 

Lourens River (C 3418 BB). Rises 
in the Stellenboschberg and Hot- 
tentots Holland Mountains and 
flows south for 16 km to enter False 
Bay at the Strand. Said to be named 
after Johann Lorenz Fischer who in 
1673 established a post of the Dutch 
East India Company in Hottentots 
Holland. Also stated to have been 
named after a certain Lauwrens who 
drowned in it. At first it was called 
the Tweede Rivier. Second oldest 



bridge in South Africa was built 
over it in 1845. 

Louterwater River (C 3323 DA- 
DC). Tributary of the Kouga River. 
It rises in the Tsitsikamma Moun- 
tains and flows north-east through 
the Langkloof to the confluence 
10 km north-west of Krakeel River. 
Afrikaans for 'clear water river'. 
This stream has also borne the name 
of Apies, Groote Aapjes, Klippen- 
drift and Klipriviertjie. 

*Louwsburg (N 2731 CB). Town 
and seat of magistracy of the 
Ngotshe district, 53 km north-east of 
Vryheid and 45 km west of Magudu. 
Proclaimed a township in 1920, it is 
named after David Louw, a local 
pioneer. 

Lovu (N 2930-3030). River which 
rises west of Richmond and enters 



the Indian Ocean at Illovo Beach 
34 km south-west of Durban. Of 
Zulu origin, the name has been said 
to mean 'welcome', to be derived 
from the name of a type of tree 
(Cordia caffra), and to mean 'the 
wild, ill-tempered one'. Also 
encountered as Illovu, iLovu, uLovu, 
Illovo, etc, it has given its name to 
Illovo Beach and other places, as 
well as to a well-known sugar estate 
and a brand of golden syrup. 

*Loxton (C 3122 AD). Town in the 
Victoria West district, 68 km south- 
east of Carnarvon and 126 km north 
of Beaufort West. It was established 
on the farm Phezantefontein in 1899 
and became a municipality in 1905. 
Named after the owner of the farm, 
A E Loxton. Important wool pro- 
ducing centre. 



*Luckhoff (O 2924 DD). Town 
82 km north-west of Philippolis and 
56 km west of Fauresmith. It was 
established in 1892 on the farm 
Koffiekuil. Probably named after 
Heinrich Jacob Luckhoff (1842-1943), 
Minister of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in Fauresmith at that time. 

*Luderitz (S 2615 CA). Town on the 
bay Luderitzbucht, 319 km west of 
Seeheim and 298 km north-west of 
Oranjemund. Named Angra das 
Voltas by Dias in 1487 and Golfo de 
Sao Cristovao by him in 1488, and 
later named Angra Pequena. In 1883 it 
was settled by staff of a company of 
which Franz Adolf Eduard Luderitz 
(1834-1886) was head, and named 
Luderitzbucht after him; the name was 
later abbreviated to Luderitz. Municipal 
status was attained in 1920. 



Lufafa (N 3030 AA). Tributary of the 
Mkomazi. It rises north-west of Ixopo 
and flows east and then north to enter 
the main stream some 15 km south- 
west of Richmond. Of Zulu origin, the 
name is said to mean 'the fissure', or 
'at the cleft', referring to a chasm 
through which it flows. 

*Luneburg (N 2730 BC). Station of 
the Hermannsburg Mission Society just 
south of the Transvaal border, some 
17 km north-west of Paulpietersburg. 
Established in 1854, it was named after 
Liineburg in Germany. 

*Lusikisiki (Trsk 3129 BC). Village 
45 km north of Port St Johns in East 
Pondoland. It developed from a mili- 
tary camp established in 1894, was 
surveyed in 1902 and administered by a 
village management board since 1932. 
The name is onomatopoeic, derived 



from the rustling sound of reeds in the 
wind. 

*Lutzville (C 3118 CA). Village 22 km 
north-west of Vredendal and 45 km 
west of Vanrhynsdorp. Established at 
Vlermuisklip after August 1923 and 
named after its founder, Johan J Lutz. 

Luvuvhu (T 2231-2330). Tributary of 
the Limpopo River. Rises near 
Bandelierkop and flows east and north- 
east to enter the Limpopo near Pafuri. 
The name is derived from Venda 
Mvuvhu, a type of tree (Combretum 
glomeruliflorum) growing on the 
banks. For many years it was known as 
the Pafuri, after the Venda chief 
Mphaphuli. The older spelling 
Levubu is also encountered. 

*Lydenburg (T 2530 AB). Town 
between the Steenkampsberg and 
the Drakensberg, 320 km north-east 



of Johannesburg. It was established 
in 1850 on the farm Rietspruit. In 
1902 a health committee was 
instituted, in 1903 a local district 
council, in 1904 a village council, 
and in 1927 municipal status was 
attained. The name is of Dutch 
origin and means 'town of suffer- 
ing', referring to the disease and 
hardships which had led to the 
abandonment of Ohrigstad. 



M 

*Maanhaarrand (T 2527 CD). 
Hills 90 km north-west of Johannes- 
burg, between Breedtsnek and 
Hekpoort. Afrikaans for 'mane 
ridge', the name refers to the simila- 
rity of the outcrops to the mane of a 
horse. As regional name it refers to 
an area between Derby, Hartebees- 
poort Dam, Magaliesburg, Pretoria 
and Rustenburg. 

Maap see Gmaap 

Macassar Beach (C 3418 BB). 
Resort on the shore north of False 
Bay, near the mouth of the Eerste 
River, some 8 km west of Strand. It 
has been developed subsequent to 
1964. Named because of the 
proximity of the kramat or holy 
tomb of Sheik Yusuf who came 



from Macassar in the Dutch East 
Indies and died in 1699. 

*McGregor (C 3319 DD). Village 
20 km south of Robertson. It was 
established in 1861, a village 
management board instituted in 
1894 and municipal status attained 
in 1907. Originally named Lady 
Grey, but renamed to avoid confu- 
sion with Lady Grey near Aliwal 
North, after Andrew McGregor 
(1829-1918), minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in Robertson from 
1862 to 1902. 

*Machadodorp (T 2530 CB). Town 
26 km east of Belfast and 50 km 
north-east of Carolina. It was 
founded in 1895 on the farm Geluk, 
proclaimed in December 1904 and 
administered by a village council 
from 1907. Named after Joachim 
Jose Machado (1847-1925), Gover- 



nor-General of Mocambique, who 
played a prominent role in the 
survey of the Pretoria-Lourenco 
Marques (now Maputo) railway 
route. Popular health resort with hot 
mineral springs. 

McHattiesburg (T 2628 DA). 
Former name (1897-1905) of 
Balfour, Transvaal, given in honour 
of Frederick Stuart McHattie, owner 
of the farm Vlakfontein on which it 
was established. 

*Macleantown (C 3227 DC). 

Village 34 km north-west of East 
London and 46 km south-east of 
Stutterheim. Named in April 1881 
after Colonel John Maclean (1810- 
1874), Chief Commissioner of 
British Caffraria from 1852 and 
Lieutenant-Governor of that terri- 
tory from 1860. 



*Maclear (C 3128 AB). Town on 
the Mooi River, 172 km north of 
East London and 80 km north-east 
of Elliot. It was founded in 1876 as 
a military camp and developed 
rapidly, reaching municipal status in 
1916. Named after Sir Thomas 
Maclear (1794-1879), famous astro- 
nomer who laid the foundation for a 
trigonometrical survey of the Cape 
Colony. Popular trout-fishing resort 
set in beautiful surroundings. 

Macloutsi see Motloutse River 

Mac-Mac Falls (T 2430 DD). 
Waterfall in the Waterval River 
between Pilgrim's Rest and Sabie. 
Named after the gold-mining village 
nearby, which was so called either 
after the MacClaughton brothers, 
said to be the first diggers, or 
because a list of diggers handed to 
President T F Burgers contained so 



many Scots names that he called it 
Mac-Mac. 

*Mafeking see Mafikeng 

Mafeteng (Les 2927 CC). Village 
26 km south-east of Wepener (OFS) 
and 77 km south-west of Maseru. 
Said to mean 'place of crossing', the 
name refers to the site of the first 
village of Mafeteng at a point where 
the track crossed the Caledon River. 
It was transferred to the present site 
in 1874 when a magistracy was 
established there. The name is 
sometimes said to mean 'place of 
unmarried women', referring to 
unmarried daughters of a chief. 
Scene of bloody fighting during the 
War of the Guns (1800). 

Mafikeng (Bop 2525 DC). Town on 
the Molopo River in Bophutha- 
tswana, 67 km south-west of Zeerust 



and 62 km north-west of Lichten- 
burg. Established in 1885 after 
British annexation of the territory, it 
attained municipal status in 1896. 
Of Tswana origin and said to mean 
'among the stones', 'place of rocks' 
or 'at the stones', the name was 
adapted to Mafeking, but has now 
been restored as Mafikeng. Site of a 
famous siege during the Anglo-Boer 
War. 

Magalakwin see Mogalakwena 

Magaleng see Makhaleng 

Magaliesberg (T 2527-2528). 
Mountain range extending from 
west of Rustenburg to east of 
Pretoria. Named after a chief, 
Mohale, whom the Voortrekkers 
encountered there, and adapted to 
Magali(e). Formerly known as the 
Cashan Mountains, after a chief 



named Khashane. The name 
Magalies River has the same origin. 

*Magaliesburg (T 2627 BA). 
Village 32 km north-west of 
Krugersdorp and 72 km east-south- 
east of Koster. Takes its name from 
the Magaliesberg. 

*Magoebaskloof (T 2330 CC). 
Mountain pass between Haenerts- 
burg and Tzaneen, 61 km east of 
Pietersburg. Adapted from Mak- 
goba, the name of a Batlou chief 
who was beheaded by Swazis. 
'Makgoba's ravine'. The area is 
known by the name Ga Makgoba. 

*Magudu (N 2 A31 DA). Village 
125 km east-north-east of Vryburg. 
Formerly known as Magut, it was 
named after a Zulu chief. Said to 
mean 'enchanted'. 



Magut see Magudu 



Magwa Falls (Trsk 3129 BC). 
Waterfall 148 m high, in a narrow 
chasm some 14 km south-east of 
Lusikisiki and 22 km north-east of 
Port St Johns. Derived from Xhosa, 
the name is said to mean 
'wondrous'. 

Mahalapye (Bots 23.26 BB). 
Village 200 km north-east of 
Gaborone and 150 km south-west of 
Francistown. The name is thought to 
be of pre-Tswana origin and to refer 
to impala. 

*Mahlabatini (N 2831 AB). Village 
48 km south-west of Nongoma. 
Established as a Norwegian mission 
station, it became the seat of 
magistracy of the Mahlabatini 
district. The name is Zulu, said to 
mean 'country of white, sandy soil'. 
Known locally as Mashona, situated 
on the Mashona Engashoni Ridge. 



Maimani (T 2525 DB). Local name 
of Ottoshoop. The name means 
'cease to exist'. 

*Majuba (N 2729 BD). Mountain 
2 146 m high, 14 km south of 
Volksrust and about 30 km north- 
north-west of Newcastle. The name 
is of Zulu origin and means 'doves', 
'hill of doves', or 'dove-cote'. This 
was the site of a famous battle on 27 
February 1881 in which 92 British 
troops under General Sir Pomeroy 
Colley were killed and 134 wounded 
when they were attacked by Boer 
forces under General Piet Joubert, 
who had stalked them in the dark. 
Also encountered as Amajuba. 

Makaling see Makhaleng 

Makapaansgrot (T 2429 AA). 
Historic cave some 20 km east- 
north-east of Potgietersrus. Named 



after an early Ndebele chief, 
Magombane, also called Makopane, 
Makopaan and Makapan, who, 
together, with his followers, fled to 
this cave after having brutally 
murdered a party of Boer men, 
women and children at Makapaan's 
Poort in 1854. After a siege of 25 
days they were wiped out by a 
punitive expedition. Fossil remains 
of Australopithecus were found 
here. 

Makhaleng (Les 2927-3026). Tribu- 
tary of the Orange River. It rises in 
the mountains about 50 km east of 
Maseru and flows south-west to its 
confluence with the Kolo-La Pere 
north-east of Magalengbrug. Also 
encountered as Makaling and 
Magaleng, the name is said to be 
derived from Sotho lekhada, 'aloe'; 
thus 'at the aloes'. 



*Makwassie (T 2725 BD). Village 
14 km south of Wolmaransstad and 
78 km north-west of Wesselsbron. It 
was laid out in 1907 and proclaimed 
in 1910. The name is of San origin 
and refers to Croton gratissimus, an 
aromatic shrub which was dried and 
powdered and used by women. At 
first spelt Maquassi, it was 
standardized as Makwassie in 1937. 
The first white child in Transvaal 
was born there, and the first printing 
undertaken. 

Malangeni (N 3030). Former name 
of the Sezela River. Named after the 
Malangeni tribe which lived there in 
earlier times. 

*Malelane (T 2531 BC). Village 
48 km west of Komatipoort and 
67 km east of Nelspruit. Established 
on the farm Malelane, it was pro- 
claimed in July 1949. Said to be 



derived from emlalani, 'place of the 
lala palms', or to be named after a 
Swazi tribe and to mean 'guardians' 
(of the ford in the Crocodile River). 
The name Malalane has also been 
approved. 

*Maleoskop (T 2529 BC). Hill 
20 km south-east of Groblersdal and 
32 km north-west of Stoffberg. 
Known to the early missionaries as 
Maagdeberg ('virgin mountain'), it 
was named after the Bakopa chief 
Maleo whom the Boers attacked 
there in mass in 1864 after he had 
joined Mapoch in attacking Boer 
settlements. 

Malgas (C 3420 BC). Settlement on 
the east bank of the Breede River, 
25 km north-west of the mouth of 
that river and 30 km south-east of 
Swellendam. The name is probably 
an adaptation of Portuguese Mangas 



de velludo, 'velvet sleeves', 
referring to the Cape gannet (Morus 
capensis) with its black-tipped 
wings. 

Malmaniesrivier (T 2427). River 
running parallel to the Molopo at a 
distance of some 14 km. The name 
is derived from Tswana and means 
'the little one there on one side', or, 
according to others, 'spoil'. Also 
spelt Malmaine, Malmannie, 
Malymany and Malmani. 

*Malmesbury (C 3318 BC). Town 
66 km north-east of Cape Town and 
50 km north-west of Paarl. Estab- 
lished in 1829, it became a 
municipality in 1896. Named by Sir 
Lowry Cole, Governor of the Cape 
Colony from 1829 to 1834, after his 
father-in-law, Sir James Harris, first 
Earl of Malmesbury, who had died 
some eight years before. Centre of 



the Swartland, it is renowned for 
wheat production and for a dialectic 
rolling of the letter r in speech. 

Maloti Mountains 
see Maluti Mountains 

*Maltahohe (S 2416 DD). Town 
120 km west of Mariental and 
137 km north of Helmeringhausen. 
It was established in 1900 and 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board from 1945. Named after 
Malta von Burgsdorff, wife of the 
commander of the garrison at 
Gibeon. 'Malta height'; the name is 
of German origin. 

Maluti Mountains (Les 2828- 
2928). Range extending north-east 
and south-west, in the north-western 
part of Lesotho, forming the water- 
shed between the tributaries of the 
Caledon River and those of the 



Orange River. The average elevation 
is 2 700 m and snow occurs in 
winter. The name means 'moun- 
tains'. Also encountered as Maloti. 

Mamba (N 2831 CC). Tributary of 
the Tugela River. Rises near Osun- 
gulweni about 25 km west of 
Eshowe and flows south-west to 
enter the Tugela at Mambulu Trust 
Farm. Presumably named after the 
mamba snake because of its tortuous 
course, or because it is regarded as 
dangerous, or because these snakes 
occur there. 

*Mamelodi (T 2528 CA). Township 
16 km east-north-east of the centre 
of Pretoria. Laid out in 1951, it was 
first known as Vlakfontein but 
renamed Mamelodi in July 1962 
after President S J P Kruger, known 
to the Bantu by this name; 'father of 



whistling', or 'man who can imitate 
birds'. 

*Mamre (C 3318 CB). Village and 
mission station 18 km south-east of 
Darling. Established in 1808 by 
Moravian missionaries, it was at 
first known as Groene Kloof after 
the Dutch East India Company post 
established there in 1701 and 
abandoned in 1791. Named after the 
biblical Mamre (Gen. 13:18), a 
name said to mean 'fattiness'. 

*Mananga (T 2531 DD). Mountain 
803 m high, about 7 km northeast of 
Mhlume in Swaziland, and 10 km 
from the point where the borders of 
Transvaal, Swaziland and Mocam- 
bique meet. Said to mean 'mountain 
of the wilderness'. 

*Mandini (N 2931 AB). Township 
some 22 km north-east of Stanger. 



Derived from Zulu, the name means 
'place of the tiruculli trees (Euphor- 
bia tiruculh)' which grow there. 

Mangaung (O 2926 AA). Northern 
Sotho name of Bloemfontein; it 
means 'place of the cheetah'. 

*Mankayane (Swa 2631 CA). 
Village 61 km south-west of 
Mbabane and about 33 km north- 
east of Piet Retief. Formerly spelt 
Mankaiana, the name is derived 
from that of a chief, Mankayiyana, 
meaning 'little steps'. 

*Manyeleti (T 2331 AD). Game 
reserve and holiday resort near 
Acornhoek, on the eastern border of 
the Kruger National Park, opened in 
June 1967. The name means 'place 
of the stars'. 

Manyeleti (T 2431 DA). Tributary 
of the Sabie River, which it enters 



some 12 km east-north-east of 
Skukuza. Also known as the Sand 
River. 

Manzamnyama (N 2829 BB). River 
which rises in the Biggarsberg and 
flows north into the Chelmsford 
Dam. 'Black water', from Zulu 
manzi, 'water', mnyama, 'black'. 

Manzimhlope (T 2431 DC). Tribu- 
tary of the Nwatindloptu. Rises 
about 15 km west of Tshokwana and 
flows south-east and south. The 
name means 'white water' and is 
presumably of Zulu origin. 

Manzimtoti (N 3030 BB). River 
which enters the Indian Ocean at 
Amanzimtoti, 17 km south-west of 
Durban. The name is said to be 
derived from a remark by Shaka 
when camping there : 'kanti amanz a 
mtoti' - 'the water is sweet'. The 



name has been adapted as Araan- 
zimtoti for a popular residential and 
holiday resort. 

*Manzini (Swa 2631 AD). Town on 
the Mzimnene River, 43 km south- 
east of Mbabane and 57 km west of 
Siteki. At first known as Kwa- 
Manzini, after a petty chief, it was 
renamed Bremersdorp after a trader, 
Albert Bremer. In 1960 the Swazi 
name Manzini, 'at the water', was 
restored. 

*Mapumulo (N 2931 AC). Settle- 
ment some 42 km north-west of 
Stanger and 38 km south-east of 
Kranskop. Named after the Mapu- 
mulo Zulu people who came to live 
here after being driven out by 
Shaka; the name is said to mean 
'haven of rest'. 



Mapungubwe (T 2229 AB). Hill of 
archaeological significance, 1,5 km 
south-east of the junction of the 
Limpopo and Shashi rivers. 'Place 
of the jackals', the name is derived 
from Venda phunguvhwe or 
phungubwe. 

Maquassi see Makwassie 

Marabastad (T 2329 CD). Former 
name of Eerstegoud, after chief 
Maraba; said to mean 'snake'. 

*Maraisburg (C 3125). District of 
which Hofmeyr is the principal 
town. It is bounded by Middelburg, 
Steynsburg, Molteno, Tarkastad and 
Cradock. Named after Daniel 
Marais, who played a prominent role 
in the establishment of the town 
Maraisburg in 1873-74. This town 
was renamed Hofmeyr in 1911, but 
the district kept its old name. 



Maraisburg (C 3125 DB). Former 
name of Hofmeyr. 

Marais, Lake see Lake Marais 

*Marble Hall (T 2429 CD). Village 
26 km north-west of Groblersdal 
and 96 km south-south-east of 
Potgietersrus. Laid out in 1942 and 
proclaimed a township in January 
1945, it owes its development to the 
Marble Lime Mine. Said to be an 
adaptation of 'marble hole', where 
fifteen varieties of marble occur. 

Marburg (N 3030 CB). Settlement 
near Port Shepstone, established in 
1882 by Norwegian immigrants. 
Probably named after Marburg, a 
city 74 km north of Frankfurt in 
Germany. 

Marepe see Mariepskop 

Maretlani see Marikana 



*Margate (N 3030 CD). Holiday 
resort on the Indian Ocean, 140 km 
south-west of Durban, between 
Uvongo and Ramsgate. It was 
proclaimed a township in 1941 and a 
borough in 1947. Named after 
Margate, the seaside resort in 
England. 

*Mariannhill (N 2930 DD). Roman 
Catholic mission station 16 km west 
of Durban. Founded in 1882 as a 
Trappist monastery, it developed 
until in 1952 a health committee 
was established. The name is 
derived from those of the Virgin 
Mary and Saint Anne. 

Marico (T 2426). District of which 
Groot-Marico is the principal town. 
Of Tswana origin, the name has 
been stated to mean 'there is blood', 
'place of attack by a superior force', 
'pastures', 'changeable', 'to go 



round, like a solitary giraffe turned 
out of a herd', etc. 

*Mariental (S 2417 DB). Town 
232 km north of Keetmanshoop and 
274 km south-east of Windhoek. 
Originally established on the farm 
Koichas as centre for the railway, it 
was proclaimed a town in 1920, 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board from 1925 and attained 
municipal status in 1946. The name, 
given by the Rhenish missionaries, 
means 'Mary's dale'. 

Mariepskop (T 2430 DB). Peak in 
the Drakensberg, some 40 km north- 
east of Ohrigstad and about 5 km 
east of the Blyderivierspoort Dam; 
also a settlement north-east of it. 
Afrikaans for 'Mariep's hill', after 
Mariep or Marepe, a chief of former 
times. 



*Marikana (T 2527 CB). Village 
24 km east of Rustenburg and about 
10 km north of the Buffelspoort 
Dam. Derived from the name of a 
stream, Maretlani, referring to a 
shrub which grows there. 

*Marquard (O 2827 CB). Town on 
the Laaispruit, 169 km east-north- 
east of Bloemfontein and 45 km 
south-west of Senekal. It was estab- 
lished in 1905 on the farm Varsch- 
fontein and attained municipal status 
in the same year. Named after J J T 
Marquard, minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in Winburg, who 
had pleaded for the establishment of 
the town. 

*Marseilles (O 2927 AB). Village 
113 km east of Bloemfontein and 
24 km west of Ladybrand. It was 
named after the seaport Marseilles 
in France. 



Marwagga Mountain (N 2929 BD). 
Mountain at the foot of which the 
town Bulwer is situated. 'One who 
frowns', from its profile when 
viewed from the south. Seems to be 
an alternative name for King 
George's Head. 

*Marydale (C 2922 AC). Village 
75 km north-west of Prieska and 
120 km south-east of Upington. 
Established in 1902 on the farm 
Kalkput and named after Mary 
Snyman, wife of the owner. 

*Maseru (Les 2927 AD). Capital of 
Lesotho, 19 km south of Ladybrand 
(OFS), close to the Orange Free 
State border. It was founded in 1869 
as camp of the then High Commis- 
sioner's Agent, J H Bowker. The 
name is said to mean 'place of red 
sandstone'. 



Matamo (N 2929 BA). Tributary of 
the Little Bushmans River. It rises 
on the northern slopes of iNtabam- 
hlope and flows north. Some autho- 
rities maintain that this is the Zulu 
name of the Little Bushmans River. 
The name means 'mouthfuls', refer- 
ring either to the abundance or 
paucity of water. 

*Matatiele (Trsk 3028 BD). Town 
27 km south of Qacha's Nek and 
29 km west-north-west of 

Cedarville. It was established in 
1874 and attained municipal status 
in 1904. The name is derived from 
Sotho mada-i-yila or matato-a-ile, 
meaning 'the ducks have flown'. 

Matikulu (N 2931 BA). River rising 
south-west of Eshowe and flowing 
south-east to enter the Indian Ocean 
20 km south-west of Mtunzini. 
Derived from Lala or Zulu, the 



name has been variously explained, 
but probably means 'large water', ie 
'large river'. Also encountered as 
Amatikulu, ie as name of the town 
130 km north-east of Durban. 

*Matjiesfontein (C 3222 AB). 
Town 27 km west of Laingsburg and 
54 km east of Touwsrivier. It was 
laid out in the 1880s and purchased 
in 1968 to be preserved for its 
Victorian charm. The name is 
derived from a type of sedge, 
Cyperus textilis, used by Khoekhoen 
to make mats (matjies) employed in 
the construction of their huts. 
Matjiesfontein has a healthy climate 
for people with lung complaints. 

*Matjiesrivier (C 3322 AC). Town 
at the southern foot of the 
Waboomsberg, some 37 km south of 
Prince Albert, off the road to 
Oudtshoorn. Afrikaans for 'little 



mat river', the reference is to a type 
of sedge (Cyperus textilis) growing 
there, used by Khoekhoen in making 
mats with which they made their 
huts. Matjiesgoed is the common 
name for this sedge, literally 'little 
mat stuff. 

Matlhwaring (Bop 2722 B-2723 B). 
Tributary of the Kuruman River. It 
rises some 45 km east of Kuruman 
and flows north-west to the conflu- 
ence 12 km north of Hotazel. The 
name is derived from Tswana and 
means 'at the wild olive trees', after 
the Olea africana (olienhout trees) 
on the banks. Variant spellings 
include Matlowing, Maclareen, 
Maquarien, Mokaring and Matlaure. 

*Matroosberg (C 3319). Mountain 
some 10 km north of De Dooms, 
28 km east of Ceres, east of the Hex 
River Mountains. Said to be named 



after a shepherd who lived there, 
Klaas Matroos, or else to be named 
after a rock resembling a sailor 
(matroos in Afrikaans) standing on 
the bow of a ship. 

Matsieng (Les 2927 DA). Village of 
the Paramount Chief of Lesotho, 
43 km south-south-east of Maseru. 
Meaning 'the place of Letsie', the 
name refers to Chief Letsie who 
lived in the 19th century, and means 
'the locust', bestowed because 
Letsie was born during a locust 
plague. 

Matsikamma Mountains (C 3118 
DB). Mountain range about 10 km 
south-east of Vanrhynsdorp, in- 
clined north-west and south-east, 
between the Troe-Troe and Wiedou 
rivers. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and probably means 



'pools', kuile in Afrikaans, literally 
'standing (ie stagnant) water'. 

Matubatuba see Mtubatuba 

*Mauchsberg (T 2530 BA). 
Mountain about 12 km south-east of 
Lydenburg, west-south-west of 
Long Tom Pass. Named after a Ger- 
man explorer, Karl Mauch (1837-?) 
who discovered a small gold reserve 
in the Barberton district. 

Mann (Bots 1923 CD). Principal 
town of the Ngamiland district, 
507 km west-north-west of Francis- 
town and about 300 km northeast of 
Ghanzi. Primarily an administrative 
and political centre. The name is 
said to mean 'place of the Ma-u 
(River)'. 

Mazabeko (N 2830 AD-DA). Tribu- 
tary of the Buffels River. It rises at 
the south-eastern extremity of the 



Biggarsberg and flows southeast to 
enter the Buffels 25 km north-east 
of Tugela Ferry. The name is Zulu 
and may mean either 'mealie-cob 
river' or 'ribbok river', after the 
Pelea capriolus. 

*Mazeppa Bay (Trsk 3228 BC). 
Holiday resort on the Wild Coast, 
175 km north-east of East London. 
Named after the schooner Mazeppa 
which took the surviving Voortrek- 
kers of Louis Trichardt's party from 
Delagoa Bay to Port Natal in 1839. 

*Mbabane (Swa 2631 AC). 
Principal town of the Hhohho 
district, 43 km north-west of Man- 
zini and 24 km south-east of Oshoek 
on the Transvaal border. The name 
may be derived from that of a for- 
mer Swazi chief, or from a verb 'to 
hollow', 'dig out', referring to 
erosive action by a river. 



Mbashe (Trsk 3128-3228). River 
rising in the Drakensberg some 
13 km north-east of Elliot and 
flowing into the Indian Ocean 
125 km north-east of East London. 
Popularly spelt Bashee, as in Bashee 
Bridge, etc. The name is Xhosa, but 
it is uncertain whether it means 
'dark river' or 'dangerous ravine', 
or whether it was named after a 
person called Mbashe. In 1554 the 
Saint Benedict was wrecked at the 
mouth of this river, and 322 
survivors walked from there to 
Lourenco Marques, now Maputo. 

Mbawelanga (Trsk 3128). Peak in 
the mountains near Tsolo. Xhosa, 
'path of the sun', so called because 
the first rays of the rising sun fall 
here. 

*Mbazwana (N 2732 BC). Settle- 
ment and plantation some 50 km 



east of Ubombo. Presumably takes 
its name from the tributary of the 
Mseleni. The name, of Zulu origin, 
is said to mean 'small axe', after a 
person called Mbazwana. 

Mbembaneni (T 2429 AA). Early 
Ndebele name for the area around 
Potgietersrus. It means 'place of 
limestone'; the name was subse- 
quently supplanted by Lekalakeng, 
from Afrikaans kalk, limestone. 

Mbilo see Umbilo 

Mbokodweni (N 2930 DC-DD). 
River which rises 10 to 15 km 
southwest of Mpumalanga and flows 
east and south-east to reach the 
Indian Ocean at Umbogintwini, 
23 km south-west of Durban. De- 
rived from Zulu, the name means 
'place of round mill-stones' or 
'grinding-stone river'. The adapta- 



tion Umbogintwini has been applied 
to the resort at its mouth north-east 
of Amanzimtoti. 

Mdedele (N 2929 CC). Zulu name 
of Cathkin Peak. Its exposed situa- 
tion creates the impression that it 
dominates the range, almost like a 
bully. Mdedele is thus said to mean 
'make room for him', 'one which 
must be left alone'. 

Mdloti (N 2930-2931). River which 
rises in various headwaters north of 
the Valley of a Thousand Hills and 
flows east-south-east past Verulam 
to enter the Indian Ocean at Umdloti 
Beach, 25 km northeast of Durban. 
Derived from Zulu umdloti, a type 
of wild tobacco growing along its 
course, the name has been adapted 
to Umhloti. 



Meintjeskop (T 2528 CA). Hill in 
Pretoria, on which the Union 
Buildings are situated. Named after 
Stephanus Meintjies of Graaff- 
Reinet who purchased it in 1865 and 
settled there. 

*Meiringspoort (C 3322 BC). Pass 
between De Rust in the south and 
Klaarstroom in the north, through 
the Zwartberg range, 38 km from 
Oudtshoorn. Named after Petrus 
Johannes Meiring, owner of the 
farm De Rust on the Huisrivier, on 
which the town De Rust was estab- 
lished. It was completed in 1857 and 
opened in 1858. 

Melacaneng (C 2824 BB). Tswana 
name of Fourteen Streams; it means 
'at the streams'. 

Melikane (Les 2928 DC-DD). 
Tributary of the Orange River. It 



rises at Lekhalo-La-Lethiba about 
5 km south-west of Matabeng Pass 
and flows south-west to enter the 
Orange at Liqalabeng. Named after 
a San chief who had stolen cattle 
from the Basotho and was captured 
at this river. 

*Melkbosstrand (C 3318 CB). Sea- 
side village and holiday resort on 
the Atlantic seaboard, 32 km north 
of Cape Town and 22 km northwest 
of Durbanville. Afrikaans for 'milk- 
bush beach', the name probably 
refers to Sideroxylon inerme. 
Formerly it bore the name Losperd's 
Bay. 

*Melmoth (N 2831 CB). Principal 
town of the Mtonjaneni district, 
53 km north of Eshowe and 54 km 
south-south-west of Mahlabatini. It 
has been administered by a health 
committee since 1932. Named after 



Sir Melmoth Osborn, Resident- 
Commissioner after the annexation 
of Zululand in 1879. 

Mensvretersberg (Bop 2927 AA). 
Mountain some 28 km north-east of 
Thaba Nchu. Afrikaans for 'canni- 
bals mountain', the name is said to 
refer to various tribes who, fleeing 
before the Zulus under Shaka, were 
forced to resort to cannibalism to 
survive, and, when this became a 
habit, people were hunted by them 
as though they were game. 

Mentz, Lake see Lake Mentz 

Mentzmeer see Lake Mentz 

Meob Bay (S 2414 BC). Inlet on the 
Atlantic coast, some 200 km south 
of Walvis Bay and 29 km north-west 
of the ghost town of Meob. Said to 
have been named after a prospector 
who worked there early this century. 



Also recorded as Mitchell's Bay and 
Mutzel Bay. 

*Merrivale (N 2930 CA). Village 
145 km north-west of Durban and 
5 km south-east of Howick. Named 
after Herman Merrivale, Secretary 
of State for the Colonies in 1848. 

*Merweville (C 3221 DA). Village 
45 km north-west of Prince Albert 
Road and 130 km south-east of 
Beaufort West. It was established on 
the farm Vanderbylskraal in 1904 
and administered by a village 
management board from 1921. 
Named after the Reverend P van der 
Merwe (1860-1940), minister at 
Beaufort West of the Dutch 
Reformed Church, and chairman of 
the church council which estab- 
lished the town. 



*Messina (T 2230 AC). Copper- 
mining town 16 km south of Beit 
Bridge. It was founded on the farm 
Berkenrode in 1904, was adminis- 
tered by a village management 
board from 1915, and proclaimed a 
township in 1957. The name is said 
to be derived from Venda musina, 
'the spoiler', referring to copper 
which softened the iron mined there; 
more probably the name means 
'copper'. 

*Meyerton (T 2628 CA). Town 
16 km north-east of Vereeniging and 
55 km west-south-west of Heidel- 
berg. It was laid out in 1891 on the 
farm Rietfontein, administered by a 
village council in 1953, and attained 
municipal status in 1961. Probably 
named after J P Meyer, member of 
the Transvaal Volksraad. 



*Mfazazana (N 3030 DA). River 
which rises south-west of Mtwalume 
and flows south-east to enter the 
Indian Ocean 7 km north-east of 
Hibberdene. Of Zulu origin, the 
name means 'the small, despicable 
woman', said to refer to a woman 
who gave birth on the banks of the 
river, which was in violation of the 
local tribal taboo. 

*Mfolozi (N 2730-2832). River 
formed by the Black and White 
Mfolozi rivers. It flows for 375 km 
and enters the Indian Ocean through 
the St Lucia estuary. Derived from 
Zulu, the name is said to mean 'river 
of fibre', referring to wild fig-trees, 
the bark of which is used for 
sewing-fibre, or to mean 'the erratic 
one', after its meandering course. 
Also encountered as Foloos, 
Umfolozi. 



Mfule (N 2831 CB-DA). Tributary 
of the Mhlatuze, which flows east 
and south-east to the east of 
Melmoth. Derived from Zulu, the 
name refers to a type of vine 
(Adenia gummifera) occurring along 
its lower reaches. 

Mgababa (N 3030 BA-BB). River 
rising north of KwaMadundubala 
and flowing east to enter the Indian 
Ocean 4 km south-west of Illovo 
and 6 km north-east of Umkomaas. 
Of Zulu origin, the name is said to 
mean 'river of many channels' or 
'river of jealousy'. 

Mgeni (N 2930-3030). River rising 
in the Lion's River district and 
flowing 260 km eastwards to enter 
the Indian Ocean 6 km north of 
Durban. Derived from Zulu, the 
name is said to mean 'the river of 
acacia trees', after the Acacia 



natalitia. Also encountered as 
uMgeni, Umgeni, Umngeni, etc. 

Mhlali (N 2931 AC-CB). River 
which rises near Shakaskraal and 
flows south-east to enter the Indian 
Ocean at Umhlali Beach. Derived 
from Zulu, the name is said to mean 
'place of rest', referring to Shaka's 
sojourn before triumphantly entering 
his last village, Dukuza, where 
Stanger is today. Another explana- 
tion is that the river is named after 
the monkey-orange trees (Strychnos 
spinosa), umhlala in Zulu, growing 
on the banks. Umhlali Beach takes 
its name from this river. 

Mhlanga (N 2931 AC). River which 
enters the Indian Ocean just north of 
Umhlanga Rocks. Also encountered 
as Ohlanga, Mange, uMhlanga and 
Umhlanga, the name is derived from 
Zulu and means 'reed river', 'river 



of rushes'; its lower reaches are 
wide and sluggish and many reeds 
(Phragmites communis) grow there. 

Mhlatuze River (N 2831 CB). Rises 
in the districts of Babanango and 
Nkandla, and flows eastwards to 
enter Richards Bay. Known to the 
Portuguese as Rio das Pescarias, 
'river of fishermen'. The name 
Mhlatuze is Zulu and is said to 
mean 'the mighty one', from 
hlatuza, 'transgress', from the speed 
and violence with which it comes 
down in flood. 

*MichelPs Pass (C 3319 AD). 
Mountain pass 9 km long through 
the Breede River Gorge in the 
Skurweberg Mountains, linking 
Ceres and the Tulbagh Valley. It 
replaced Mosterd's Hoek Pass, was 
opened in 1848 and modernized in 
1946. Named after the Surveyor- 



General and superintendent of works 
in 1848, Charles Cornwallis 
Michell. 

*Middelburg (C 3125 AC). Town 
357 km north-west of Port Eliza- 
beth, 98 km north-west of Cradock 
and 91 km south of Colesberg. It 
was laid out in 1852 on the farm 
Driefontein and became a munici- 
pality in 1913. Named thus because 
it is approximately equidistant from 
Cradock, Colesberg, Steynsburg and 
Richmond; middel is Afrikaans for 
'middle'. 

*Middelburg (T 2529 CD). Town 
137 km east of Pretoria, 83 km north 
of Bethal and 30 km north-east of 
Witbank. It was established in 1866 
on the farm Sterkfontein, and 
attained municipal status in 1903. At 
first named Nazareth but renamed 



Middelburg in 1874, probably after 
the Dutch city of that name. 

*Middeldrift (Cis 3226 DD). Town 
on the Keiskamma River, 45 km 
west-north-west of King William's 
Town and 16 km east-south-east of 
Alice. It was founded in 1853 and 
laid out in 1882. At first known as 
Beaconsfield, it was renamed after 
its situation at a ford (Dutch drift) 
between two others. 

Midmar Dam (N 2930 AC-CA). In 
the Umgeni River, 24 km northwest 
of Pietermaritzburg. It was opened 
in October 1964. Named after the 
farm Midmar, which was in turn 
named after Midmar Castle in Scot- 
land. 

Mierland (C 2620). Region west of 
Askham in the Northern Cape, west 
of the Molopo and Nossob rivers, 



with Rietfontein as its middle point. 
It has been averred that the name is 
a corruption of Meerland, 'lake 
country', referring to pans or 
depressions such as Hakskeenpan. 

*Milnerton (C 3318 CD). Town 
10 km north-east of Cape Town. It 
was laid out on the farm Biesjes- 
kraal in 1902 and attained municipal 
status in 1955. Named after Sir 
Alfred Milner (1854-1925), Gover- 
nor of the Cape from 1897 to 1901, 
and High Commissioner until 1905 
after becoming Lord Milner. 

Mkomazi (N 2929 A-3030 B). 
River which rises in the Drakens- 
berg north-west of Himeville and 
flows south-east to enter the Indian 
Ocean 48 km south-west of Durban. 
The name is Zulu and is said to 
mean 'she-whale river'. The town 



Umkomaas takes its name from this 
river. 

*Mkondo (Swa 2630-2631). Tribu- 
tary of the Great Usutu. It rises 
north-east of Wakkerstroom and 
flows east and north-east to enter 
the Usutu south-east of Manzini. 
Known as the Assegaai River in the 
Transvaal, it would seem that the 
name is derived from umkhonto, 
'assegai'. However, it is stated that 
the root word is umkhondo, 'spoor'; 
the name therefore means 'river of 
footprints (of animals)'. 

*Mkuze (N 2731 CA-2732 DC). 
River which rises 24 km east of 
Vryheid and flows eastwards 
through the Lebombo Mountains, 
then southwards, entering Lake St 
Lucia at its northern extremity. Of 
Zulu origin, the name may refer to 
aromatic trees (Heteropyxis natalen- 



sis), wild lavender, which grow on 
its banks. An alternative explanation 
is that it is derived from khuza, 
'warn', 'remonstrate', 'bark', refer- 
ring to a regiment of Shaka which 
'roared' at the enemy. 

Mlambomunye (N 2930). Zulu 
name for Karkloof River, said to 
mean 'one stream'. 

Mlazi (N 2930 C-D). River rising 
west of Mpumalanga and flowing 
east-south-east to enter the Indian 
Ocean via the Mlazi Canal just 
north-east of Louis Botha Airport. 
Of Zulu origin, the name means 
'whey river', from its colour and 
sourish taste. The form Umlaas is 
encountered. 

Mmabatho (Bop 2525 DC). Capital 
of Bophuthatswana, just northwest 
of Mafikeng. The name is of Tswana 



origin and means 'mother of the 
people or nation'. 

*Modderpoort (O 2927 AB). Settle- 
ment about 10 km north of Ladybrand 
and 20 km north-east of Marseilles. 
Established in 1819 as a mission 
station at Lekhalong la Bo Tau, 'col of 
the Tau tribe', the defile between 
Viervoetberg and Platberg. The 
Afrikaans name means 'muddy defile'. 

*Modder River (O 2825-2926). 
Tributary of the Riet River. It rises 
near Dewetsdorp and flows westwards 
to join the main stream at the station 
Modder River in the Kimberley 
district. From Afrikaans modder, 
'mud', the name is encountered as 
Maap, Gmaap, derived from Khoek- 
hoen # goab, 'mud'. The form 
Modderrivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 



*Modderrivier see Modder River 

Mogakare (O 2828-3026). Sotho 
name of the Caledon River. It is 
derived from bokare, 'middle', and 
was so named because it flowed 
between the country of the Sotho and 
that of the Mantatees. 

*Mogalakwena (T 2228 BD-2328 
DD). Tributary of the Limpopo, rising 
in the Waterberg and flowing north- 
wards. Also spelt Magalakwin, the 
name is derived from Tswana bogale, 
mogale, 'fierce', kwena, 'crocodile'. 
The upper reaches were called the 
Nylstroom by the Jerusalemgangers. 

*Mohaleshoek (Les 3027 AB). 
Village some 48 km north-east of Zas- 
tron (OFS) and 51 km south-east of 
Mafeteng. Named after a chief, 
Mohale, half-brother of Moshesh. 
Scene of an ambush in 1858 in which 



the Boers suffered heavy casualties at 
the hands of the Basotho. 

Moirosi's Mountain 
see Mount Moorosi 

Mokhotlong (Les 2929 AC). Village 
some 96 km north-west of Himeville, 
with which it is connected by a jeep 
track over the Sani Pass. The name 
means 'place of the bald ibis' 
(Geronticus calvus). Some of the 
highest mountains in Southern Africa 
are situated in the vicinity. 

Mokopu (Bop 2927 AC). Mountain 
some 30 km south-east of Thaba 
Nchu, also a river flowing west of it. 
The name is Sotho, said to mean 
'pumpkin'. 

Molepolole (Bots 2425 BC). 
Principal town of the Kweneng 
district, 61 km north-west of Gabo- 
rone and 97 km north-north-east of 



Kanye. The name is Tswana for 
'seat of judgement', named thus by 
a former chief, Sechele, who resided 
here as the representative of three 
tribes. 

Molopo River (2522 CB-2820 BC). 
Tributary of the Orange River. It 
rises in head-streams originating in 
the Lichtenburg and Marico 
districts; flows west for 800 km to 
its confluence with the Nossob, then 
south for 90 km to lose itself in the 
sand near Abiquas Puts, and then to 
reappear near the Orange River. The 
name means 'river'. The form 
Moloporivier is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Moloporivier see Molopo River 

*Molteno (C 3126 AD). Town 
300 km north-west of East London 
and 53 km south of Burgersdorp. It 



was laid out in 1875 after the 
discovery of coal and became a 
municipality in September 1883. 
Named after Sir John Charles 
Molteno (1814-1886), first Prime 
Minister of the Cape Colony, 
serving from 1872 to 1878. 

*Montagu (C 3320 CC). Town 
195 km north-east of Cape Town. 
Laid out on the farm Uitvlugt before 
1851, it was administered by a 
village management board from 
1881 and became a municipality in 
1895. Named in 1851 after John 
Montagu (1797-1853), Colonial 
Secretary at the Cape from 1843 to 
1853. Renowned as a health centre 
with mineral baths. 

Montagu Pass (C 3322 CD). Moun- 
tain pass over the Outeniqua Moun- 
tains, between George and Union- 
dale. It was built between 1844 and 



1847 to replace Cradock Pass and 
was named after John Montagu 
(1797-1853), Colonial Secretary of 
the Cape from 1843 to 1853. 

*Mont-aux-Sources (Les 2828 
DD). Peak of 3 600 metres in the 
Drakensberg, where the borders of 
Lesotho and those of the districts of 
Bergville and Harrismith meet. 
French for 'mountain of sources', it 
was thus named in 1836 by the 
missionaries T Arbousset and F 
Daumas because headwaters of the 
Orange, the Vaal and the Tugela 
rivers flow from here in different 
directions. 

Mooi River (N 2930 AA). Town 
158 km north-west of Durban and 
30 km south-east of Estcourt. It was 
proclaimed a township in November 
1921 and attained borough status in 
April 1959. Afrikaans for 'pretty 



river', it takes its name from the 
tributary of the Tugela which flows 
past it and of which the Zulu name 
is Mpofana. The form Mooirivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Mooi River (T 2626 DD-2627 AA). 
Tributary of the Vaal, rising in the 
Koster district and flowing south- 
wards to its confluence with the 
main stream 31 km south-west of 
Potchefstroom. In Afrikaans it 
means 'pretty river'. 

*Mooirivier see Mooi River 

Moordenaarspoort (O 3025 BD). 
Now Bethulie. Thus named because 
a large number of Griquas and San 
were murdered here by Basotho. 
'Murderers' defile'. 

*Moorreesburg (C 3318 BA). 

Town in the Malmesbury district, 
105 km north-east of Cape Town 



and 30 km north of Malmesbury. It 
was laid out in 1879 on the farm 
Hooikraal, was administered by a 
village management board from 
1882 and attained municipal status 
in 1909. Named after J C le Febre 
Moorrees (1807-1885), minister of 
the Swartland congregation from 
1833 to 1881. 

Moot see Die Moot 

*Morgenzon (T 2629 DA). Town 
45 km south-west of Ermelo and 
35 km south-east of Bethal. It was 
laid out in 1912 on the farm Mor- 
genzon and has been administered 
by a village council since 1920. 
Named after the farm, Morgenzon is 
Dutch for 'morning sun'. 

Morija (Les 2927 DA). Head- 
quarters of the Lesotho Evangelical 
Church, 43 km south of Maseru and 



47 km north-east of Mafeteng. It 
was established in 1833 by the 
missionaries Arbousset, Casalis and 
Josselin, and is today a well-known 
educational centre. The name is 
derived from the biblical Moriah 
(Gen. 22:2; 2, Chr. 3:1), meaning 
'provided by the Lord'. 

Morosi's Country (Les 3027). 
Former name of the Quthing district. 
Presumably named after the Basotho 
chief who waged constant war on 
the colonists until 20 November 
1878, when his mountain stronghold 
was overrun and he was killed. 

Morosi's Mountain 
see Mount Moorosi 

Moses (C 3323 DC). Popular name 
of Formosa Peak and the region 
north of the Tsitsikamma Moun- 



tains; derived from formosa, 
'beautiful'. 

Moshaweng (Bop 2623 DD-C 2622 
CD). Tributary of the Kuruman 
River. Extends from west of Cassel 
north-westwards past Dinopeng and 
Laxey, then west and south-west to 
enter the Kuruman at Frylinckspan. 
Also encountered as Machua, 
Mashaua, Mashow, Moshawa, etc, 
the name is of Tswana origin and 
means 'at the (white) sand'. 

*Mosselbaai see Mossel Bay 

*Mossel Bay (C 3422 AA). Inlet on 
the southern coast, 409 km east of 
Cape Town, between Fish Bay and 
Victoria Bay. It was named Aguada 
de Sao Bras by Vasco da Gama in 
1497, Golfo dos Vaqueiros by Joao 
da Nova in 1501, and Mosselbaai by 
the Dutch navigator Paulus van 



Caerden in July 1601, because 
mussels (Dutch mossels) were all he 
could find to replenish the ship's 
stores. 

*Mossel Bay (C 3422 AA). Town 
409 km east of Cape Town, 90 km 
south of Oudtshoorn and 55 km 
south-west of George. It was 
founded in 1848 and became a 
municipality in 1852. Originally 
named Aliwal, it was renamed after 
the bay to avoid confusion with 
Aliwal North. The form Mosselbaai is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Motloutse River (Bots 2127-2229). 
Seasonal tributary of the Limpopo 
River. It rises about 50 km south-west 
of Francistown and flows south-east to 
enter the Limpopo at Ratho on the 
Transvaal border. Also encountered as 
Macloutsi, Macloutsie and 



Matloutsi, the name is derived from 
Tswana tlou, 'elephant'. 

Mouille Point (C 3318 CD). North- 
ernmost promontory of the Cape 
Peninsula, between Green Point and 
Granger Bay. The name is derived 
from French mouiller, 'to cast anchor'. 

Mouna a Senna Morini (T 2228). 
Mountain known as Blouberg, west of 
the Soutpansberg. 'Man with no hair', 
referring to the absence of grass and 
other vegetation on its summit. 

*Mount Ayliff (Trsk 3029 CD). Town 
40 km south of Kokstad and 26 km 
north-east of Mount Frere. Established 
in 1878. It may have been named after 
John Ayliff, who established a mission 
station nearby; after William Ayliff, 
who was an official dealing with Afri- 
can affairs, or after James Ayliff, a 
magistrate of Wodehouse. 



*Mount Coke (C 3227 DC). Station 
of the Methodist Missionary Society 
18 km east of King William's Town. It 
was established in 1825 by the 
Reverend S Kay and named after Dr 
Coke, founder of the Society. 

Mount Currie (N 3029 AD). Moun- 
tain some 10 km north of Kokstad; it 
gave its name to the district of which 
Kokstad is the principal town. Named 
after Sir Walter Currie (1819-1872), 
first Commandant of the Frontier 
Armed and Mounted Police. 

*Mount Edgecombe (N 2931 CA). 
Settlement some 19 km north of 
Durban and 8 km south of Verulam, 
site of sugar-mill and research station. 
Named after an estate in the west of 
England. 

*Mount Fletcher (Trsk 3028 CB). 
Town in the Griqualand East district, 



69 km north-north-east of Maclear. 
Founded in 1882, it takes its name 
from the mountain nearby. This was 
probably named after the Reverend 
John Fletcher of Madeley in 
England, a friend of John Wesley, 
although it is stated to have been 
named after a Captain Fletcher who 
was stationed there. 

*Mount Frere (Trsk 3028 DD). 
Town some 98 km north-north-west 
of Umtata and 83 km south-west of 
Kokstad. It was founded in 1876 and 
named after the mountain at the foot 
of which it is situated. This moun- 
tain was named after Sir Bartle 
Frere (1815-1884), Governor of the 
Cape Colony from 1877 to 1880. 

*Mount Moorosi (Les 3027 BB). 
Mountain some 25 km north-east of 
Moyeni or Quthing and south-east 
of the Sinqu or Orange River. 



Named after Chief Morosi or 
Moorosi, who was killed in 1879 
when the mountain was stormed by 
Cape troops. 

Moyeni (Les 3027 BC). Locality 
where Quthing is situated, meaning 
'place of the wind'. 

Moyeni (N 2931 BA). Settlement on 
the railway between Mtunzini and 
Gingindlovu. Established by John 
Dunn and still reserved for his 
descendants. The name is Zulu and 
means 'at the wind'. 

Mpambanyoni (N 3030 AB-BD). 

River which rises in various head- 
waters west of Umkomaas, Scott- 
burgh and Park Rynie and enters the 
Indian Ocean just north of Scott- 
burgh. Derived from Zulu, the name 
is said to mean 'deceiver of birds', 
either because it twists so often or 



because it is lost in the undergrowth 
at times; also 'where birds gather'. 

Mpemvana (N 2730 DA). Settle- 
ment some 20 km north of Vryheid. 
It takes its name from the Mpem- 
vana River which rises in the 
Skurweberg north-west of Vryheid 
and flows north-east. Of Zulu 
origin, the name is said to mean 
'place of the small waterbuck'. Also 
encountered as Penvaan and 
Imbivana. 

Mpharane (O 2827 DD). Mountain 
immediately west of Ficksburg, 
separated from it by the road to 
Clocolan. Also encountered in the 
forms Imparani and Imperani, the 
name is Sotho and is said to mean 
'flat-topped'. There is also a 
mountain named Mpharane in 
Lesotho (2927 DC), about 35 km 
south-east of Mafeteng. 



Mphongolo (T 2230 D-2331 A). 
Tributary of the Shingwidzi. It rises 
near the Venda border in the vicinity 
of Ntlhaveni and flows east and 
south-east to enter the main stream 
about 3 km north-west of Shing- 
widzi. The name is said to be a 
Swazi adaptation of Mapongole, the 
name of a former Venda chief. 

*Mpofana (N 2930 AC). Zulu name 
for the Mooi River. Various expla- 
nations are encountered, such as 
'small eland', 'the greyish one', and 
'wild mulberry tree'. 

Mpofu (N 2829 BC). Hill 60 km 
east of Harrismith and 32 km north 
of Ladysmith. The name is of Zulu 
origin and means 'eland'. 

Mponjwane (N 2829 CC). Moun- 
tain at the Lesotho border, 20 km 
south-east of Mont-aux-Sources and 



30 km west-south-west of Bergville. 
Derived from Zulu, the name means 
'little horn', referring to the shape 
of this peak. 

*Mpumalanga (N 2930 DC). 
Township about 10 km south-south- 
east of Cato Ridge and some 40 km 
west of Durban. Derived from Zulu, 
the name means 'sunrise', 'the sun 
comes out'. 

*Mqanduli (Trsk 3128 DD). 
Village 30 km south of Umtata and 
22 km north-east of Elliotdale. 
Named after a nearby hill; of Xhosa 
origin, the name is said to mean 
'grindstone-maker', after a person 
living there. 

Msinga (N 2830). District of which 
Tugela Ferry is the principal town. 
Bounded by the districts of Dundee, 
Nqutu, Nkandla, Umvoti and Ween- 



en. The name is Zulu and is derived 
from that of a high peak used as a 
look-out for finding cattle which 
have strayed. It means 'to spy', 'to 
look out'. 

Msuluzi (N 2830). Zulu name for 
Bloukransrivier, meaning 'the one 
which disappears'. 

Msunduze (N 2832 A). Tributary of 
the Mfolozi. It rises south of 
Mtubatuba and enters the main 
stream about 2 km from the mouth. 
Probably derived from Zulu 
sunduza, 'push aside', 'move', 
'shift', referring to the action of the 
waters when in flood of pushing all 
in their path aside. 

*Mtamvuna River (N 3029-3030). 
Rises near the Weza Forest Reserve 
and flows south-eastward for 80 km 
along the Transkei border to enter 



the Indian Ocean 2 km south-west of 
Port Edward. Formerly Umtamvuna, 
the name is of Zulu origin and is 
said to mean 'reaper of mouthfuls', 
referring to damage caused when in 
flood; alternatively 'river of 
reapers', or 'easy harvest', referring 
to the fertility of the area. 

Mtata (Trsk 3128-3129). River 
which rises north-west of Umtata 
and flows past this town in a south- 
easterly direction with many convo- 
lutions to enter the Indian Ocean 
5 km north-east of Coffee Bay. The 
name is derived from Xhosa. A 
number of explanations has been 
given, such as 'sneezewood river', 
after Ptaeroxylon utile trees on the 
banks; 'the seizer', 'appropriator', 
after the large number of people 
drowned in it; 'river of the dead', 
from the custom of ceremoniously 



casting the dead into it. In the form 
Umtata the name has been trans- 
ferred to the capital city of Transkei. 

Mtentweni see Umtentweni 

*Mtonjaneni (N 2731). The district 
of which Melmoth is the principal 
town. It is bounded by the Baba- 
nango, Mahlabatini, Lower Umfo- 
lozi, Eshowe and Nkandla districts. 
The name is Zulu and means 'at the 
little spring'. 

Mtshesi (N 2929). Zulu name of 
Boesmansrivier; probably means 
'reddish-brown', from the muddy 
colour of the water when the river is 
in flood. 

*Mtubatuba (N 2832 AC). Town 
some 55 km south-south-west of 
Hluhluwe and 28 km west of St 
Lucia. Administered by a health 
committee since 1950. The name. 



formerly spelt Matubatuba, is Zulu 
and is said to mean 'creator of 
opportunities', referring to a chief of 
the Mtetwa tribe who died in 1954. 

*Mtunzini (N 2831 DD). Village 
and holiday resort near the mouth of 
the Umlalazi River, some 28 km 
south-west of Empangeni. Adminis- 
tered by a health committee since 
1947. The name is Zulu and means 
'place of shade', probably after the 
indigenous trees growing there. 

*Mtwalume (N 3030 A-B). River 
which rises west of Highflats and 
flows south-east to enter the Indian 
Ocean 3 km south-west of Ifafa 
Beach. The name is Zulu and proba- 
bly refers to a type of tree, the bark 
of which is used as a remedy for 
dysentery. The seaside resort takes 
its name from the river. 



Muden (N 2830 DD). Township on 
the Mooi River, 24 km northwest of 
Greytown and 38 km south-east of 
Weenen. It was established by the 
missionary Reverend Heinrich 
Rottcher and named after Muden in 
Hanover, Germany, from whence he 
came. 

Mudge Point (C 3419 AC). 
Promontory 2 km south-west of 
Hawston and 10 km west of Herma- 
nus, south-south-east of the mouth 
of the Bot River. Named after 
Lieutenant Mudge who was involv- 
ed in surveying the coast in 1823 
under the command of Captain 
Owen. 

*Muizenberg (C 3418 AB). Seaside 
resort in the north-westerly corner 
of False Bay, some 5 km north-east 
of Fish Hoek. It developed from a 
cattle-post to military outpost and 



winter anchorage of the Dutch East 
India Company in 1743. Generally 
thought to have been named after 
Wynand Willem Muijs, sergeant in 
charge of the post in 1744 and later 
commander of the garrison. 

Mukorob (S 2518 AC). Sandstone 
pillar, remnant of erosion processes, 
some 40 km north of Tses. Also 
called Vingerklip (Afrikaans 'finger 
stone'), The Finger of God, Herero- 
vrou ('Herero woman', the head- 
dress and face of which this rock 
resembles). The name is Khoekhoen 
and is said to mean 'look at the 
ankle', referring to the narrowing 
between the base and the crown. 

Mumcumqua (C 3324 DB). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Cockscomb; it is 
said to mean 'cloud mountain'. 



Murchison (T 2330 DC). Mining 
village 20 km north-east of Leyds- 
dorp and 44 km west of Phalaborwa. 
Named after Sir Roderick Murchi- 
son, a geologist and former Presi- 
dent of the Royal Geographical 
Society, who prospected in the area. 

Murchison Range (T 2330 DC). 
Hills in the Letaba district, north of 
the Selati River and south of the 
tributaries of the Letaba, just north- 
west of Gravelotte and about 40 km 
east-south-east of Tzaneen. Named 
after Sir Roderick Murchison, a 
British geologist and former Presi- 
dent of the Royal Geographical 
Society, who prospected in the area. 

Murray's Bay (C 3318 CD). 
Harbour on Robben Island, named 
after John Murray who had a 
whaling-station there from 1806 to 
1820. 



*Murraysburg (C 3123 DC). Town 
100 km north-west of Graaff-Reinet 
and 72 km south-west of Richmond. 
It was founded in 1856 on the farm 
Eenzaamheid and became a munici- 
pality in July 1883. Named after the 
Reverend Andrew Murray Snr, who 
was minister of Graaff-Reinet, and 
Barend O J Burger, who played a 
role in the establishment of the 
town. 

Muyshonds River (C 3222). Former 
name, at the time when Swellen- 
grebel was Governor of the Cape 
Colony, of the Klein-Sondagsrivier. 
Known locally as the Moordenaars 
River, 'murderers river'. Of Dutch 
origin, the name means 'polecat 
river'. 

Mvoti (N 2930-2931). River which 
rises in the vicinity of Greytown and 
flows south-east to enter the Indian 



Ocean near Blythedale Beach, 
south-east of Stanger. The name, of 
Zulu origin, is said to mean 'the 
quietly flowing one'. 

Mweni (Les 2828 D). Area south of 
Mont-aux-Sources, characterized by 
magnificent peaks. Derived from 
Zulu, the name means 'place of 
fingers'. 

Mzimkulu (N 2929-3030). River 
which rises in the Drakensberg near 
the Lesotho border and flows south- 
east past Underberg and along the 
Transkei border to enter the Indian 
Ocean at Port Shepstone. Derived 
from Zulu, the name probably 
means 'large village'. 

Mzimvubu (Trsk 2929 C-3129 D). 
River which rises in the Drakens- 
berg near Mount Macdonald, near 
the point where the borders of 



Transkei, Lesotho and Natal meet, 
and which then flows south and 
south-east to enter the Indian Ocean 
at Port St Johns. The name means 
'home of the hippopotamus'. 
Formerly the river also bore the 
names Sao Christovao, St Johns and 
Wijd. 

Mzinyati (N 2930). River flowing 
across the Buffalo Flats. From Zulu 
umzi, 'home', nyati, 'buffalo', thus 
'home of the buffaloes'. Now 
Buffelsrivier. 

Mzumbe (N 3030 A-D). River 
which rises several kilometres 
southeast of Highflats and flows 
south-east to enter the Indian Ocean 
5 km south-west of Hibberdene. 
Derived from Zulu, the name is said 
to mean 'the dangerous one', 'the 
bad one', or 'the winding one'. 



N 

*Nababeep (C 2917 DB). Copper- 
mining town in Namaqualand, 
16 km north-west of Springbok. 
Founded in 1860 by the Cape 
Copper Company. The name is of 
Khoekhoen origin and means 
'rhinoceros place'. 

Nababiepsberge (C 2817 DC). 
Mountain range extending about 
15 km north-west and south-east, 
situated about 10 km south-west of 
Noordoewer and Vioolsdrif. Derived 
from Khoekhoen and Afrikaans, the 
name means 'rhinoceros mountains'. 

Nabe (C 3323 BC). Khoekhoen 
name of Witberg. Also encountered 
as Nabee, Nabbe, the name means 
'white', so that the Afrikaans name 
is a translation. 



Nabega (C 3323 CC-DC). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Keurbooms 
River. The Afrikaans name is 
probably a translation. 'Rich in 
keurboom trees (Virgilia oro- 
boides)' , or 'abundance of keur- 
boom trees'. 

*Naboomspruit (T 2428 DA). 
Town 42 km north-east of Nyl- 
stroom and 51 km south-west of 
Potgietersrus. It was founded on the 
farm Vischgat in 1907 and adminis- 
tered by a health committee from 
1919. The name is Afrikaans but 
derived from Khoekhoen; 'euphor- 
bia tree stream', after the E. ingens 
which grows there. 

*Nadi (N 2830 DC). Tributary of 
the Tugela River. It rises some 
15 km north-west of Kranskop and 
flows north-north-west to enter the 
Tugela at Ngubevu, 17 km east of 



Tugela Ferry. Of Zulu origin, the 
name is said either to be derived 
from that of a tribe, or to mean 
'third stomach of an ox', referring to 
its relationship to the larger and 
more important Tugela. 

*Nagle Dam (N 2930 DA). Gravity 
dam in the Umgeni River, near its 
confluence with the Umsinduzi, 
some 50 km north-west of Durban. 
It was named after William Nagle, 
former city councillor of Durban 
and chairman of the works commit- 
tee responsible for the construction 
of the dam in 1950. 

Nahoon River (C 3227 DC-DD). 

River which rises between Berlin 
and Macleantown and flows south-east 
to enter the Indian Ocean between 
Beacon Bay and East London. The 
name is derived from Khoekhoen and 
probably means 'river of fighting'. 



Also encountered as Cahoon, 
Kahoon, Kahoona, Nagoerij, and 
Nagoezij. 

*Nakop (S 2819 BB). Hill on the 
border between the Cape Province and 
South West Africa/Namibia, 138 km 
north-west of Upington and 134 km 
east of Karasburg. Of Khoekhoen 
origin, the name means 'tortoise 
place', either because tortoises were 
found there or referring to the shape of 
the hill. Also encountered as Nakab; 
the element kop is an adaptation 
analogous to Afrikaans kop, 'hillock'. 

Namaqualand (C 2816-3018). Dis- 
trict of which Springbok is the prin- 
cipal town. It is bounded by the 
Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Orange 
River in the north, the Vanrhynsdorp 
district in the south and the Kenhardt 
and Calvinia districts in the east. 
Named after the Namaqua (plural of 



Nama) tribe of Khoekhoen which 
formerly inhabited it. In former times 
that part of South West Africa south of 
the 24th parallel of latitude was known 
as Great Namaqualand, while the 
present district of Namaqualand was 
called Little Namaqualand. The region 
is famous for wild flowers. 

*Namib (S 1711-2515). Desert region 
extending from about the Coroaco 
River in Angola southwards to the 
Orange River. It is bounded in the 
west by the Atlantic Ocean and in the 
east by the SWA escarpment. Consists 
mainly of sand dunes, with gravel and 
rock occurring in places. Vegetation 
and animal life have become adapted 
to the arid conditions. The oldest 
desert in the world, it is often cold 
from the Benguella current running 
north past it. The discovery of 
diamonds in 1904 led to the establish- 



ment of important diggings. The name 
is Khoekhoen in origin but the 
etymology is unknown; earliest spell- 
ings occur as Naanip, Naarip and 
Narriep. The coastal strip from the 
Kunene to the Ugab constitutes the 
Skeleton Coast Park; from the Ugab 
south-east to the Swakop is the 40 km 
wide National West Coast Tourist 
Recreation Area; east of the South 
African territory between Swakop- 
mund and Walvis Bay is the Namib 
Naukluft Park, and south of the Kuiseb 
are the Diamond Areas 1 and 2, to 
which entry is prohibited. 

Namutoni (S 1816 DD). Tourist 
camp and fort in the Etosha Reserve, 
108 km north-west of Tsumeb and 
130 km east of Okaukuejo. Derived 
from Ovambo, the name means 
'high place which is visible from 
afar'. 



*Nanda (N 2930 DB). Table-topped 
mountain some 17 km northwest of 
KwaMashu and 25 km west-south- 
west of Tongaat. Derived from Zulu, 
the name means 'extending equally', 
and refers to the shape of the 
mountain. 

Nanious (S 1913 BA). Khoekhoen 
name of Sesfontein. It means 'six 
fountains', so that the Afrikaans 
name is a translation. 

*Naosanabis (S 2318 DB). Khoek- 
hoen name of Leonardville; it prob- 
ably means 'arrow-shaped birth- 
mark', referring to the impression 
created by a thicket against a slope 
nearby. 

*Napier (C 3219 BD). Town 
177 km south-west of Cape Town 
and 16 km north-east of Bredasdorp. 
It was laid out in 1838 on the farm 



Klipdrift or Klipfontein, a village 
management board was instituted in 
1896 and municipal status attained 
in 1938. Named in March 1840 after 
Sir George Thomas Napier (1784- 
1855), Governor of the Cape Colony 
from 1837 to 1844. 

Nardousberg (C 3118 DC-DD). 
Mountain in the Clanwilliam dis- 
trict; it is a continuation of the Pak- 
huis Mountains in a northwesterly 
direction. Of Khoekhoen origin, the 
name has been said to mean 'flat 
pass mountain' and 'narrow pass 
mountain'; it may well mean 'black 
pass mountain'. 

*Narubis (S 2618 DC). Settlement 
with post office, hotel and shops 
68 km south-east of Keetmanshoop 
and 100 km north-north-east of 
Karasburg. The name is of Khoek- 
hoen origin and means 'place of 



Inaru trees', after the Euclea 
pseudebenus. 

Nasionale Kruger-Wildtuin 
see Kruger National Park 

Natal (N 2630-3130). Province of 
the RSA, bounded by the Indian 
Ocean in the east, the Drakensberg 
range in the west, by Mocambique 
and Swaziland in the north and 
Transkei and the Cape Province in 
the south. The name is derived from 
Terra do Natal, 'land of the Birth', 
ie of Christ. It was given because it 
was on Christmas Day 1497 that 
Vasco da Gama reached and named 
it. 

*Natalia (2826-3032). Historic 
republic founded on 16 October 
1840. It extended from north of the 
Vaal River southwards to the Vet 
River, and eastwards across the 



Drakensberg, and had Pietermaritz- 
burg as its capital. British annex- 
ation of this republic in 1843, and of 
the territory between the Orange and 
Vaal rivers in 1848, put an end to it. 
The name is derived from Terra do 
Natal, subsequently Natal. 

Nata River (Bots 2025-2027). Non- 
perennial river which rises south- 
west of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe and 
flows north-west and then southwest 
into the Makgadigadi Pans at Nata. 
The name is derived from the verb 
nata meaning 'to drink'. 

Naukluft Mountains (S 2416 AA- 
AC). In the districts of Rehoboth 
and Maltahohe, 160 km from the 
coast and 80 km north-west of 
Maltahohe. The Afrikaans-German 
name means 'narrow ravine'; it is 
translated from Khoekhoen Ohab, 
literally 'narrow gorge'. 



Naval Hill (O 2926 AA). Flat- 
topped hill in Bloemfontein. 
Formerly known as Bloemfontein 
Hill, Bloemfontein Mount and 
Tafelkop; the present name refers to 
its resemblance to a coast-guard 
post when in 1900 the Naval Bri- 
gade was stationed there to defend 
the city and naval guns were 
mounted. 

Nazareth (T 2529 CD). Early name 
of Middelburg. The reference is 
biblical (Matt. 2:23). 

Ncome (N 2830 BA). Zulu name for 
the Bloed River. Sometimes 
explained as 'cattle'; a more widely 
accepted explanation is 'pleasing', 
'praiseworthy'. 

*Ncwadi (N 2930 CC). Settlement 
on the river of the same name, a 
tributary of the Mkomazi, about 



30 km south-west of Pietermaritz- 
burg. Derived from Zulu, the name 
apparently means 'conspicuous', from 
a prominent hill. 

Ndawana (N 2829 CC-CD). Tributary 
of the Ngwangwane. It rises west of 
Mount Sutherland near the Lesotho 
border and flows east-south-east to its 
confluence with the main stream south- 
east of the Coleford Nature Reserve. 
The name is derived from Zulu 
indawo, a type of rush (Cyperus 
esculens) used for making mats and 
with a medicinal root tasting of ginger. 

Ndlovini (Cis 3227 CA). Tributary of 
the Gwiligwili. It rises about 15 km 
east of the Hogsback and flows south. 
The name is of Xhosa origin and means 
'place of elephants'. 

*Ndwedwe (N 2930 DB). Village 
60 km north of Durban and about 



20 km west-north-west of Tongaat. Of 
Zulu origin, the name is said to mean 
'long, bare table-land or ridge', or 
'pensive', referring to its peaceful 
setting in the Valley of a Thousand 
ffills. 

Nelson's Kop (O 2829 AB). Hill some 
30 km east of Harrismith, said to have 
been named after a merchant. 

*Nelspruit (T 2530 BD). Town on the 
Crocodile River, 320 km east of 
Pretoria and 48 km north of Barberton. 
Laid out on the farm Cascades, it was 
proclaimed in January 1905, and 
administered by a health committee 
from 1912, by a village council from 
1922, and by a municipality from 1940. 
Named in 1891 after three Nel brothers 
who grazed their herds there every 
winter. 

Neu-Barmen see Barmen 



Neu-Deutschland see New Germany 

Neuseiland (C 2820 DD). Island in the 
Orange River about 10 km east of 
Kakamas and 25 km west of Neilers- 
drif. Afrikaans for 'nose island', the 
name is a partial translation of Khoek- 
hoen Gariepeis, 'river nose'. Neus- 
berg, Neusspruit, Neushek and Neus- 
poort will have the same Khoekhoen 
origin. It would seem that the primary 
name is Koekoeb, 'nose mountain', 
from which Neusberg is translated. 

Neutral Territory (Cis 3327). 
Region between the Great Fish and 
Keiskamma Rivers. It was declared 
a neutral zone after the Fifth Xhosa 
War (1819) and incorporated into 
the Cape Colony in 1847, hence the 
name. 

*New Bethesda (C 3124 DC). 
Village near the Kompasberg in the 



Sneeuberg, 54 km north of Graaff- 
Reinet. It was founded in 1875 as a 
mission station and attained munici- 
pal status in 1886. The name is of 
biblical origin (John 5:2-4) and 
means 'place of flowing water'. The 
form Nieu-Bethesda is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Newcastle (N 2729 DD). Coal- 
mining town 294 km south-east of 
Johannesburg, 352 km north-north- 
west of Durban and 53 km south of 
Volksrust. It was established in 
1864, proclaimed a township in 
1882 and a borough in 1891. Named 
in March 1854 after the Duke of 
Newcastle, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies in 1852 and 1859. 

*New England (C 3027 DC). 
Region in the Barkly East and Lady 
Grey districts. So called because it 



was settled in 1860 by descendants 
of the British Settlers of 1820. 

*New Germany (N 2930 DD). 
Town in the Pinetown district, 
12 km west of Durban. It was estab- 
lished in 1848 and became a munici- 
pality in 1960. Originally Neu- 
Deutschland and subsequently trans- 
lated, the name refers to settlement 
of the area by German immigrants in 
1848. 

*New Guelderland (N 2931 AD). 
Region between the Tongaat and 
Tugela rivers, some 16 km north of 
Stanger. It was established about the 
middle of the 19th century by a 
certain Colenbrander as settlement 
for immigrants from Holland, and 
named after the Dutch province of 
Gelderland or Guelderland. As a 
result of Stanger' s increasing impor- 



tance after 1910, New Guelderland 
declined. 

*New Hanover (N 2930 BC). Town 
near the Noodsberg, 35 km north- 
east of Pietermaritzburg and 37 km 
south of Greytown. It was founded 
in 1850 and has been administered 
by a health committee since 1933. 
Named after Hanover in Germany 
by the German settlers. 

New Scotland (T 2630). Region 
south of Lake Chrissie, bounded by 
the Vaal River, the Swaziland 
border and the road between Ermelo 
and Amsterdam. Thus named 
because it was settled by Scottish 
immigrants in 1867. Its headquarters 
were named Roburnia, after the 
Scottish poet, Robert Burns; later 
the name was changed to Amster- 
dam. 



*Ngagane (N 2730 CC). Town 
some 11 km north of Alcockspruit 
and 35 km south-west of Utrecht. Of 
Zulu origin, the name is variously 
said to mean 'the unexpected one', 
referring to the way the river may 
suddenly come down in flood; 
'thorn -tree river', referring to 
Dichrostachys or Acacia trees 
growing along the banks, or 'skele- 
ton river', the reference being 
uncertain. 

Ngami see Lake Ngami 

Ngamiland (Bots 2020). District of 
which Maun is the capital. It takes 
its name from Lake Ngami. 

Nghabe (Bots 2021-2024). Non- 
perennial river which rises north- 
east of Makalamabedi and flows 
west and south-west to enter Lake 
Ngami from the north-east. The 



name is believed to have the same 
origin as Ngami and to mean 
'giraffe'. 

*Ngogo (N 2729 DB). River which 
rises about 25 km north-west of 
Newcastle and flows east-north-east 
past Ingogo. Derived from Zulu, the 
name has been explained as an 
onomatopoeic rendering of water 
gurgling over stones, as meaning 
'river of corpses', or as referring to 
klipspringers (Oreotragus saltator). 
At Ingogo, 24 km north of New- 
castle, a famous battle took place on 
8 February 1881. 

Ngome Forest (N 2731 CD). 
Situated along the south-eastern 
slopes of the Ngome Mountains, 
from which they derive their name, 
16 km north-west of Nongoma and 
57 km east-south-east of Vryheid. 



The name is of Zulu origin and 
means 'precipitous heights'. 

*Ngqeleni (Trsk 3129 CA). Village 
in West Pondoland, 32 km southeast 
of Umtata and about 40 km north- 
north-west of Coffee Bay. The name 
is derived from Xhosa ngqele, 'cold' 
or 'frost'. Coldstream, which flows 
past it, may have a name translated 
from Ngqeleni, 'at the cold'. 

Ngungununu (Trsk 3029 AB-BA). 
Tributary of the Ngwangwane. It 
rises about 40 km west of Creighton 
and flows east, south-east and north 
to enter the main stream at the Natal 
border 17 km westsouth-west of 
Creighton. Of Nguni origin, the 
name is said to mean 'the sullen 
one'. 

Ngwangwane (N 2929 C-3029 B). 
Tributary of the Mzimkhulu. It rises 



near the Lesotho border south-west 
of Underberg and flows south-east, 
partly along the Transkei border, to 
its confluence with the main stream 
6 km south-west of Creighton. 
Derived from Zulu, the name is said 
to mean 'stork river' or 'locust-bird 
river'. 

Ngwavuma (N 2632 C-2732 A). 
Tributary of the Phongolo which it 
joins about 6 km south-east of 
Ndumo. Of Zulu origin, the name is 
said to refer to a type of tree 
(Pseudocassine transvaalensis), of 
which the bark is medicinal, or to 
mean 'the growling one', from the 
sound the river makes passing 
through a ravine. Explanations 
involving the leopard are considered 
less probable. 

Ngwempisi River (T 2630-2631). 
Tributary of the Great Usutu. It rises 



west of Leyden and flows mainly 
east to the confluence about 6 km 
south-west of Sidvokodvo. Literally 
'leopard-wolf river', from Zulu 
ingwe, 'leopard', 'tiger', and impisi, 
'wolf. Said to refer to an incident in 
which cattle were killed by an 
unidentified creature. Some said it 
was a leopard, others maintained it 
was a wolf or hyena, hence the 
name. 

Ngwenya Mountains (Swa 2631 
AA). Mountains in the north- 
western part of Swaziland, between 
the Komati and Little Usutu rivers; 
also known as Bomvu Ridge. Swazi 
for 'crocodile'; Ngwenya is also a 
family name. 

*Nhlavini (N 3030 AA-AB). Tribu- 
tary of the Mkomazi. It rises 
between Ixopo and Highflats and 
flows north to enter the main stream 



15 km south of Richmond. Derived 
from Zulu, the name is said to mean 
either 'river where berries grow' or 
'honey-bird river'. 

Nhlohlela (N 2732 CA). Tributary 
of the Mkuze River. It rises in the 
Ubombo Mountains and flows 
north-east through the Mkuze Game 
Reserve. The name is derived from 
Zulu and is said to mean 'the 
penetrator', after a narrow gorge 
through which it flows, or 'the 
gatherer', referring to the swamp 
where the water gathers a few kilo- 
metres before it joins the Mkuze. 

*Niekerkshoop (C 2922 BD). 
Village and asbestos mining centre 
80 km south of Griquatown and 
40 km north of Prieska. It was laid 
out on the farm Modderfontein in 
1902 and has been administered by a 
village management board since 



1904. Named after the owners of the 
farm, brothers named Van Niekerk. 

*Nieu-Bethesda see New Bethesda 

*Nigel (T 2628 AD). Gold-mining 
town 14 km north-east of Heidel- 
berg and 21 km south of Springs. 
Established on the farm Varkens- 
fontein in 1909, it was proclaimed a 
township in 1912 and became a 
municipality in 1930. The name is 
said to be derived from the novel 
The Fortunes of Nigel by Sir Walter 
Scott, which the surveyor was 
reading when he discovered gold 
there in 1886; another explanation is 
that it was named after Nigel 
MacLeish who discovered the Nigel 
gold-mine. 

Nisbet Bath (S 2818 BC). Former 
name of Warmbad, given to the 
mission station Blijde Uitkomst by 



the Wesleyan Edward Cook in 
honour of one of his supporters, and 
the mineral springs there. 

Njelele see Nzhelele 

Njesuthi see Injasuthi 

*Nkandla (N 2831 CA). Village 
48 km north-west of Eshowe and 
57 km south of Babanango, centre 
of wattle plantations. It was the 
scene of heavy fighting in the Zulu 
Rising of 1906. The name is said to 
be derived from Zulu kandla, 'tire', 
'exhaust'. 

Nkumpi (T 2429). Tributary of the 
Olifants River. It rises some 35 km 
east of Potgietersrus, in the Stryd- 
poort Mountains, and flows south 
to join the main stream at Groot- 
klip, about 50 km east of Roedtan. 
Formerly known as the Gompies 
and also encountered as Ngumpe, it 



is said to be named after an 
Ndebele chief. 

Nkunzi (N 2830 A). Tributary of 
the Sundays River which it joins 
about 10 km south-west of Was- 
bank. The name is Zulu and means 
'bull river', referring to the quali- 
ties of this creature - strength, 
forcefulness, etc. 

*Nkwifa (N 3030 BC). Settlement 
some 5 km west of Umzinto. 
Named after the Nkwifa River 
which flows past it. Derived from 
Zulu, the name means 'the spewing 
one', referring to the waterfall. 

Noagore (C 3124-3224). Khoek- 
hoen name of the Sneeuberg. It 
seems that the Afrikaans name, 
which means 'snow mountain', is a 
translation. 



Noakchaob (C 2917 AD-CB). 
Khoekhoen name of the Stryrivier. 
Meaning 'battle river', 'warlike 
river'; the Afrikaans name is a 
translation. 

Noegare (C 3017). Khoekhoen 
name of the Swartlintjies River. It 
means 'black thong', so that the 
Afrikaans name, which signifies 
'black ribbon', is a translation. The 
name has been explained as being 
derived from that of a chief, from a 
black thong worn by each member 
of a Nama tribe that lived there, 
and from the black aspect of 
vegetation growing in the dry river- 
bed, reminiscent from a distance of 
a black thong. Also encountered as 
Noegaree. 

Noegareb (C3318 BA). Khoekhoen 
name of Swartberg. The name 



means 'black mountain', the Afri- 
kaans name being a translation. 

*Noetzekamma (C 3322 DD-3422 
BB). Khoekhoen name of Swartvlei. 
It means 'black water'; the Afri- 
kaans name is a translation. 

Nomsoros (S 2818 BA). Khoekhoen 
name of Karasburg. It has been said 
to mean 'chalky place with springs', 
'the baking sun', etc, but probably 
means 'bearded body', referring to a 
place bordered with vegetation. 

Nonesi's Nek (Trsk 3126 DD). 
Mountain pass about 15 km north- 
east of Queenstown. It was named 
after Nonesi, wife of the Tembu 
chief Umtirara, who was Queen 
Regent of this tribe for many years. 
She was arrested in 1868 for 
incitement. 



*Nongoma (N 2731 DC). Town 
45 km north-east of Mahlabatini and 
64 km south of Magudu. It was 
established in 1887 and has been 
administered by a health committee 
since 1946. Originally known as 
Ndwandwe after the tribe that lived 
there, it was subsequently renamed 
after the chief's village, Kwa- 
Nongoma, 'the place of Nongoma', 
derived from Zulu umngoma, 
'witchdoctor'. Scene of fighting in 
1888 between the rival Zulu chiefs 
Isibepu and Dinizulu. 

*Noodsberg (N 2930 BD). Moun- 
tain in the Umvoti district, some 
15 km east of Dalton. Afrikaans for 
'mountain of anxiety', it was so 
called because the early settlers fled 
thither and erected a pallisade for 
fear of the Zulus. 



Noord-Kaap(land) 



see Northern Cape 

*Noordoewer (S 2817 DA). Settle- 
ment near Vioolsdrif, 160 km south 
of Karasburg, stretching 20 km 
along the northern bank of the 
Orange River. Afrikaans, the name 
means 'north bank'. 

*Noorsveld (C 3224). Region north 
of Soutpansnek in the Witteberge, 
between Jansenville and Pearston. 
The name is derived from the noors- 
thorn (Euphorbia caerulescens, E. 
enopla) growing there. In times of 
drought the plant is used for fodder 
after the thorns have been burnt off. 

Northern Cape (C 2721-3025). 
Region originally comprising the 
districts of Barkly West, Gordonia, 
Hay, Herbert, Kimberley, Kuruman, 
Mafikeng, Taung and Vryburg, all 
north of the Orange River, but later 



also including the districts of Hope- 
town, Kuruman and Prieska. 

*Norvalspont (C 3025 CB). Settle- 
ment some 35 km east-north-east of 
Colesberg and 35 km west-north- 
west of Venterstad, on the southern 
bank of the Orange River, below the 
Hendrik Verwoerd Dam. Afrikaans 
for 'NorvaPs ferry', it was named 
after an enterprising Scot who 
constructed a ferry here in 1848. 

*Nossob River (S 2318-2620). 
Tributary of the Molopo River. It 
rises east of Windhoek and flows 
south for 740 km. Said to mean 
'running quietly', 'blackish river'. 

*Nottingham Road (N 2930 AC). 
Town 19 km south of Mooi River 
and 59 km north-west of Pieter- 
maritzburg. Founded in 1905 and 
named after the Nottingham Regi- 



ment which was stationed there 
when trouble was expected from the 
Basotho in the 19th century. A 
popular trout-fishing area. 

*Noupoort (C 2526). Town 54 km 
south of Colesberg and 45 km north 
of Rosmead Junction. It was laid out 
on a portion of the farm Carolus- 
poort, was administered by a village 
management board from 1937 and 
attained municipal status in 1942. 
Afrikaans for 'narrow pass', the 
name refers to a gap in the Carlton 
Hills 27 km to the north-west. 

*Nqutu (N 2830 BA). Village 
24 km west-south-west of Barklie- 
side and 53 km east of Dundee. Of 
Zulu origin, the name is derived 
from ingqutu, 'flat-topped vessel', 
descriptive of a nearby hill from 
which the village takes its name. 



*Nseleni (N 2831 DB-2832 CA). 
River which rises about 23 km east 
of Melmoth and flows east and 
south-east to join the Nsezi at the 
town Nseleni about 17 km north- 
west of Richards Bay. The name is 
derived from Zulu and means 'bad- 
ger river', or possibly 'channel 
river'. 

*Nsuze (N 2830 BD-2831 CC). 
Tributary of the Tugela River. It 
rises about 20 km west of Baba- 
nango and flows east-south-east to 
the confluence at Hotsprings, 20 km 
north-east of Kranskop. Of Zulu 
origin, the name means 'snake 
river'. 

Ntababovu Hills (Swa 2631 AA). 
Mountains about 10 km south of 
Bulembu and 20 km north of 
Mbabane. Meaning 'red mountain', 
the name refers to the colour 



imparted by haematite ('blood- 
stone') deposits which are exten- 
sively mined. This is the only place 
in the world where archaeological 
research and mining activities are 
conducted simultaneously. Thought 
to be the world's oldest mining area; 
30 000 years ago haematite was 
being mined there. The name is also 
encountered as Ntababomvu. 

*Ntabamhlope (N 2929 B). Moun- 
tain about 20 km south-west of 
Estcourt. Derived from Zulu ntaba, 
'mountain', mhlope, 'white', possi- 
bly because it is covered with snow 
every winter. 

Ntabamnyama (N 2829 CB). Zulu 
name for Spioenkop near Lady- 
smith; it means 'black mountain'. 

Ntabayikhonjwa (N 2929 AD). 
Zulu name of Giant's Castle. Said to 



mean 'the mountain at which one 
must not point', from khonjwa, 
passive of khomba, 'to point (with a 
finger)'. 

Ntinini (N 2830 BD). Tributary of 
the White Mfolozi. It rises about 
17 km west of Babanango and flows 
north and north-east to the conflu- 
ence at Simpsonskamp. Derived 
from Zulu, the name means 'otter 
river', 'at the otter'. 

Ntsoanasatsi (O 2729 CD). Sotho 
name of Tafelkop near Vrede. The 
name means 'sunrise', from tsoha, 
'rise', letsatsi, 'sun'. According to 
legend, this was where the Basotho 
people originated. 

Ntumbane (N 2829 CA-CC). River 
which rises east of Thabakuneta and 
flows north-east into Woodstock 



Dam. The name is Zulu and means 
'the little one which bubbles out'. 

*Ntunjambili (N 2830 DD). Hill 
some 9 km north-east of Kranskop, 
and settlement just north-west of it, 
established as a station of the 
Norwegian Missionary Society. Of 
Zulu origin, the name means 'two 
openings', referring to two apertures in 
the hill, one of which has crumbled 
away. 

Nugariep (C 2924). Khoekhoen name 
of the Orange River above its conflu- 
ence with the Vaal River. It means 
'black river', from the colour of the 
rocks along its course. 

Nugoaes (S 2618 CA). Khoekhoen 
name of Keetmanshoop. It means 
'black mud'; the former Dutch name 
for the place, Zwartmodder, is a 
translation of the Khoekhoen name. 



Nukei (Trsk 3227). Khoekhoen name 
of the Swartkei. It means 'black sand'. 
The modern name is thus a hybrid, 
swart being Afrikaans for 'black', kei 
being Khoekhoen for 'sand'. 

*Nuwerus (C 3118 AB). Village 
16 km south-east of Bitterfontein and 
70 km north-west of Vanrhynsdorp. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'new rest'. 

Nuweveld (C 3121-3122). Region 
north of the Nuweveld Mountains and 
south of Loxton. Derived from Dutch, 
this Afrikaans name means 'new field' 
and was probably given because it was 
different from that previously known 
to the stock-farmers. It was first settled 
about 1760. The Nuweveld Mountains 
take their name from it. 

Nuy River (C 3319 CB-DA). 
Tributary of the Breede River. It rises 



south of the Kwadouwsberg and flows 
south-west to join the main stream 
about 8 km south of Worcester. Of 
Khoekhoen origin, the name has been 
explained as 'porcupine river' or 'first 
river'; it probably means 'willow 
(river)'. 

*Nyanga (C 3318 DC). Township on 
the Cape Flats, 16 km south of 
Bellville, Goodwood and Parow. It 
was established in 1946. The name 
means 'the moon', and was given in 
conjunction with Langa, 'the sun'. 

*Nylstroom (T 2428 CB). Principal 
town of the Waterberg district, 
125 km north of Pretoria and 29 km 
north-east of Warmbad. It was laid 
out in February 1866 on the farm 
Rietvlei; a health committee was 
instituted in 1903, a village council 
in 1923 and a municipality in 
October 1959. Afrikaans for 'Nile 



stream', the name is derived from 
that of a river nearby, called thus 
because the 'Jerusalemgangers' mis- 
took this river, the Mogalakwena, 
for the upper reaches of the Nile, 
and the hill Kranskop for a pyramid. 

*Nzhelele (T 2230). Tributary of the 
Limpopo River. It rises in the 
Soutpansberg east of the town of 
Nzhelele in Venda and flows west, 
north and north-north-east to enter 
the Limpopo about 32 km east of 
Messina. The name is said to be 
Venda for 'hawk' or 'eagle'. 



o 

*Oberholzer (T 2627 AD). Town 
85 km south-west of Johannesburg, 
just north-west of Carletonville. 
Laid out on the farm Wonderfontein, 
it was proclaimed in March 1939 
and named after the owner of the 
farm, Hendrik Oberholzer. 

Obiekwaberge (C 3319 AA-AC). 
Mountains about 8 km west of Tul- 
bagh, extending north and south, 
north of the Voelvleiberge and south 
of Saronsberg. Named after the 
Obiqua people, also known as 
Ibequa, Hawequa and Abiqua. 

Obonjeni (N 2930 BA). Zulu name 
of Ubombo. It means 'on the big 
nose', from its situation on the 
Ubombo or Lebombo Mountains. 

*Odendaalsrus (O 2726 DC). Gold- 
mining centre some 13 km north of 



Welkom and 62 km south-east of 
Kroonstad. It was established on the 
farm Kalkkuil in 1899; a village 
management board was instituted in 
1904, and municipal status attained 
in 1912. Named after the owner of 
the farm, J J Odendaal. 

Oeba (C 3125-3327). Khoekhoen 
name of the Great Fish River. It 

means 'fish river', so that the 
modern name is a translation. 

*Ofcolaco (T 2430 AB). Settlement 
43 km south-east of Tzaneen. 
Named after the Officers' Colonial 
Land Company which purchased 
ground for settlement along the 
Selati River in 1920. These retired 
officers managed to make a reason- 
able living by cultivating citrus and 
sub-tropical fruit. 



*Ogies (T 2629 AA). Coal-mining 
town 29 km south-west of Witbank 
and 70 km north-east of Springs. It 
was laid out in 1928 on the farm 
Oogiesfontein, 'fountain with many 
"eyes" or springs'. The name is 
derived from that of the farm. 

Ohab (S 2416 AA-AC). Khoekhoen 
name of Naukluft; it means 'narrow 
ravine', so that the 'German' name 
is a direct translation. 

*Ohrigstad (T 2430 DA). Town 
52 km north-east of Lydenburg and 
77 km south-west of Hoedspruit. It 
was laid out in 1845 but abandoned 
in 1848-9 because of deaths caused 
by malaria. Named Andries-Ohrig- 
stad, after the Voortrekker Andries 
Hendrik Potgieter and a merchant of 
Amsterdam, Georgius Gerardus 
Ohrig (1806-1852), a friend of the 



Voortrekkers. The present Ohrigstad 
was laid out in 1923. 

*Okahandja (S 2116 DD). Town 
72 km north of Windhoek and 
180 km south of Otjiwarongo. 
Established as a Rhenish mission 
station in 1850 which was destroyed 
but reopened in 1870. A municipal 
council has administered it since 
German times. The name, of Herero 
origin, is variously said to mean 
'ridge' and 'the small wide one', 
referring to the bed of the 
Okahandja River which is wider 
than the main stream, the Swakop 
River. 

Okenyenya (S 2016 CC). Mountain 
about 90 km north-west of Omaruru 
and 105 km south-west of Outjo. 
Derived from Herero, the name is 
said to mean 'place of fine grass'. It 
was formerly spelt Okonjainja. 



*Okiep (C 2917 DB). Copper- 
mining village 8 km north of 
Springbok and 11 km south-west of 
Concordia. It was established after 
copper was found there in 1862. The 
name, at first spelt O'okiep, is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'large brackish place'. 

Okombahe (S 2115 AD). Reserve 
for Damara, about 60 km west of 
Omaruru. The name, derived from 
Herero, is said to mean 'place of the 
giraffe', after a mountain the shape 
of which resembles a giraffe. 

Okonjainja see Okenyenya 

*01ifantshoek (C 2722 DD). 
Village 60 km north-west of Post- 
masburg and 80 km south-west of 
Kuruman. It developed from a 
police post and is administered by a 
village management board. The 



name is Afrikaans and means 
'elephants corner or glen', referring 
to skeletons found there. Possibly it 
is translated from Tswana Ditlou. 

*01ifants River (C 3118-3319). 
River rising between Ceres and 
Citrusdal, in the Great Winterhoek 
and Cold Bokkeveld mountains, and 
flowing north for 265 km, entering the 
Atlantic 250 km north of Cape Town. 
'Elephants river', it was named by the 
landdrost of Stellenbosch, J Starren- 
burg, early in the 18th century because 
he saw a herd of 300 elephants there. 
The Khoekhoen name was Tharak- 
kamma or Trakamma. The form 
Olifantsrivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

Olifants River (C 3321-3323). Rises 
in the Gourits basin and flows 215 km 
westwards to its confluence with the 
Gamka 16 km south of Calitzdorp, 



after which it becomes the Gourits 
River. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'elephants (river)'. 

Olifants River (T 2332-2629). Tribu- 
tary of the Limpopo, rising between 
Breyten and Bethal and flowing north 
and then east for 800 km to its 
confluence with the Limpopo 40 km 
east of the border with Mocambique. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'elephants (river)'. 

*01ifantsrivier see Olifants River 

Omambonde (S 2017-2018). Non- 
perennial river extending from about 
80 km north-east of Otjiwarongo to 
Koblenz, where it joins the Omatako. 
Derived from Herero, the name means 
'camelthorn (river)'; after the camel- 
thorn tree (Acacia giraffae). 

*Omaruru (S 2115 BD). Town 70 km 
north of Karibib and 220 km north- 



west of Windhoek. Developed from a 
Rhenish mission station established 
here in 1870, it attained municipal 
status in July 1909. The name is 
Herero and is said to mean 'bitter 
thick-milk', imparted by the cows 
eating certain shrubs growing there. 
Also explained as 'bitter water'. 

Omatako Mountains (S 2116 BA). 
Twin peaks 28 km south-west of 
Prosit, 85 km east-north-east of 
Omaruru and 85 km north-northwest 
of Okahandja. The name, of Herero 
origin, means 'buttocks', referring to 
the shape of these peaks. The Omu- 
ramba Omatako (Herero for 'dry 
river') takes its name from these 
peaks. 

Omatendeka Mountains (S 1913). 
Mountain range extending from the 
Kunene River in the north to near 
the Ugab River in the south, in the 



southern Kaokoveld. Formed by a 
lava mass; the upper layer of hard 
rhyolite has inhibited erosion of the 
lower bands, so that it consists of a 
dissected plateau rising gaunt and 
stark. The name is Herero and 
means 'packed square'. 

*Omitara (S 2218 AC). Settlement 
122 km east of Windhoek and 
106 km west of Gobabis. The name 
is derived from Herero and said to 
mean 'incomplete huts or shelters'. 

Omukuruwaro (S 2114). Herero 
name of Brandberg, meaning 'fire 
mountain'. 

Omuramba Omatako (S 1720- 
2116). Non-perennial tributary of 
the Kavango River. It rises between 
Otjihaenamaparero and the Omatako 
Mountains and extends north-east to 
join the Kavango at Ndonga, 80 km 



east of Rundu. It takes its name 
from the Omatako Mountains; 
omuramba is Herero for 'dry water- 
course'. 

*Omusema (S 2116 C-2216 A). 
Non-perennial tributary of the 
Swakop River. It rises about 8 km 
west of Wilhelmstal and extends 
south to join the Swakop at Otjim- 
bingwe. The name is Herero and 
means 'waterhole dug in a river- 
bed'. 

Onder-Bokkeveld (C 3119 C). That 
portion of the Bokkeveld situated 
west of the present Calvinia. Afri- 
kaans for 'UnderBokkeveld', it is 
probably so called to distinguish it 
from the Warm and Cold Bokke- 
veld. 

Ongeluksrivier (C 3219-3220). 
Non-perennial river which rises 



north of Oliviersberg and extends 
west and then north to join the 
Tanqua River at Langdoring. Afri- 
kaans for 'accident river', the name 
refers to an incident here in which a 
man was killed by a lion. 

Ongers River (C 2923 CC-2123 
BD). Tributary of the Brak River. It 
rises south of Richmond and flows 
north-west past Merriman to join the 
Brak about 3 km east of Biega se 
Berg. Stated to have been named 
after a person by the name of 
Ongers, or to be an adaptation of the 
Afrikaans word ongerus, 'uneasy'. 

*Onseepkans (C 2819 CB). Village 
on the Orange River, 57 km north of 
Pofadder and 107 south-east of 
Karasburg. It was established as an 
irrigation settlement in 1916 and 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board since 1936. The name is 



derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'bend in the river where orange- 
thorn trees grow', referring to 
Parkinsonia africana. 

Oorlogskloof River (C 3119). River 
rising near Downes and flowing 
south, then west past Calvinia and 
then south, along the eastern slopes 
of the Bokkeveld Mountains. Named 
after the farm Oorlogskloof. The 
name means 'war ravine' and refers 
to a battle between the colonists and 
the San in the 18th century. It may 
be a translation of Khoekhoen 
Koebee. 

Oos-Londen see East London 

Oostelike Provinsie 
see Eastern Province 

Orange Free State (O 2724-3027). 
Province of the RSA bounded by the 
Transvaal, Natal, Lesotho and the 



Cape Province. Takes its name from 
the Orange River and from the fact 
that in 1854 it became a free 
republic. Formerly it bore the names 
Transgariep, Orange River Sover- 
eignty (1848-54) and Orange River 
Colony (1902-10). 

*Orange River (2816-3027). Rises 
on the Natal-Lesotho border in the 
Maluti Mountains, the Drakensberg 
and Thaba Putsoa, and flows west- 
wards for some 2 300 km to enter 
the Atlantic Ocean near Oranje- 
mund. Named by Colonel Robert 
Jacob Gordon in 1777 and again in 
1779 after Prince William V of 
Orange. Former names were San 
Eyn or Ein, Khoekhoen IGarib or 
Gariep and Afrikaans Grootrivier. 
The form Oranjerivier is preferred 
for official purposes. 



*Oranjekrag (O 3025 CB). Town- 
ship on the northern bank of the 
Orange River, 40 km west of 
Bethulie and 30 km north-east of 
Colesberg. Laid out in 1965-66 to 
accommodate the builders of the 
Hendrik Verwoerd Dam. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'Orange (River) 
power'. 

*Oranjemund (S 2816 CB). Diamond 
mining town on the Orange River 
8 km from its mouth, 300 km south- 
east of Luderitz and 88 km north-west 
of Port Nolloth. The name, hybrid 
Dutch and German, means 'Orange 
(River) mouth'. 

*Oranjerivier see Orange River 

*Oranjeville (O 2628 CC). Town on 
the southern bank of the Vaal Dam, 
14 km south-east of Deneysville and 
46 km north-east of Heilbron. It takes 



its name from the Orange Free State, 
Oranje-Vrystaat in Afrikaans. 

*Oribi Flats (N 3030 CB). Region to 
the north-west of Oribi Gorge in the 
Mzimkulwane River. Takes its name 
from the oribi antelope (Ourebia 
scoparia or O. oribi) encountered 
there in former times. 

Oribi Gorge (N 3030 CB). Ravine 
some 20 km long and up to 300 m 
deep, cut by the Mzimkulwane River, 
20 km north-west of Port Shepstone. 
Presumably named after the oribi 
antelopes (Ourebia orebi or O. 
scoparia) which were encountered 
there in former times. 

*Orkney (T 2626 DC). Gold-mining 
town on the Vaal River, 12 km south 
of Klerksdorp. It was proclaimed in 
March 1940, was administered by a 
health committee from 1942 and by a 



village management board from 1958. 
Municipal status was attained in 
March 1962. Named after a gold-mine 
on the farm Witkoppen, which took its 
name from the Orkney Islands, from 
whence the owner, Jackson, came. 

Orokap (C 2917 DD). Khoekhoen 
name of Droedap River. It means 'dry 
plain'. 

Os Picos Fragosos (C 3418). Early 
Portuguese name for the Hottentots 
Holland Mountains, extending south to 
Hangklip. Encountered as early as 
1503, it means 'broken peaks'. The 
name is also said to refer to the 
Bosberge and Steenberge situated 
between Groote Schuur and Muizen- 
berg on the Cape Peninsula. 

*Otavi (S 1917 CB). Village some 
60 km south-west of Tsumeb and 
80 km west of Grootfontein. Said to be 



named after a powerful spring remini- 
scent of the one at Kaoko-Otavi and 
therefore named Otavi. Of Herero 
origin, the name is said to refer to the 
pushing of a calf against a cow's udder 
to make the milk flow; the water 
emanating from the spring was 
reminiscent of this action. 

*Otjikango (S 2216 B). Herero name 
of Barmen. It means 'the place of hot 
springs'. 

*Otjikondo (S 1915 CD). Settlement 
with post office, shops and hotel, 
83 km north-west of Outjo. The name 
is Herero and means 'place of the 
kondo-coloured cattle', ie red or black 
with a strip of white across the back. 

*Otjikoto (S 1917 CC-2017 AA). 
Water-filled sink-hole some 100 m 
wide and 110 m long and of uncertain 
depth, generally thought to be about 



60 m. The name is Herero and means 
'deep hole'. 

*Otjimbingwe (S 2216 AC). Station 
of the Rhenish Missionary Society, 
and reserve, 64 km south-east of 
Karibib, at the junction of the 
Omusema and Swakop rivers. It was 
founded in 1849. Of Herero origin, the 
name is said to mean 'place of refresh- 
ment', from a spring in the Omusema 
River, or 'place of the tiger'. 

Otjimbonde (S 2016 CC). Herero 
name of Rietfontein. It means 'place 
of the coffee mimosa trees' (Acacia 
hereroensis). 

Otjomuise (S 2217 CA). Hereto name 
for Windhoek. Meaning 'place of 
smoke', it refers to the steam seen 
above the hot springs in olden times. 



Otjivanda-Tjongue (S 1918 CA). 
Herero name of Grootfontein; it means 
'hill of the leopard' or 'leopard flat'. 

*Otjiwarongo (S 2016 BC). Town 
69 km south-east of Outjo and 
252 km north-west of Windhoek. It 
developed from a Rhenish mission 
station established in 1891 and a 
German garrison posted in 1904. It 
was administered by a village 
management board in 1928 and 
attained municipal status in 1939. 
The name is Herero and is said to 
mean 'place of fat cattle', or else 
'pretty place'. 

Otjozondjupa (S 2017 A-C). 
Herero name of the settlement 
Waterberg, 64 km east of Otjiwa- 
rongo. It means 'place of the 
gourds'. 



*Ottoshoop (T 2525 DB). Village 
in the Marico district, 30 km south 
of Zeerust. It was founded on the 
farm Zeekoevlei after the discovery 
of gold in 1875. Named in 1895 
after the landdrost of Marico, 
Cornelius B Otto (1828-1909). The 
name is Afrikaans and means 
'Otto's hope'. About 1825 there was 
a lake here several kilometres long; 
this has subsequently disappeared. 

Oub (S 2417-2817). Khoekhoen 
name of the Fish River. It means 
'fish'. 

*Oudtshoorn (C 3322 CA). Town 
on the Grobbelaars River, 72 km 
north-west of George and 125 km 
north-north-east of Mossel Bay. It 
was laid out on the farm Hartebeest- 
rivier in 1847, proclaimed a town in 
1863 and became a municipality in 
1887. Named after Baron Pieter van 



Rheede van Oudtshoorn who came 
to South Africa in 1741, was 
Secunde in 1760, returned to 
Holland in 1766 and was appointed 
Governor of the Cape in 1772. He 
died on his way to the Cape in 1773. 

Oukamma (C 3419-3420). Khoek- 
hoen name of Soutrivier. It means 
'salt water' or 'salt river', so that 
the Afrikaans name is a direct 
translation. 

Outeniqualand (C 3222). Region 
between the present Knysna and 
Mossel Bay, situated south of the 
Outeniqua Mountains, east of 
Ruitersboskraal and west of the 
Krom River. Named after the Oute- 
niqua Khoekhoen, whose name 
probably means 'people who carry 
bags (of honey)'. 



Outeniqua Mountains (C 3322- 
3322). Part of the range parallel to 
the southern coast, with the Lange- 
berg to the west and the Tsitsi- 
kamma Mountains to the east. 
Known to the Portuguese as Serra de 
Estrella. Named after the Outeniqua 
Khoekhoen who lived there. 

*Outjo (S 2016 AA). Town 47 km 
north-west of Otjiwarongo and 
165 km south-west of Otavi. It deve- 
loped from a German military post 
established in 1895, was admini- 
stered by a village management 
board from 1930 and became a 
municipality in 1944. The name is 
said to be of Herero origin, referring 
to a geographical feature known as 
The Terraces, or to mean 'sweet 
water' or 'sweetness'; more gener- 
ally the explanation is accepted that 
the name is derived from Khoe- 



khoen but adapted to Herero, and to 
mean 'place of evil', because people 
died there of malaria and blackwater 
fever. 

Ovamboland (S 1714-1817). 
Region bounded by Angola in the 
north, Kaokoland in the west, 
Kavango in the east and the Etosha 
National Park in the south. Named 
after the Ovambo who inhabit it; the 
name occurs as Owambo according 
to the modern orthography. 

Overberg (C 3419-3420). Region 
encompassing approximately the 
present districts of Bredasdorp, 
Caledon and Swellendam, but 
formerly extending almost to Mossel 
Bay. Afrikaans for 'over (the) 
mountain', the name is derived from 
Dutch Over 't Berg, 'over the 
mountain', referring to its situation 



east of the Hottentots Holland 
Mountains. 

Oviston (C 3025 DB). Township 
8 km north of Venterstad, on the 
southern bank of the Hendrik 
Verwoerd Dam. It was established 
in 1964-65 to accommodate workers 
on the Orange Fish Tunnel. The 
name is derived from the Afrikaans 
Oranje-Vis-tonnel, 'Orange-Fish 
Tunnel', near the entrance to which 
it is situated. 

Owambo see Ovamboland 



Paardekop see Perdekop 

Paardenberg see Perdeberg 

*Paarl (C 3318 DB). Town 13 km 
south-south-west of Wellington and 
30 km north-west of Franschhoek. 
Founded in 1690, it became a seat of 
magistracy in 1839 and achieved 
municipal status in 1840. Takes its 
name from a round granite boulder 
called Paarl (Dutch for 'pearl') by 
Abraham Gabbema in October 1657 
when he saw it glistening with dew 
in the morning sun. 

*Pacaltsdorp (C 3422 AB). Village 
8 km south of George. It was 
founded as a station of the London 
Missionary Society under the name 
Hooge Kraal in 1818. In 1886 a 
village management board was 
instituted. The name was changed to 



Pacaltsdorp in honour of the 
German missionary Carl August 
Pacalt (1773-1818) who laboured 
there from 1813 to 1818. 

Padrao de Sao Gregorio (C 3326 
DC). Original name of Cape Pad- 
rone. It means 'pillar of St Gregory' 
and was given by Bartolomeu Dias. 

Pafuri (T 2231 AC). Region along 
the Luvuvhu River to its confluence 
with the Limpopo, in the north- 
eastern section of the Kruger 
National Park. Said to be an adapta- 
tion of the Bavenda chief's name 
Mphafuli or Mphaphuli. 

*Palabora see Phalaborwa 

Palachwe see Palapye 

Palala River (T 2327-2328). Tribu- 
tary of the Limpopo. It rises in the 
Waterberg, some 40 km north of 



Nylstroom, and enters the main 
stream between the Magol and 
Mogolakwena rivers north-west of 
its source. The name is presumably 
derived from that of the impala, 
although the meaning 'one which 
overflows', from Northern Sotho 
lephalale, has also been encoun- 
tered. 

Palapye (Bots 2127 CA). Village to 
the north-west of the Tswapong Hills, 
50 km south-east of Serowe and 70 km 
north-east of Mahalapye. The name, 
referring to the impala antelope, was 
transferred from a former capital of 
Chief Khama, abandoned in 1902. The 
name is also encountered as Palachwe 
and Palapwe. 

Palmiet River (C 3418 BD). Paver 
which rises near Grabouw and flows 
mainly south to enter the Indian Ocean 
between Betty's Bay and Kleinmond. 



Named after the rushes (Prionium 
serratum) growing in it, known in 
Afrikaans as palmiet. The Khoekhoen 
name of this river was Houtema or 
Koutema, 'snake river'. 

Pampoenkraal (C 3318 DC). Early 
name of Durbanville; it is Afrikaans 
and means 'pumpkin byre'. 

Papegaaiberg (C 3318 DD). Hill west 
of Stellenbosch. Dutch for 'parrot 
mountain', the name is derived from 
the sport practised in the late 17th 
century of shooting in turn at a 
wooden target shaped like a parrot. 

Parow (C 3318 DC). Town 16 km 
north of Cape Town, between Bellville 
and Goodwood. It was established in 
1901 and attained municipal status in 
1939. Named after Johann Heinrich 
Ferdinand Parow (1833-1910), a 
German ship's captain who was ship- 



wrecked there and became the owner 
of the land on which the town was laid 
out. 

*Parys (O 2627 CD). Town on the 
south bank of the Vaal River, 120 km 
south-west of Johannesburg, 15 km 
north-east of Vredefort and 50 km 
south-east of Potchefstroom. It was 
laid out on the farm Klipspruit in 
1876, proclaimed in 1882 and became 
a municipality in 1887. Probably 
named after Paris in France, the 
Afrikaans form of which is Parys, at a 
suggestion of a German surveyor 
named Schilbach, who had partici- 
pated in the siege of Paris in the 
Franco-Prussian War. 

*Paternoster (C 3217 DD). Fishing 
village on the west coast, 16 km north- 
west of Vredenburg, at Cape Colum- 
bine between Saldanha Bay and St 
Helena Bay. The name, Latin for 



'Our Father', refers to prayers said 
by Catholic Portuguese seamen 
when shipwrecked; it appears as St 
Martin's Paternoster on old maps. 

*Paterson (C 3325 BD). Village 
some 80 km north-west of Alexan- 
dria and 21 km north of Ncanaha. It 
was laid out in 1879 and named 
after John Paterson (1822-1880), 
member of Parliament and founder 
of the Eastern Province Herald and 
of the Grey Institute for Boys, who 
established the town. 

Pauga see Xauga 

*Paulpietersburg (N 2730 BD). 
Town 72 km south of Piet Retief 
and 151 km north-east of Dundee. It 
was established in 1888, proclaimed 
a township in 1910, and attained 
municipal status in 1958. Named 
after President Paul Kruger and 



General Piet Joubert, it was first 
called Paulpietersrust, then Paul- 
pietersdorp, and Paulpietersburg in 
1896. 

*Paul Roux (O 2827 BD). Town on 
the Sand River, 35 km west of 
Bethlehem and 25 km east of 
Senekal. It was established in 1910 
and attained municipal status in 
1914. Originally named Duplessis- 
ville, after Frans du Plessis, it was 
renamed in honour of Paul Hendrik 
Roux (1862-1911), a general during 
the Second Anglo-Boer War and 
minister of Senekal from 1897 to 
1905. 

Paul Sauer Dam (C 3324 DA). 
Dam in the Kouga River, 10 km 
northwest of Andrieskraal. Named 
after Paul Oliver Sauer (1898-1976), 
a former Minister of Lands and 
Water Affairs. 



*Pearston (C 3225 CA). Town 
50 km north-west of Somerset East 
and 72 km south-east of Graaff- 
Reinet. It was laid out in 1859 on 
the farm Rustenburg, administered 
by a village management board from 
1861 and became a municipality in 
April 1894. Named after John Pears, 
Dutch Reformed minister at Somer- 
set East and first relieving minister 
of Pearston. 

*Peddie (Cis 3327 AA). Town 
55 km south-west of King William's 
Town and 67 km east of Grahams- 
town. It developed from a frontier 
post established in 1835 and named 
Fort Peddie, and became a munici- 
pality in 1905. Named after Lieute- 
nant-Colonel John Peddie (?-1840), 
who led the 72nd Highlanders 
against the Xhosa in the Sixth 
Frontier War. 



*Peelton (Cis 3227 CD). Village 
60 km north-west of East London 
and 16 km north-east of King 
William's Town. It was founded in 
1848-49 as a station of the London 
Missionary Society. Named after Sir 
Robert Peel, former Prime Minister 
of Britain and First Lord of the 
Treasury in 1834; it takes its name 
from the Valley of Peel. 

*Pelgrimsrus see Pilgrim's Rest 

*Pelindaba (T 2527 DD). Site of a 
nuclear research reactor near the 
Hartebeespoort Dam, in the Pretoria 
district. Takes its name from the 
farm on which it was established. 
The name means 'the matter, is 
settled' or 'the task is finished', 
referring to the dam which was 
completed when the water reached 
its highest level. 



Pelion Peak (C 3027 C). Peak 2 682 
m high, in the Witteberge, 20 km 
east of Lady Grey. Takes its name 
from the farm Pelion. The reference 
is to the peak in Greece, in myth- 
ology home of the centaurs. Other 
classical names in the area are Ossa 
and Olympus. 

*Pella (C 2819 CC). Roman 
Catholic mission station 28 km 
northwest of Pofadder. It was 
established as a station of the 
London Missionary Society about 
1806, was taken over by the Rhenish 
Missionary Society until 1869, and 
then by the Roman Catholics in 
1874. The name is of biblical origin, 
referring to Pella east of the river 
Jordan, to which the Christians went 
when Jerusalem was sacked in AD 
70. The Pella in Namaqualand was 
the refuge of inhabitants of a 



London Missionary Society station 
near Warmbad destroyed by the 
Khoekhoen under Jager Afrikaner. 

Penedo das Pontes (C 3326 DB). 
Early Portuguese name of Ship 
Rock. It was given in 1488 by 
Bartolomeu Dias to a rock on which 
were two fountains; the name means 
'rock of the fountains', leading some 
authorities to believe that the present 
Fountain Rocks at Port Alfred may be 
the original Penedo das Fontes. 

*Penge (T 2430 AD). Mining village 
on the Olifants River, 37 km north of 
Burgersfort. It was established after 
amosite was discovered there in 1907. 
Named after a suburb of London in 
England. 

*Penvaan see Mpemvana 

*Perdeberg (C 3318 DB). Mountain 
16 km south-east of Malmesbury and 



17 km north-west of Wellington. Origi- 
nally it bore the Dutch form of the 
present Afrikaans name, Paardenberg, 
'horses mountain', presumably after 
zebras which inhabited it. 

*Perdekop (T 2729 AD). Village 
38 km north of Volksrust and 47 km 
south of Standerton. Formerly Paarde- 
kop, 'horses hill', from the practice of 
keeping horses there when horse- 
sickness prevailed in lower lying areas. 

*Petrusburg (O 2925 AB). Town 
70 km north of Fauresmith and 80 km 
west of Bloemfontein. It was founded 
in 1891 on the farm Diepfontein and 
named after Petrus Albertus Venter, 
from whose estate funds were taken to 
buy it. 

*Petrus Steyn (O 2728 CA). Town 
45 km north-east of Lindley. Named 



after the owner of the farm on which it 
was laid out in 1914. 

*Petrusville (C 3024 BA). Town 
45 km north-east of Philipstown, 56 km 
south-east of Kraankuil and 10 km 
south of the Orange River. Founded 
about 1877 on the farm Rhenoster- 
fontein and named after Petrus Jacobus 
van der Walt who had bought it in 1810 
and donated a portion of it to the Dutch 
Reformed Church in 1822. 

Phalaborwa (T 2331 CC). Town in the 
Letaba district, 104 km east of 
Tzaneen, 9 km north of the Olifants 
River. Built on the site of centuries old 
mining operations, it was laid out on 
the farm Laaste and proclaimed in July 
1957. The name is said to mean 'it is 
better here than in the south', referring 
to the peaceful existence refugees 
enjoyed there after fleeing from Swazi 
and Zulu further south. 



Phepaneng (T 2429). Early Sotho 
name of the area around Potgietersrus. 
'Place of limestone', it was supplanted 
by the name Lekalakeng, derived from 
Afrikaans kalk, 'limestone'. 

*Philadelphia (C 3318 DA). Village 
33 km south-west of Malmesbury. 
Developed from a parish of the Dutch 
Reformed Church established in 1863. 
The name is of biblical origin (Rev. 
3:7-13) and means 'brotherly love'. 

*Philippi (C 3418 BA). Settlement on 
the Cape Flats, established for agricul- 
ture in 1878 and named after Dr Philip 
Faure, first Dutch Reformed minister 
of Wynberg. 

*Philippolis (O 3025 AD). Town 
58 km south-west of Trompsburg and 
56 km north-north-east of Colesberg. 
It was founded in 1823 as a station of 
the London Missionary Society and 



became a municipality in 1862. 
Named after Dr John Philip (1775- 
1851), Superintendent of the London 
Missionary Society, who selected the 
site. 

*Philipstown (C 3024 AD). Town 
56 km north-east of De Aar. It was 
established in May 1863 on the farm 
Rietfontein and became a municipality 
in August 1876. Named after Sir 
Philip Edmond Wodehouse (1811- 
1887), Governor of the Cape Colony 
from 1861 to 1870. 

Pholela (N 2929 DC). Tributary of the 
Mzimkulu River. It rises in the 
Drakensberg north-west of Himeville 
and flows south-east to its confluence 
with the main stream. Derived from 
Zulu phola, the name means 'cool 
river' . 



Phongolo (N 2730-2732). River rising 
12 km east of Wakkerstroom and 
flowing 470 km east and then north to 
enter the southern part of Delagoa Bay 
as the Maputo River. Derived from 
Zulu, the name has been explained as 
'trough-like', 'river of troughs' or 
'long pools'. 

Phuthiatsana (Les 2927-2928). 
Tributary of the Caledon River 
which it joins from the east some 
20 km north-east of Ladybrand. Of 
Sotho origin, the name is said to 
mean 'the gatherer', referring to the 
manner in which the flood-waters 
sweep everything before them. 

*Piekenierskloof (C 3218 DB). 
Mountain pass between Piketberg 
and Citrusdal, over the Olifants 
River Mountains. The name, mean- 
ing 'pikeman's ravine', refers to the 
practice of posting sentinels and 



pickets to defend farmers against 
Khoekhoen marauders in early 
times. It is stated, too, that in 1675 
musketeers and pikemen were sent 
after Gonnema's Khoekhoen after a 
Khoekhoen raid but that the pikes 
were too heavy to carry over the 
mountains whither the raiders had 
fled. 

Pienaars River see Pienaarsrivier 

*Pienaarsrivier (T 2528 AB). 
Town some 55 km due north of Pre- 
toria, north of the Pienaars River. 
Said to be named after a local 
pioneer with the surname Pienaar. 
The Northern Sotho name of this 
river is Moretele, from which the 
Moreletaspruit derives its name. The 
town Pienaarsrivier was established 
in 1908. 



*Pietermaritzburg (N 2930 CB). 

Capital city of Natal, 77 km north- 
west of Durban. It was established 
in 1839, proclaimed a borough in 
1854 and attained the status of an 
incorporated municipality in 1855. 
In 1857 it became capital of Natal. 
Named after the Voortrekker leaders 
Pieter Retief (1780-1838) and 
Gerhardus Marthinus (Gerrit) Maritz 
(1798-1839). 

*Pietersburg (T 2329 CD). Town 
275 km north-east of Pretoria and 
58 km north-east of Potgietersrus. It 
was established on the farm 
Sterkloop in 1884, became the seat 
of magistracy in 1886 and attained 
municipal status in September 1903. 
Named after Commandant-General 
Piet Joubert (1831-1900), Acting 
State President. 



Pietpotgietersrust 
see Potgietersrus 

*Piet Retief (T 2730 BB). Town 
110 km south-east of Ermelo and 
108 km north-east of Volksrust, 
15 km from the Swaziland border. It 
was laid out on the farms Asloop 
and Geluk (alias Metselklip) in 1884 
and became a municipality in 1932. 
Named after the Voortrekker leader 
Piet Retief (1780-1838). 

Pigg's Peak (Swa 2531 CC). Town 
62 km north-east of Mbabane and 
69 km south-east of Barberton (Tvl). 
Named after its founder, William 
Pigg, a prospector who discovered 
gold nearby in 1884. 

*Piketberg (C 3218 DD). Town 
135 km north-north-east of Cape 
Town and 26 km north-west of 
Porterville. It was laid out in 1835 



on the farm Grootfontein, was 
administered by a village manage- 
ment board from 1901 and attained 
municipal status in 1906. Takes its 
name from the Piquet Berg or 
Piketberg, at the foot of which it is 
situated. This name refers to the 
posting of military guards (piquet or 
piket) against marauding Khoekhoen 
under Gonnema during the term of 
office of Governor Isbrand Goske 
from 1672 to 1676. 

*Pilanesberg (Bop 2526-2527). 
Mountain 56 km north of Rusten- 
burg, consisting of a volcanic plug 
27 km in diameter. Apparently 
named after a Tswana chief, Pilane, 
said to mean 'pretty' or 'eland'. The 
entire mountain constitutes the 
Pilanesberg Game Reserve. At its 
southern foot is the pleasure and 
entertainment centre Sun City. 



*Pilgrim's Rest (T 2430 DD). 
Town 15 km north-west of Graskop 
and 45 km north of Sabie. It was 
laid out as a gold-diggers' camp on 
the farm Ponies Krantz in 1870. The 
name is attributed to Alec Paterson 
who is alleged to have welcomed 
newcomers with the words 'Here 
comes another pilgrim to his rest', 
though it is also stated that the 
diggings were named after an 
Australian digger named Pilgrim. A 
third explanation is that William 
Trafford bestowed the name because 
he felt that his pilgrimage was over 
when he settled there. The town has 
been preserved and restored as an 
historic monument and is a popular 
tourist and holiday resort. 

*Pinelands (C 3318 DC). Town 
8 km east of Cape Town. It was laid 
out in 1919 on a section of the 



Uitvlugt forest reserve, administered 
by a local board from July 1921, and 
became a municipality in May 1948. 

*Pinetown (N 2930 DD). Town 19 km 
north-west of Durban. It was laid out in 

1848 on the farm Salt River Poort, 
administered by a health committee 
from 1925, proclaimed a township in 
1942 and a borough in 1949. Named 
after Sir Benjamin Pine (1809-1901), 
Lieutenant-Governor of Natal from 

1849 to 1856 and Governor from 1873 
to 1875. 

Piquetberg see Piketberg 

*Pirie (Cis 3227 CC). Region in the 
Amatole Mountains, 25 km north-west 
of King William's Town, incorporating 
an indigenous forest reserve. Named 
after the Pirie Mission Station 4 km 
from Mngqesha, established in 1830 
and named after Alexander Pirie, then 



Secretary of the Glasgow Missionary 
Society and one of its founders. 

Plet (C 3423 AB). Popular name for 
Plettenberg Bay, of which it is an 
abbreviation. 

*Plettenbergbaai see Plettenberg Bay 

*Plettenberg Bay (C 3423 AB). 
Indentation in the south coast, between 
Cape Seal and Keurboomsrivier. 
Named after Joachim van Plettenberg 
(1739-1793), Governor of the Cape 
Colony from 1774 to 1785, who 
erected a beacon there with the Dutch 
East India Company's monogram. 
Former names borne include Bahia de 
la Goa, Angra das Algoas, Bay of St 
Catherine, Bahia Formosa, Content 
Bay, Keurbooms River Bay and Pisang 
River Bay. The seaside resort 37 km 
east of Knysna takes its name from the 



bay. The form Plettenbergbaai is 
preferred for official purposes. 

*Plettenberg Bay (C 3423 AB). Town 
and seaside resort on the bay of the 
same name, 37 km east of Knysna. 
Became a municipality in 1961. 

*Pniel (C 3318 DD). Settlement and 
Dutch Reformed mission station 
between Stellenbosch and Groot 
Drakenstein, established in 1843. The 
name is of biblical origin (Gen. 
32:30), referring to the place where 
Jacob wrestled with God; it means 
'face of God'. 

*Pofadder (C 2919 AB). Town 
151 km south-west of Kakamas and 
185 km north-east of Springbok. It 
developed from a station of the Inland 
Mission founded in 1875, and named 
after Klaas Pofadder, a Korana chief. 
The town was laid out in 1917 and a 



village management board was 
instituted in 1937. Originally named 
Theronsville, the name Pofadder was 
restored in 1936. 

Pofung (Les 2828 DD). Sotho name 
of Mont-aux-Sources. Said to mean 
'eland' or 'place of many eland', so 
called because this animal was hunted 
there. 

Point Ekeberg (C 3424 BB). Former 
name of Cape St Francis. It was thus 
named by the Swedish traveller 
Anders Sparrman (1748-1820) after a 
kinsman of his, the Chevalier C G 
Ekeberg, member of the Swedish 
Academy of Sciences. 

*Polela see Pholela 

*Politsi (T 2330 CC). Village some 
13 km north-west of Tzaneen, in the 
district of Letaba. Named after its 
situation in the vicinity of the 



Mphuditsi River, the source of which 
is near a forest; the forest, ditsi, is 
seen as spitting (mphu) the river out. 
Politsi is thus an adaptation of 
mphuditsi or mphodutsi. 

*Pomeroy (N 2830 CB). Town some 
72 km north of Greytown and 56 km 
south-south-east of Dundee. Named 
after Sir George Pomeroy Colley, who 
was killed in the Battle of Amajuba in 
1881. 

*Pongola see Phongolo 

*Pongola (T 2230). Former name of 
the Dobodzi. Named after Mapongole, 
a Venda chief. 

Ponta de S Brandao (C 3420 CC). 
Name given by Bartolomeu Dias to the 
present Cape Agulhas, probably on 
16 May 1488, after the Irish monk St 
Brendan (484-577), whose name-day it 
is. The name was also used for some 



time to denote the present Quoin 
Pointy the present Danger Point is 
also identified as Ponta de S Erandao. 

Ponta Espanhosa (C 3418 13D). 
Portuguese name of the present Hang- 
klip, the most easterly point of False 
Bay. 'Thorn point'. 

*Port Alfred (C 3326 DB). Principal 
town of the Bathurst district, at the 
mouth of the Kowie River. It was 
founded in 1825 and attained municipal 
status in 1894. At first named Port 
Frances, it was renamed in 1860 after 
the second son of Queen Victoria, 
Prince Albert, who visited the Cape, the 
Orange Free State and Natal in 1860. 

Port Beaufort (C 3420 )3D). Seaside 
resort, formerly also a harbour, on the 
north bank of the Breede River estuary. 
Named after the Duke of Beaufort, 
father of Lord Charles Somerset. 



*Port Durnford (N 2831 DD). Inlet on 
the Indian Ocean, 19 km south of 
Empangeni. It and Point Durnford, 
just to the south, were named after 
either Midshipman Durnford who 
accompanied Captain W F Owen in 
1822 in the exploration of the coast by 
the British survey ships Barracouta and 
Leven, after Colonel A W Durnford of 
the Royal Engineers, who was killed in 
1879 at the Battle of Isandlwana, or 
after Captain Durnford of the 27th 
Regiment who was sent from Algoa 
Bay with a division of 100 men to 
assist Captain Smith, besieged at 
Congclla in 1842. 

*Port Edward (N 3130 AA). Coastal 
village 13 km south of Margate and 
4 km north of the Cape border at the 
Mtamvuna River. It was founded in 
1924 and is administered by a health 
committee. Named after the Prince of 



Wales at that time, who later became 
King Edward VII. 

*Port Elizabeth (C 3325 DC). City on 
the shore of Algoa Bay, 32 km south- 
east of Uitenhage and 137 km south- 
west of Grahamstown. It developed 
from a military station known as Fort 
Frederick, established in 1799, after the 
arrival of the 1820 Settlers, attained 
municipal status in 1868 and became a 
city in July 1913. Named in 1820 by 
Sir Rufane Donkin (1773-1841), 
Acting Governor of the Cape, after his 
wife, Elizabeth Frances, who had died 
of fever in India two years previously. 

*Porterville (C 3319 AA). Town at 
the foot of the Olifants River Moun- 
tains, 27 km south-east of Piketberg 
and 155 km north-east of Cape Town. 
It was laid out in 1863 on the farm 
Pomona, previously Willems Vallei, 
and became a municipality in 1903. 



Named after William Porter, Attorney- 
General of the Cape Colony from 
1839 to 1866. 

Port Frances (C 3326 DB). Original 
name (1825 to 1860) of Port Alfred. 
Named after the wife of Colonel 
Henry Somerset, son of the governor, 
Lord Charles Somerset, or after the 
wife of Sir Lowry Cole. 

Port Grosvenor (Trsk 3129 BD). Bay 
on the Indian Ocean, near Lusikisiki in 
Pondoland. Named after the Gros- 
venor, a ship which was wrecked there 
on 4 August 1782. There is no port, 
though there was a harbour from 1878 
to 1885. 

Port Natal (N 2931 CC). Early name 
of Durban, derived from the Portu- 
guese Terra do Natal, 'land of the birth 
(of Jesus Christ)', given in 1497 by 



Vasco da Gama because he reached it 
on Christmas Day. 

*Port Nolloth (C 2916 BB). Coastal 
town, on the Atlantic Ocean, 80 km 
south of the mouth of the Orange 
River. It was founded in 1855 and 
attained municipal status in 1857. 
Named after M S Nolloth, commander 
of the HMS Frolic, who surveyed the 
coast in 1854. 

*Port St Johns (Trsk 3129 DA). 
Town at the mouth of the Umzimvubu 
River. It was founded about 1884. 
Presumably translated from Portu- 
guese Sao Jodo, either after a ship 
which foundered or anchored there, or 
after the outline of a face, resembling 
that of the apostle, against the 
mountain. Prior to 1552 it was known 
as Sao Christovdo. 



*Port Shepstone (N 3030 CB). 

Town and holiday resort on the 
South Coast, at the mouth of the 
Mzimkulu River, 122 km east-south- 
east of Harding and 120 km south- 
west of Durban. It was laid out in 
1867, became a township in 1913 
and a borough in 1974. Named after 
Sir Theophilus Shepstone (1817- 
1893), Secretary for Native Affairs 
from 1856 and Administrator of 
Zululand from 1884. 

*Postmasburg (C 2823 AC). Town 
67 km north of Griquatown and 
58 km west-south-west of Daniel- 
skuil. Originally a station of the 
London Missionary Society called 
Sibiling, it became a Griqua village 
with the name Blinkklip. In 1890 it 
acquired its present name, and 
achieved municipal status in 1936. 
Named after the Reverend Dirk 



Postma (1818-1890), founder of the 
Reformed Church. 

*Potchefstroom (T 2627 CA). 
Town on the Mooi River, 116 km 
south-west of Johannesburg. It was 
founded in November 1838 and was 
the first municipality in Transvaal. 
The name is said to be derived from 
Potgieter, who founded the town and 
who was chef or leader of the Voor- 
trekkers, and from the stroom 
(stream) on which it is situated. 

*Potgietersrus (T 2429 AA). Town 
220 km north-east of Pretoria, 
58 km south-west of Pietersburg and 
93 km north-east of Nylstroom. 
Originally established in 1852, it 
was abandoned because of fever and 
hostile local inhabitants around 
1870. It was re-established after 
1890, administered by a village 
council from 1904, and acquired 



municipal status in 1935. At first it 
bore the name Vredenburg but on 
25 September 1858 it was renamed 
Pietpotgietersrust after Pieter 
Johannes, son of the Voortrekker 
leader Andries Hendrik Potgieter. 
The name was later shortened to 
Potgietersrust and in 1939 the final t 
was dropped. 

Prentjiesberg (C 3128 AA). Moun- 
tain some 10 km north-west of Ugie. 
Meaning 'mountain of little 
pictures', this Afrikaans name was 
presumably given because of the 
hundreds of Bushman paintings in 
rock shelters or overhanging cliffs. 

^Pretoria (T 2528 CA). Capital city 
of Transvaal, 60 km north-north-east 
of Johannesburg. It was founded in 
1855 on the farm Elandspoort and 
became the capital of the Republic in 
1860. A town council was constituted 



in 1902, and city status acquired in 
October 1931. Named after the Voor- 
trekker leader Andries Wilhelmus 
Jacobus Pretorius (1798-1853), it was 
also known as Pretoria Philadelphia, 
Pretorium and Pretoriusdorp. 

*Pretoriuskop (T 2531 AA-AB). Hill 
in the Kruger National Park, 5 km east 
of Numbi station and 42 km north-east 
of Nelspruit. Named after President 
M W Pretorius who resurveyed the 
road to Lourenco Marques (now 
Maputo) up to this point. The Pretorius- 
kop Rest Camp takes its name from this 
hill. 

*Prieska (C 2922 DA). Town on the 
southern bank of the Orange River, 
130 km north-west of Britstown and 
75 km south-east of Marydale. It 
developed from a place to which 
farmers migrated when the pans were 
full, after rains. It was administered by 



a village management board from 1882 
and attained municipal status in 1892. 
The name is derived from Korana and 
means 'place of the lost she-goat'. 

*Prince Albert (C 3322 AA). Town at 
the foot of the Swartberg, 67 km north- 
west of Oudtshoorn. It was laid out on 
the farm Kweekvallei, a village 
management board was constituted in 
1881 and municipal status attained in 
1902. Named after the Prince Consort. 

*Prince Alfred Hamlet (C 3319 AD). 
Village 9 km north of Ceres. It was laid 
out in 1861 and named after the second 
son of Queen Victoria. 

Prince Alfred's Pass (C 3323 CC). 
Mountain pass between Avontuur and 
Knysna over the Outeniqua Mountains. 
Constructed between 1861 and 1867, it 
was named after Prince Alfred, the first 



Duke of Edinburgh, who visited the 
Cape in 1867. 

Pringle Bay (C 3418 BD). Inlet on the 
east shore of False Bay, 5 km north of 
Cape Hangklip, and town on the 
southern coast of this bay. Named after 
Rear-Admiral Thomas Pringle, Com- 
mander of the Naval Forces at the 
Cape from 1796 to 1798. 

Prins Albert see Prince Albert 

*Protem (C 3420 AC). Hamlet some 
30 km north of Bredasdorp and 40 km 
south-west of Swellendam. The name 
is an abbreviation of Latin pro 
tempore, 'for the time being'; the 
centre was to have served as a tempo- 
rary railway junction. 

*Pudimoe see Pudumong 

Pudumong (Bop 2724 BC). Town 
about 17 km north of Taung and 



66 km south-west of Schweizer- 
Reneke. Derived from Tswana, the 
name means 'place of wildebeest' 
(Connochaetes gnu). It formerly bore 
the adapted name Pudimoe, still in 
use for the station. 

P W Botha Airport (C 3422 AB). 
Airport about 8 km south-west of 
George. Named after Pieter Willem 
Botha, former Minister of Defence and 
former Prime Minister, current State 
President of the Republic of South 
Africa. 



Qacha's Nek (Les 3028 BA). Town 
on the border between Lesotho and 
Griqualand East, some 29 km north- 
west of Matatiele. It developed from a 
police camp established in 1888 to 
combat cattle thieving. The name is 
derived from that of Nqasha, son of 
Chief Morosi by a San wife, and is 
said to mean 'one who hides away'. 

*Qamata (Trsk 3127 CD). Town 
some 10 km north of St Marks and 
14 km west-north-west of Cofimvaba. 
The name is thought to be a Xhosa 
adaptation of the name of a Khoek- 
hoen deity. Also encountered as 
Qamatha and Tamata. 

Qhoasing (Les 2927 DD-3027 BB). 
Tributary of the Orange River. It rises 
in the vicinity of Pedlar's Peak and 
Thaba Lethu, some 50 km east-south- 



east of Mafeteng, and flows south-east 
to enter the Orange at Phokola, 40 km 
east of Mohale's Hoek. The name is 
said to be a Sotho adaptation of the 
San word ! kh wa, 'water'. 

Qinira (C 3327 DB). River which 
flows in a south-easterly direction to 
the north-east of East London and 
Beacon Bay. The name is adapted 
from Khoekhoen and means 'elands 
river'. Also encountered as Caninga, 
Geneka, Kwinegha, Kwinera, 
Quenera, Quinega and Quinera. 

*Qolora (Trsk 3228 CB). River which 
rises west of Kentani and flows south- 
east to enter the Indian Ocean about 
7 km north-east of the mouth of the 
Kei River. Of Xhosa origin, the name 
is said to mean 'ridged', 'full of 
ridges'. 



Qora (C 3325-3326). Khoekhoen 
name of the Bushmans River, adapted 
to Xhosa. Also encountered as 
Cougha, the name probably means 
'ground river', ie 'river of ground'. 

Qua (C 3323 BA). Khoekhoen name 
for Aasvogelberg. It probably means 
'vulture', so that the Dutch name is a 
translation. Also encountered as De 
Qua. 

Quaba (O 2825). Khoekhoen name of 
the Modder River. It means 'mud 
river', so that the Afrikaans name is a 
direct translation. Other names 
encountered include Gmaap, Gumaap, 
Khaba, Kaiba and Muddy River. 

Quaecoma (C 3218 AD). Khoekhoen 
name of Verlorevlei. It means 'lost 
water' or 'lost river'; the Afrikaans 
name is thus a translation. 



Quaelbergs Casteel (C 3320 CD). 
Peak in the Langeberg, now known as 
Twaalfuurkop and The Crown. 
Named after Commander Cornells van 
Quaelberg of the Dutch East India 
Company, probably by Hieronymus 
Cruse in 1666. 

Quaiep see Quieep 

Quathlamba see Drakensberg 

*Queensburgh (N 2930 DD). Borough 
14 km north-west of Durban, compri- 
sing the townships Cavendish, 
Escombe, Malvern, Moseley and 
Northdene. It was proclaimed a town- 
ship in 1952 and attained borough 
status in 1954. Named in honour of 
Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain 
who was crowned in 1952. 

Queens River (T 2530-2531 C). Tribu- 
tary of the Kaap River. It rises about 
25 km south-west of Barberton and 



flows north-east to enter the Kaap some 
5 km north-west of Barberton. Named 
after a chieftainess who ruled over a 
village in the vicinity; apparently it was 
a Swazi custom to allow a chief's wife 
to govern a village. 

*Queenstown (C 3126 DD). Town on 
the Komani River, 205 km north-west 
of East London. It was laid out in 1853 
and attained municipal status in 1855. 
Named after Queen Victoria of 
England. 

Quenera see Qinira 

Quenoncha (C 3228 D). Older name 
of Kwenxura. Of Khoekhoen origin, it 
means 'people's ears'; the reason for 
the name is unknown. The present 
name is presumably a Xhosa adaptation 
of Quenoncha. 

Quieep (S 2318-2519). Khoekhoen 
name of the Olifants River. Also 



encountered as Quiep and Quaiep, it 
means 'elephant river', so that the 
Afrikaans name is a translation. 

*Qumbu (Trsk 3128 BB). Town 
61 km north of Umtata, founded . in 
1876. The name is of Xhosa origin, 
derived from amazimba aqumbu, 'the 
corn has budded', or 'the corn is 
swollen', referring to a tribal war 
which occurred at that time of the 
year. 

Qumra (C 3227 BD-DB). Tributary 
of the Great Kei River. It rises a few 
kilometres west of Komga and flows 
north-north-east to join the main 
stream about 12 km north of Komga. 
The name is a Xhosa adaptation of 
Khoekhoen Komga or Komgha and 
means 'abundance of clay', 'rich in 
clay'. 



Quoin Point (C 3419 DC). Promon- flows west to enter the Orange River 

tory at the southern end of Jessie se 5 km north-west of Mount Moorosi 

Baai, 34 km south-east of Gansbaai and 26 km north-east of Quthing. 

and 42 km south-west of Napier. Also 

encountered as The Gunner's Quoin 

and The Wedge, the name refers to a 

wedge-shaped block of wood, known 

as a quoin, which was used to raise or 

lower the muzzle of a gun in former 

times. The reason for the name is 

uncertain. The place was known in 

early times by the Portuguese name 

Ponta de Sao Brandao. 

*Quthing (Les 3027 BC). Town some 
53 km south-east of Mohale's Hoek. 
The name is thought to be of San 
origin and to be derived from 
Phuthing, 'land of the Baphuthi'. The 
district of Quthing was previously 
known as Morosi's Country. The 
name is also borne by a river which 
rises near the Transkei border and 



R 

*Ramatlhabama (Bots 2525 C-D). 
Tributary of the Molopo River. It 
rises some 35 km north-east of 
Mafikeng and flows south-west to 
enter the Molopo at Mokatako, 
some 10 km east of Makgobistad. 
Of Tswana origin, the name is said 
to mean 'to cross with legs apart', 
referring to an incident in which 
Chief Montsioa killed a lion at a 
short distance. 

*Randburg (T 2627 BB). Town 
immediately north-west of and 
adjacent to Johannesburg. It was 
proclaimed on 1 July 1959 and 
takes its name from the South 
African monetary unit 'the Rand', 
which superseded the South African 
Pound; it was named after the 
Witwatersrand, known colloquially 
as The Rand. 



Randfontein (T 2627 BA). Gold- 
mining town some 24 km west of 
Johannesburg. It was laid out on the 
farm Randfontein in 1890 and 
became a municipality in 1929. The 
Randfontein Estates Gold Mine has 
the largest stamp-mill in the world, 
and a uranium plant. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'ridge foun- 
tain', 'fountain on the edge'. 

Rauteng (T 2628 AA). Northern- 
Sotho name of Johannesburg. It is 
derived from the Afrikaans word 
goud, 'gold'; the R of Rauteng and 
the g of goud are both gutturals. 'At 
the gold', 'place of gold'. 

*Rawsonville (C 3319 CB). Town 
in the Goudini region, 16 km south- 
west of Worcester. It was named 
after Sir Rawson W Rawson, 
Colonial Secretary at the Cape from 
1854 to 1864. 



*Rayton (T 2528 DA). Village 
40 km east of Pretoria and 9 km 
south of Cullinan. It was founded in 
1903 or 1904 on the farm Elands- 
hoek by the Montrose Diamond 
Mining Company and named after 
Mrs Ray Wollaston, wife of the 
general manager of that company. 

Readsdale River (C 3226 B-D). 
Tributary of the Kat River. It rises 
south of Boesmankrans and flows 
south to join the Kat near Seymour. 
Takes its name from Readsdale, in 
turn named after James Read, a 
missionary of the London Mission- 
ary Society. 

Rebunieberg (C 3119 DB). Moun- 
tain about 8 km south of Calvinia. 
The name is said to be an adaptation 
of Afrikaans Roep jou nie, 'not 
calling you', which in turn is 



translated from Khoekhoen Kerete, 
'do not call'. 

Recife, Cape see Cape Recife 

*Reddersburg (O 2926 CA). Town 
60 km south of Bloemfontein and 
74 km north-west of Smithfield. 
According to various sources it was 
founded in 1857, 1859, 1861 or 
1863 on the farm Vlakfontein, and 
attained municipal status in 1889 or 
1894. Named in honour of Jesus 
Christ, the Saviour, Redder in 
Afrikaans. An entire British division 
was captured there by General 
Christiaan de Wet during the Second 
Anglo-Boer War. 

*Redelinghuys (C 3218 AD). 
Village on the Verlorevlei, 60 km 
northwest of Piketberg and 25 km 
south-east of Elandsbaai. It was 
founded in 1806 and is administered 



by a village management board. 
Named after J N Redelinghuys who 
donated the land to the Dutch 
Reformed Church. 

*Rehoboth (S 2317 AC). Town 
96 km south of Windhoek and 
195 km north-west of Mariental. 
Originally inhabited by the Swart- 
booi group of Khoekhoen under the 
name Anis, the name was changed 
to Rehoboth by the missionary 
H Kleinschmidt in 1844 when he 
came to work among them. The 
name is of biblical origin (Gen. 
26:22) and means 'space', 'room'. 

*Reitz (O 2728 CD). Town 51 km 
north-north-east of Bethlehem and 
85 km south-east of Heilbron. It was 
founded in 1889 on the farm Stamp- 
kop, portion of Langspruit, and 
developed from a trading post for 
transport-riders, Singer's Post, 



named after the owner. Municipal 
status was attained in 1903. At first 
named Amsterdam, it was renamed in 
1899 after Francis William Reitz 
(1844-1934), President of the 
Orange Free State, who proclaimed 
it. 

*Reivilo (C 2724 CA). Town 96 km 
south-west of Vryburg and 55 km 
west of Taung. It was laid out in 
1917 on the farm Bruintjes Fontein, 
proclaimed in 1941, and became a 
municipality in 1967. At first named 
Klein Boetsap after the Dutch 
Reformed parish, it was renamed 
Reivilo in 1927. The name is an 
inversion of the surname of the 
Reverend A J Olivier, local minister 
of the Dutch Reformed Church from 
1914 to 1921 and 1922 to 1926. 

Remhoogteberge (S 2416 A). 
Mountains north of the Naukluft- 



berge, about 20 km north-west of 
Bullsport. Afrikaans for 'brake- 
height mountains', the name refers 
to steep descents which could only 
be negotiated by wagons if they 
were held to with thongs tied to 
their: wheels. 

Renoster River (O 2727). Tributary 
of the Vaal River which rises in the 
Heilbron district and flows 160 km 
westwards to its confluence with the 
main stream 45 km west of Vrede- 
fort. The river takes its name from 
the many rhinoceroses (Afrikaans 
renosters) shot there. 

Rensburgkoppie (N 2730). Historic 
hill some 12 km from Estcourt. 
Named after Hans van Rensburg 
who, together with fourteen others, 
withstood an attack by Zulus in 
1836. Rensburg spruit is also named 
after him. 



*Residensia (T 2627 DB). Name 
given in 1962 to the former Evaton. 
Probably derived from 'reside', 
'residence'. 

*Rhodes (C 3027 DD). Village on 
the Bell River, 56 km north-east of 
Barkly East. At first known as 
Rossville, it was renamed after Cecil 
John Rhodes (1853-1902), states- 
man and politician. Renowned for 
its cold climate. 

Richardsbaai see Richards Bay 

*Richards Bay (N 2832 CC). Town 
25 km east of Empangeni and 60 km 
south of Mtubatuba. Administered 
by a health committee since 1954. 
Takes its name from the bay at the 
mouth of the Mhlatuze River, which 
was named after Sir Frederick 
Richards, Commodore of the Cape 
station of the Royal Navy and 



subsequently Admiral, who was in 
charge of the naval force assisting the 
land forces against the Zulu in 1879. 
The Zulu name of Richards Bay is 
Cwebeni, 'at the lagoon'. 

*Richmond (C 3123 BD). Town on 
the Ongers River, 96 km south of De 
Aar and 138 km north-east of Graaff- 
Reinet. It was founded in 1844 on the 
farm Driefontein and attained munici- 
pal status in the same year. Named 
after the Earl of Richmond, father-in- 
law of Sir Peregrine Maitland, Gover- 
nor of the Cape from 1844 to 1847. 

*Richmond (N 2930 CD). Town on 
the Illovo River, 38 km south of 
Pietermaritzburg and 46 km north-east 
of Ixopo. It was established in 1850 
and proclaimed a township in 1920. At 
first named Beaulieu, it was renamed 
soon afterwards after the Earl of Rich- 
mond, father-in-law of Sir Peregrine 



Maitland, Governor of the Cape from 
1844 to 1847. 

Richtersveld (C 2816-2817). Region 
in the loop formed by the Orange 
River before it flows into the Atlantic 
Ocean, bounded in the south by the 
road from Port Nolloth to Steinkopf. 
Named after the Reverend W Richter 
of the seminary of the Rhenish 
Mission in Barmen, Germany. 

Riebeecks Stad (C 3318 DC). Early 
name of Cape Town. After Jan 
Antonisz van Riebeeck (1619-1677), 
first Dutch Commander at the Cape 
and founder of the Cape Colony. 

*Riebeek East (C 3326 AA). Village 
in the Albany district, 39 km north- 
west of Grahamstown. It was founded 
in 1842 on the farm Mooi Meisjes 
Fontein and named after Jan van 
Riebeeck (1619-1677), first Dutch 



Commander at the Cape. The modify- 
ing element 'East' was subsequently 
added to distinguish it from Riebeek 
West. The form Riebeek-Oos is 

preferred for official use. 

*Riebeek-Kasteel (C 3318 BD). 
Mountain of 914 m 21 km northeast of 
Malmesbury. It was named in honour 
of Jan van Riebeeck on 3 February 
1661 by an expedition under Pieter 
Cruythoff. The village, established in 
the 1860s, takes its name from the 
mountain, as does the Riebeeksrivier 
which rises in it. 

*Riebeek-Oos see Riebeek East 

*Riebeek-Wes see Riebeek West 

*Riebeek West (C 3318 BD). 
Village some 50 km north-north- 
west of Paarl and 61 km south- 
south-west of Piketberg. It was 
established as a parish of the Dutch 



Reformed Church in 1858 and 
named after Riebeek-Kasteel, at the 
foot of which it is situated. It was 
the birthplace of General Jan 
Christiaan Smuts, former Prime 
Minister of South Africa. The form 
Riebeek-Wes is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Riemland (O 2728). Region 
comprising the districts of Bethle- 
hem, Heilbron, Kroonstad, Lindley 
and Reitz. Afrikaans for 'thong 
country', the name is derived from 
hunting activities in the 19th century 
when game was killed not only for 
meat but also for hides from which 
thongs were cut. Hides and thongs 
were traded and used as a medium 
for exchange. 

*Rietbron (C 3323 CC). Village 
85 km south-east of Beaufort West 
and 64 km north-west of Willow- 



more. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'reed source', 'reed foun- 
tain'. 

Rio de Santiago (C 3218). Early 
Portuguese name of the Berg River, 
probably given by Nicolan Coelho, 
captain of one of Da Gama's ships, 
in November 1497. It means 'river 
of St James', and was given because 
it was on the name-day of that saint 
that they reached it. Also 
encountered as Samtiago, S. Thiago, 
and Samtiagua. 

Rio do Cobre (T 2228-2229). 
Portuguese name for the Limpopo 
River. 'River of copper', it was so 
named by Vasco da Gama in 1498 
because the people he saw there 
were wearing copper ornaments. 

Rio do Infante (C 3125-3327). 
Early Portuguese name of the Great 



Fish River. Named after Joao 
Infanta, second-in-command of 
Bartolomeu Dias, because he was 
the first to set foot on land there in 
1486. 

Rio Fermoso (C 3321-3421). Early 
Portuguese name of the Gourits 
River. It means 'beautiful river'. 

Riversdal see Riversdale 

*Riversdale (C 3421 AA). Town on 
the Vet River, at the foot of the 
Langeberg, 29 km east of Heidel- 
berg and 88 km west of Mossel Bay. 
It was founded on the farm Doorn- 
kraal in August 1838 and attained 
municipal status in June 1849. 
Named after Harry Rivers (1785- 
1861), Commissioner and Resident 
Magistrate of Swellendam from 
1834 to 1841. 



*Riverton (C 2824 DB). Pleasure 
resort on the Vaal River, 27 km 
north of Kimberley. Established in 
1949, it is named after its situation 
on the river. 

*Riversonderend (C 3419-3420 B). 
Tributary of the Breede River. It 
seems to flow from the Theewaters- 
kloof Dam and extends eastwards 
for some 140 km, to enter the 
Breede about 16 km west-southwest 
of Swellendam. Afrikaans for 'river 
without end', the name was appar- 
ently given because difficulty was 
experienced in locating its source 
among the many headwaters and 
tributaries. Also encountered as 
River Zender End, Soonderendt, 
Zonderend, Zoundereind, etc, it was 
known to the Khoekhoen as 
Kannakamkanna, which probably 
has the same meaning. 



*Riviersonderend (C 3419 BB). 
Village 50 km north-east of Caledon 
and 166 km east of Cape Town. It 
was laid out in 1925 and became a 
municipality in 1940. Afrikaans for 
'river without end', it takes its name 
from the river on which it is 
situated. 

*Robbeneiland see Robben Island 

*Robben Island (C 3318 CD). 
Island 2 km wide and 3.5 km long, 
in Table Bay, 9 km north of Green 
Point and 7 km west of Blouberg- 
strand. The name is Dutch and 
means 'seals island'. Other names 
borne by the island are Seal Island, 
Penguin Island, Robin (in French 
documents) and Isla de Cornelia. 
Formerly a leper colony and lunatic 
asylum, it has been used since 1969 
as a prison. During World War II it 
played a key role in the defence of 



Cape Town. The form Robben- 
eiland is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Robberg (C 3423 AB). Mountain 
projecting into the sea, southwest of 
Plettenberg Bay. 'Seal mountain', 
named after seals seen lying on the 
flat rocks at its foot. Known about 
1576 as Ponta Delgada; the modern 
English name is Cape Seal. 

*Robertson (C 3319 DD). Town in 
the Breede River Valley, 178 km 
north-east of Cape Town and 46 km 
south-east of Worcester. It was 
established in 1853 on the farm 
Over het Roode Zand and attained 
municipal status in 1902. Named 
after Dr William Robertson (1805- 
1879), the first minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in Clanwilliam, 
and minister of Swellendam from 
1834 to 1871. 



*Robinson Pass (C 3322 CC). 
Mountain pass over the Outeniqua 
Mountains, between Oudtshoorn and 
Mossel Bay. Constructed between 
1867 and 1869, it was named after 
the Commissioner of Roads, M R 
Robinson. 

Roburnia (T 2630 DA). Original 
name of Amsterdam; after the Scot- 
tish poet Robert Burns. The town, 
proclaimed in June 1881, formed 
part of a Scottish settlement 
established by Alexander McCorkin- 
dale. It was renamed Amsterdam in 
July 1882. 

Roderozendal see Bloemendal 

Roggeveld (C 3119-3220). Region 
between the Roggeveldsberge and 
the Little Roggeveld, occupying 
portions of the Fraserburg, Calvinia 
and Sutherland districts and 



extending northwards. Encountered 
in 1774, the name is Dutch or Afri- 
kaans for 'rye veld', referring to a 
type of wild rye (Secale africanum) 
growing there. 

Roma (Les 2927 BC). Headquarters 
of the Roman Catholic Church in 
Lesotho, and important educational 
centre, 35 km south-east of Maseru. 
Established in 1862 by J F Allard 
and J Gerard on land chosen and 
donated by Chief Moshesh, it was 
first known as Motse-oa-'Ma-Jesu, 
'village of the Mother of Jesus'. 
The name Roma originated with 
early Protestant missionaries. 

Roman Rock (C 3418 AB). Reef in 
False Bay, about 1 km northeast of 
Simon's Town. Named after a type 
of fish (Chrysoblephus laticeps) 
called 'roman' or 'red roman'. This 
name is said to be derived from 



Afrikaans rooiman ('red man'). 
Also encountered as Romansklip, 
Romance Rock, Romanrots, Rooi- 
mans Rock and Roymannsklip. 

*Roodepoort (T 2627 BB). Town 
19 km north-west of Johannesburg. 
It originated as a gold-mining camp 
in 1888 on the farm Roodepoort. A 
health board was established in 
1902, an urban district board in 
1903 and a municipality in 1904. 
The name is Dutch and means 'red 
pass', from the colour of the soil in 
the area. 

Roodezand (C 3319). Region 
between the Ubiqua Mountains in 
the west and the Witsenberg in the 
east. The name is Dutch and means 
'red sand', referring to a range of 
hills consisting mainly of red sand- 
stone separating this region from 
Drakenstein. The name was chang- 



ed to Land van Waveren by W A 
van der Stel in 1699; at present the 
region coincides with the Tulbagh 
district. 

Rooibank (S 2314 BA). Locality in 
the bed of the Kuiseb River, 32 km 
south-east of Walvis Bay, source of 
water supply for Swakopmund and 
Walvis Bay. The Afrikaans name, 
'red sill or rock-slab', was trans- 
lated from Khoekhoen Awanghaus. 
The Rhenish mission station 
Scheppmannsdorf was situated 
here. 

*Rooiberg (T 2427 DC). Town, 
archaeological site and tin-mining 
area, 50 km west-north-west of 
Warmbad, at the conjunction of the 
Springbok Flats with the Waterberg 
Plateau. The name is Afrikaans for 
'red mountain'. 



Rooiels (C 3419 BD). Township on 
the east shore of False Bay, 5 km 
north of Pringle Bay. Declared a 
township in June 1948, it takes its 
name from the farm and river of 
that name, referring to the red alder 
or butterspoon trees, Cunonia 
capensis, which grew in the ravine. 

*Rooigrond (C 2525 DD). Hamlet 
16 km south-east of Mafikeng and 
25 km south-west of Ottoshoop. 
Afrikaans for 'red ground'. The 
place was formerly known as 
Vrywilligersrus and Heliopolis. Part 
of the region Rooigrond, ceded to 
Boer volunteers under Adriaan de la 
Rey by Tswana chiefs in the 1880s, 
became the republics of Goshen and 
Stellaland. 

*Roossenekal (T 2529 BB). Village 
on the western slopes of the Steen- 
kampsberg, 95 km north-east of 



Middelburg. It was proclaimed in 
January 1886 and named after two 
soldiers who died in the war against 
Mapoch's tribe - Stefanus Johannes 
Roos, Field-Cornet of the Potchef- 
stroom commando, and Frederick 
Senekal, Commandant of the Rust- 
enburg commando. 

*Roosville (T 2625 DB). Temporary 
name of Sannieshof; after Tielman 
Roos (1879-1935), elected member 
of Parliament for Lichtenburg in 
1915. 

*Rorke's Drift (N 2830 BC). 
Historic ford and trading-post at the 
Buffalo River, 37 km south-east of 
Dundee, site of a famous battle 
between British forces and Zulus. 
Named after James Rorke who 
established the trading-post in 1860. 



*Rosmead (C 3125 AC). Village 
12 km east of Middelburg and 
75 km west-south-west of Steyns- 
burg. It was founded in 1880 and at 
first named Middelburg Road, but 
renamed in 1883 after Sir Hercules 
George Robinson, Lord Rosmead 
(1824-1897), who was Governor of 
the Cape Colony from 1880 to 1889. 

Rossville (C 3027 DD). Former 
name of Rhodes. Named after David 
Ross, minister of the Dutch 
Reformed Church at Lady Grey 
from 1863 to 1908. 

*Rouxville (O 2526 BD). Town 
34 km north-east of Aliwal North 
and 38 km south-east of Smithfield. 
It was founded in 1864 on the farm 
Zuurbult and named after the 
Reverend Pieter Roux, minister of 
the Dutch Reformed Church in 
Smithfield from 1853 to 1874. 



Ruacana Falls (S 1714 AC). 
Waterfall on the Kunene River, 
some 70 km north of Ombombo. 
Probably an adaptation of Herero 
orua hakakana, 'the hurrying of the 
waters'. 

Ruggens (C 3419). Region north of 
the Duineveld, south of the Rivier- 
sonderend Mountains, east of the 
Houhoek Mountains, and between 
Langvleipoort and Bonnievale. 
Also encountered as Reuens and 
Ruens, the name is Afrikaans for 
'ridges' and refers to the undulating 
landscape. 

Ruige Rivier (C 3118-3319). 
Former name of the Olifants River 
in the Clanwilliam district. Dutch 
for 'overgrown river', 'thicket 
river', the name is translated from 
Khoekhoen Tharakkamma. 



*Rustenburg (T 2527 CA). Town 
120 km west of Pretoria and 43 km 
north of Derby. It was founded on 
the farms Kafferskraal and Wit- 
pensfontein in 1850, proclaimed in 
1851 and became a municipality in 
1918. The name is Dutch and 
means 'town (originally "castle") of 
rest'. Rustenburg is a popular 
health resort, especially in the 
winter months. 

Rykoppies (T 2431 CC). Early 
name of the Bosbokrand or Bush- 
buck Ridge. Derived from Afri- 
kaans, it means 'row of hills'. 



*Sabie (T 2530 BB). Principal town of 
the Pilgrim's Rest district, some 60 km 
north-north-west of Nelspruit and 
54 km east of Lydenburg. It developed 
from a gold-diggers' camp on the farm 
Grootfontein. A health committee was 
instituted in 1916, and a village council 
in 1924. It takes its name from the 
Sabie River. 

Sabie River (T 2530-Moc 2532). 
Tributary of the Incomati River. It rises 
in the Drakensberg south-west of Sabie 
and flows mainly east to join the main 
stream east of the Lebombo Mountains, 
in Mocambique. The name is said to be 
derived from Shangaan and to mean 
'sand (river)'. 

St Blaize, Cape see Cape St Blaize 

St Croix Island (C 3325 DD). Island 
in Algoa Bay, 7 km east of Coegas- 



mond and 12 km south-west of the 
mouth of the Sundays River. French for 
'St Cross', this name has supplanted 
the Portuguese Santa Cruz, Ilheo de 
Santa Cruz, 'island of the Holy Cross', 
bestowed by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488. 

St Francis Bay (C 3425 AA). Just west 
of Algoa Bay, between Cape Recife 
and Cape St Francis. Derived from the 
Portuguese Bahia de Sao Francisco 
bestowed by Manuel Perestrelo in 1575 
to Jeffreys Bay, which is included in St 
Francis Bay. This bay was named 
Golfo dos Pastores by Bartolomeu 
Dias in 1488 and was also known as 
Golfo dos Vaqueiros. 

*St Helena Bay (C 3218 CA). Bay at 
the mouth of the Berg River, on the 
Atlantic coast, north of the land mass in 
which Saldanha Bay is situated. 
Derived from the Portuguese name 
Bahia da Santa Elena, bestowed by 



Vasco da Gama on 7 November 1497; 
also encountered as Golfo de Sane- 
lena, St Helen's Bay, Golfo de St 
Elena, Santa Helena and St Martins 
Bay. 

St Helena Bay (C 3218 CA). Town on 
the shore of the bay, from which it 
takes its name. 

*St Mark's (Trsk 3227 AB). Village 
on the White Kei River, about 15 km 
west of Cofimvaba and 40 km north- 
east of Cathcart. It was founded in 
1855 as one of four Anglican mission 
stations named after the apostles. 

St Sebastian Bay (C 3420 BD). Inlet 
on the southern coast, at the mouth of 
the Breede River, almost 60 km 
south-east of Swellendam and 30 km 
south of Heidelberg. It was apparently 
named after King Sebastian of 



Portugal in 1576 by Manuel 
Perestrelo. 

Sakolka (C 3325-3326). Khoekhoen 
name of the Bushmans River. The 
latter name seems to be at least a 
partial translation. 

*Sak River (C 2920-3222). Upper 
portion of the Hartbees, tributary of 
the Orange River. It rises about 13 km 
north-west of Beaufort West and 
flows north-east, past Williston, 
Fraserburg and Brandvlei, to join the 
Hartbees south of Kenhardt. Afri- 
kaans for 'sinking (river)', because it 
disappears into its sandy bed, the 
name is translated from Khoekhoen 
Haukaap. The form Sakrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

*Sakrivier see Sak River 

Salamander Point (C 3318 AA). 
Most north-easterly tip of the strip of 



land forming the Langebaan Lagoon. 
Named after the Salamander, a ship 
which entered Saldanha Bay in 1660. 

*Saldanha (C 3317 BB). Town north 
of Saldanha Bay, from which it takes 
its name, 13 km south of Vredenburg 
and 177 km northwest of Cape Town. 

Saldanha Bay (C 3317 BB). Inden- 
tation in the western coast, some 
90 km north-west of Table Bay. 
Originally the name, in its Portuguese 
form Agoada de Saldanha, was 
given to the present Table Bay. 
Meaning 'watering-place of Sal- 
danha', it was named after Admiral 
Antonio de Saldanha who was 
wounded there by Khoekhoen in 1503 
while taking water. In 1601 the 
present Saldanha Bay was passed by 
Joris van Spilbergen and he, presum- 
ing he had reached Agoada de 
Saldanha, applied the name to it. Thus 



the name was transferred to the 
entity now so designated. 

*Salem (C 3326 AD). Settlement 
about 20 km south of Grahamstown 
and 20 km north of Alexandria. It 
was founded as a settlement of the 
Sephton party of 1820 Settlers. The 
name is of biblical origin (Gen. 
14:18) and means 'peace'; the local 
application refers to a reconciliation 
between sects. 

Salisbury Island (N 2931 CC). 
Island in the Bay of Natal at 
Durban. It was named after the brig 
Salisbury, in which British explorers 
had visited the island in 1823 and 
which brought them, under the 
leadership of F G Farewell, H F 
Fynn and J S King, to establish a 
station at Port Natal in 1824. 



Salpeterkop (C 3220 BD). Peak 
20 km south-east of Sutherland. It 
consists of a volcanic plug richly 
impregnated with minerals. The 
name is Afrikaans and means 
'saltpetre hill'. It was visited by 
Colonel Robert Jacob Gordon in 
1778. 

Samoep River (C 2819 DA-DC). 
Non-perennial tributary of the 
Orange River. It rises south and 
south-east of Skuitklipkop and 
extends north-west to join the 
Orange near Steyerskraal, 20 km 
northeast of Onseepkans. The name 
is derived from Khoekhoen and 
probably means 'San (Bushman) 
fountain'. 

*Sampofu (N 2830 CB). Tributary 
of the Tugela River. It rises in the 
vicinity of Pomeroy and flows south 
to its confluence with the main 



stream about 4 km west of Tugela 
Ferry. Of Zulu origin, the name 
means 'eland-coloured', ie brown- 
ish-grey, from the colour imparted 
to the water by the soil and rocks 
over which it flows. 

Sandlwana see Isandlwana 

*Sand River (O 2826). Also Afri- 
kaans Sandrivier and formerly Dutch 
Zand Rivier. This river is famous for 
being the site of the signing of the 
Sand River Convention by which 
Transvaal gained independence on 
17 January 1852. Named after an 
incident in which a wagon was 
bogged down in the treacherous 
sand and had to be unloaded before 
being pulled free. The form Sand- 
rivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Sandrivier see Sand River 



*Sandton (T 2628 AA). Town 
adjoining Johannesburg in the north 
and north-east. Established as a 
separate municipality in July 1969. 
The name is derived from Sandown 
and Bryanston. 

*Sandveld (C 3218). Region bound- 
ed by the Berg River in the south, 
the Olifants River in the north, the 
Atlantic Ocean in the west and the 
Olifants River Mountains in the 
east. The towns of Graafwater, 
Lambertsbaai, Leipoldville and 
Redelinghuys fall within it. 
Afrikaans for 'sand field', the name 
refers to the sandy nature of the soil. 

Sandwich Bay (S 2314 AD). Inlet 
some 50 km south of Walvis Bay, 
on the Atlantic coast. The name is 
said to be an adaptation of Dutch 
zandvisch, 'sand-fish'. 



*Sannieshof (T 2625 DB). Village 
40 km north-east of Delareyville and 
38 km north-west of Ottosdal. The 
name was bestowed by John Voor- 
endijk who was postmaster of 
Lichtenburg, in honour of his wife 
Sannie (nee De Beer), whom he 
married in 1904. 

Santa Cruz see St Croix 

Santiago River 
see Rio de Santiago 

Sao Bras see Cape St Blaize 



*Sarepta see Serepta 

*Saron (C 3319 AA) 



Mission 

station at the foot of the Saronsberg 
in the Tulbagh district, about 20 km 
south of Porterville. Established by 
the Rhenish Missionary Society, it 
was later taken over by the Dutch 
Reformed Church. The name, AM- 



kaans for Sharon, is of biblical 
origin (1 Chron. 27:29, Song of 
Solomon 2:1), and means 'a plain'. 

*Sasolburg (O 2627 DD). Town 
16 km south of Vanderbijlpark and 
48 km north-east of Parys. It was 
established in 1950 to serve the South 
African Coal, Oil and Gas Corpo- 
ration. The name is derived from the 
Afrikaans translation Suid-Afrikaanse 
Steenkool-, Olie en Gaskorporasie. 

Sassar (C 3318 DC). Former name 
(1947-1959) of Acacia Park. It is 
formed from the initial letters of Suid- 
Afrikaanse Spoorwee/South African 
Railways, the former name of the S A 
Transport Services. 

*Saulspoort (Bop 2527 AA). Village 
at the northern foot of the Pilanesberg, 
about 65 km north of Rustenburg. 
Named after a former Bakgatla chief, 



Tsheole, called Saul by the early 
settlers. 

Scharfenstein see Schroffenstein 

Scheppmannsdorf (S 2314 BA). 
Station of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society, established at Awanghaus 
(Rooibank) in 1845 by the Reverend J 
H Scheppmann, and named after him 
after his death in 1847, by the 
Reverend J Barn. The name is German 
for ' Scheppmann' s town'. 

*Schoemansdal (T 2329 BB). Former 
village at the foot of the Soutpansberg, 
16 km west of Louis Trichardt. It was 
founded in 1848 but destroyed by 
Bavenda in 1867. Originally named 
Zoutpansbergdorp or Oude Dorp, it 
was renamed in 1855 after the 
Voortrekker leader Stephanus Schoe- 
man (1810-1890) who succeeded A H 
Potgieter as Commandant-General in 



1854. The name is now borne by a 
town some 48 km east of Barberton. 

*Schoemansville (T 2527 DD). 

Village and holiday resort on the 
shores of the Hartebeespoort Dam, 
13 km south-east of Brits. It was 
founded in 1925 by Johan Schoeman 
and named after his father, General 
Hendrik Schoeman (1840-1901). 

Schroffenstein (S 2718). Alternative 
name of Lord Hill. Also encountered 
as Scharfenstein, German for 'sharp 
stone', referring to the nature of the 
mountain. 

Schuckmannsburg (S 1724 DB). 
Settlement in the eastern portion of 
the Caprivi Strip, some 35 km east- 
south-east of Katima Mulilo. 
Founded in 1909 as a military 
encampment and named after Bruno 
von Schuckmann, who was Gover- 



nor of South-West Africa from 1907 
to 1910. 

*Schweizer-Reneke (T 2725 AB). 
Town on the Harts River, 322 km 
south-west of Johannesburg and 
58 km north-west of Wolmarans- 
stad. It was founded in October 
1888 and named after two officers 
slain in 1885 during a battle against 
the Korana, namely Captain 
Constantin Alexander Schweizer 
(1837-1885) and Field-Cornet C N 
Reneke (also spelt Renecke and 
Reyneke). 

*Scottburgh (N 3030 BD). Seaside 
resort on the Natal South Coast, 
57 km south-west of Durban. It was 
surveyed in 1860 and named after 
Sir John Scott (1814-1898), Lieute- 
nant-Governor of Natal from 1856 
to 1864. 



*Sederberg see Cedarberg 

*Seeis (S 2217 BC). Hamlet 70 km 
east of Windhoek. Derived from 
Khoekhoen, the name means 'small 
face' or 'small cheek', referring to a 
mountain nearby. 

Seekoei River (C 2530-3124). 
Tributary of the Orange River, 
rising in three headwaters, namely 
near Richmond, and in the Kompas- 
berg, and flowing northwards to its 
confluence with the main stream 
50 km north of Colesberg. Afrikaans 
for 'hippopotamus (river)', it previ- 
ously bore the name Plettenbergs 
River, given by Colonel R J Gordon. 

*Sekhukhune (T 2430 CA). Town 
20 km west-south-west of Steelpoort 
and 54 km west of Ohrigstad. It is 
named after a Pedi chief, Sekhuk- 



hune, who succeeded Sekwati in 
1860 or 1861. 

*Selati River (T 2330-2430). Tribu- 
tary of the Olifants River. It rises 
some 40 km south-east of Tzaneen 
and flows north-east and then east to 
join the Olifants 42 km north-east of 
Hoedspruit. Also known as Ga- 
Selati, the river is said to be named 
after a former chief. The form 
Selatirivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Selatirivier see Selati River 

*Senekal (O 2827 BC). Town on 
the Klipspruit, 184 km north-east of 
Bloemfontein, 67 km west of Beth- 
lehem and 66 km east-northeast of 
Winburg. It was established in 1875 
on the farm De Put and named after 
Frederik Petrus Senekal (1815- 
1866), who led the commando 



against Witsie and fought in the 
First and Second Basuto Wars of 
1858 and 1865-66. 

Serepta (C 3318 DC). Station of the 
Rhenish Missionary Society near 
Kuils River, incorporated into the 
Dutch Reformed Mission in 1947. 
The name is biblical (Luke 4:26), 
derived from Sarepta in Sidon. 

Serowe (Bots 2226 BC). Principal 
town of the Ngwato district, 53 km 
north-west of Palapye. It was at this 
place that Queen Victoria was 
petitioned in 1895 to extend her 
protection over Bechuanaland 
Protectorate by the chiefs of the 
Bamangwato, Bakwena and Bang- 
waketse tribes. The name is derived 
from that of an edible wild bulb 
which grows there. 



Serra Branca (C 3325). Early 
Portuguese name for the Suurberge; 
meaning 'white mountain'. 

Serra da Estrella (C 3322 D-3323 
C). Early Portuguese name of the 
Outeniqua Mountains, meaning 
'mountains of the star'. 

Sersantsrivier (C 3419 BA). Tribu- 
tary of the Riviersonderend. It rises 
about 15 km north-east of Caledon 
and flows north to enter the main 
stream some 3 km south of Gena- 
dendal. Afrikaans for 'sergeant's 
river', the name refers to the 
devouring by a lion in 1725 of a 
sergeant in the service of the Dutch 
East India Company. The spellings 
Sergentsrivier and Serjeantsrivier are 
also encountered. 

*Sesfontein (S 1913 BA). Town in 
Kaokoland, 100 km east-northeast 



of Nlowe Bay lighthouse. Afrikaans 
for 'six fountains', the name is 
translated from Khoekhoen Nanious. 

*Seven Weeks Poort (C 3321 AD). 
Mountain pass along the 17 km 
ravine cut by the Seweweekspoort 
River through the Swartberg, 
between Prince Albert and Ladi- 
smith. There are various explana- 
tions of the name, eg that it is 
derived from the surname of Louis 
Zerwick of Amalienstein, that a lost 
farmer took seven weeks to get out, 
that a stock-thief hid there for seven 
weeks, etc. The form Seweweeks- 
poort is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Seweweekspoort 

see Seven Weeks Poort 

*Seymour (C 3226 DB). Principal 
town of the Stockenstrom district on 



the Kat River Dam, 160 km north- 
west of East London and 35 km 
north-north-west of Alice. It was 
founded in 1853 and named after 
Colonel Charles Seymour who 
served as Military Secretary to the 
Governor, Sir George Cathcart. 

*Sezela (N 3030 BC). River which 
rises about 12 km south-west of 
Umzinto and flows south-east to 
enter the Indian Ocean south of the 
town Sezela, 79 km south-west of 
Durban. From Zulu meaning 'to 
smell out', the river is sometimes 
said to be named after a crocodile 
which caught several of Shaka's 
warriors who bathed in it. Another 
explanation is that it means 'to 
meander, like a dog following a 
scent'. 

Shiloh (C 3226 BB). Station of the 
Moravian Missionary Society on the 



Klippoort River, in the Queenstown 
district. It was founded in 1818 to 
serve the Tembu. The name is of 
biblical origin (Josh. 18:1) and 
means 'rest'. 

Shoshong (Bots 2326 BA). Settle- 
ment on the Bonwapitse, about 
45 km west of Mahalapye. In former 
times it was the chief village of the 
Bamangwato tribe. Of Tswana 
origin, the name is said to refer to a 
type of thorn-tree growing there. It 
has also been said to mean 'at the 
river'. 

*Sibasa (Venda 2230 CD). Town 
72 km north-north-east of Louis 
Trichardt. An adaptation of Tshi- 
vhase, it was named after a Venda 
chief. 

Sibayi, Lake see Lake Sibayi 



Signal Hill (C 3318). Situated 
adjacent to and north of Table 
Mountain. At first named Leeuwenbil 
('lion's rump'), also King Charles 
Mount and King James Mount. The 
name Signal Hill, and Afrikaans 
Seinheuwel, comes from the firing 
of a cannon to signal that a ship had 
been sighted in the bay. 

*Sihota (C 3227 DB). Settlement 
some 10 km north-east of Komga 
and 26 km south-west of Butter- 
worth, at the Transkei border. Of 
Xhosa origin, the name is said to 
mean 'secluded place'. 

Sijnna see Synna 

Sikelekehleni (N 2930 DA). Tribu- 
tary of the Mgeni River. It rises 
north-east of Inchanga Park and 
flows north-north-east to join the 
main stream about 15 km north-east 



of Cato Ridge. Of Zulu origin, the 
name means 'the deep, wide one', so 
called because it flows through a 
deep ravine. 

Silkaatsnek (T 2527 DB). Mountain 
pass over the Magaliesberg, 16 km 
north-east of the Hartebeespoort 
Dam and 24 km south-east of Brits. 
The name is an adaptation of 
Mzilikazi, after a famous Matabele 
chief of former years. Silkaatskop at 
T 2526 has the same derivation. The 
name Mzilikazi is said to mean 'the 
great abstainer'. 

*Simondium (C 3318 DD). Hamlet 
8 km south of Paarl. It was named 
after Pierre Simond (1651-1713), 
Huguenot minister at the Cape. 

Simon's Bay (C 3418 AB). Inlet on 
the eastern shore of the Cape 
Peninsula, on False Bay, north-west 



of Simon's Town and south of Mac- 
kriel Bay. Originally named Ijsel- 
stein Bay, after a ship that had 
sheltered there in 1671, it was 
renamed in 1687 after Simon van 
der Stel (1639-1712), Governor of 
the Cape from 1691 to 1699. 

Simonsberg (C 3318 DD). Mountain 
1 454 m high, north-east of Stellen- 
bosch. Named in 1687 after Simon van 
der Stel (1639-1712), Governor of the 
Cape from 1691 to 1699. There is also 
a Simonsberg at 34° 13' S, 18° 26' E, 
south of Simon's Town on the Cape 
Peninsula. It has the same origin. 

Simonstad see Simon's Town 

*Simon's Town (C 3418 AB). Town 
and naval base on Simon's Bay on the 
eastern coast of the Cape Peninsula, 
36 km south of Cape Town. It devel- 
oped from being the official anchorage 



of the Dutch East India Company from 
1743 and was named after Simon van 
der Stel (1639-1712), Commander of 
the Cape from 1679 to 1691 and 
Governor from 1691 to 1699. 

Sipingo River see Isipingo Beach 

*Sir Lowry's Pass (C 3418 BB). 
Mountain pass across the Hottentots 
Holland Mountains, between Grabouw 
and Somerset West. At first known as 
Gantouw, Khoekhoen for 'eland's 
path', and then as Hottentots Holland 
Kloof or Onderkloof, it was rebuilt 
and renamed in 1830 after Sir 
Galbraith Lowry Cole (1772-1842), 
Governor of the Cape from 1828 to 
1833. It was reconstructed in 1958. 

Siteki (Swa 2631 BD). Town 69 km 
east of Manzini and some 15 km west 
of the Mocambique border. Founded 
in 1927, it is the administrative centre 



of the Lubombo district. Formerly 
known as Stegi, the name is derived 
from isaTeki, 'place of much 
marrying', referring to an impi of 
Chief Mswazi which was given 
permission to marry near here. A peak 
in the Lebombo Mountains south of 
the town bears the name Isateki. 

Six Mile Spruit (T 2528 CC). Tribu- 
tary of the Hennops River south of 
Pretoria. Formerly called the Sterk- 
stroom or Sterkspruit, it was 
renamed about 1870 when it was 
crossed six miles (10 km) southwest of 
Pretoria by the road from Johannes- 
burg to Pretoria. 

*Skeerpoort (T 2527 DD). Village 
24 km south of Brits and 32 km north- 
east of Hekpoort, about 7 km south- 
west of the Hartebeespoort Dam. 
Afrikaans for 'shaving defile', the 
mountain pass from which it takes 



its name may have been so called by 
the commando under Hendrik Pot- 
gieter because they stopped there on 
a Sunday to spruce up. Another 
explanation is that a commando 
under Casper Kruger purchased soap 
and shaving equipment from a trader 
to spruce up before entering 
Pretoria. 

Skipskop (C 3420 CB). Village 
west of Arniston (Waenhuiskrans). 
Afrikaans for 'ships' hill', it was so 
named after the number of ships 
wrecked there. 

*Skoenmakerskop (C 3325 BA). 
Village on the southern side of the 
promontory on which Port Elizabeth 
stands, 8 km west of Chelsea Point. 
Afrikaans for 'shoemaker's hill'; 
this village, the hill, and the 
Skoenmakersrivier nearby, are said 
to have been named after Volcker 



Schoemaker, a soldier who deserted 
and settled in the Eastern Province. 

*Skukuza (T 2431 DC). Rest camp 
in the Kruger National Park, 48 km 
east-north-east of Pretoriuskop and 
43 km north-west of Lower Sabie. 
Derived from the sobriquet for 
Colonel J Stevenson-Hamilton, first 
game ranger. Variously said to mean 
'to scrape clean', referring to his 
eradication of poachers, and 'he 
who brings about changes'. 

*Skurweberg (C 3319 A). Moun- 
tain range to the north-east of the 
Witsenberg, directly north of Ceres, 
extending northwards west of the 
Cold Bokkeveld. Originally spelt 
Skurfdeberg and then Skurfteberg, 
the name means 'rough mountain', 
and is descriptive of its appearance. 



*Slagtersnek (C 3225 DB). Moun- 
tain pass several kilometres north- 
north-east of Cookhouse, between 
the Bosberg in the west and the 
Great Fish River in the east. 
Afrikaans for 'butchers' col', it was 
so named after the brutal murder by 
Xhosas of the landdrost of Graaff- 
Reinet, Andries Stockenstrom 
(father of Sir Andries), and thirteen 
others on 28 December 1811. Also 
notorious as the site of the repeated 
hanging, after the ropes had broken, 
of five farmers in 1815 after the so- 
called Bezuidenhout Rebellion. 

*Slurry (T 2525 DD). Village with 
a large cement factory, 22 km north- 
east of Mafikeng and 15 km south- 
west of Ottoshoop. Named after the 
mixture of limestone and other 
components in the manufacture of 
cement. 



Smartt Syndicate Dam (C 3023 
CB). Dam some 17 km west-south- 
west of Britstown and 35 km east- 
south-east of Vosburg. Named after 
Sir Thomas Smartt (1858-1929), 
founder of the syndicate which built 
the dam, and Minister of Agriculture 
from 1921 to 1924. 

*Smithfield (O 3026 BA). Town 
132 km south of Bloemfontein and 
74 km west-north-west of Zastron. It 
was laid out on the farm Rietpoort 
in 1849 and named after Sir Harry 
Smith (1787-1860), Governor of the 
Cape Colony from 1847 to 1852. In 
1860 a village management board 
was instituted and municipal status 
attained in 1948. Smithfield was the 
scene of action during the Basuto 
Wars, when the cannon called Ou 
Grietjie, after Margaret (Tant 



Grietjie) Finlay, wife of the cannon- 
eer, was employed. 

Smitswinkel Bay (C 3418 AD). 
Inlet 11 km south of Simon's Town, 
on the western coast of False Bay. 
Afrikaans for 'smithy' or black- 
smith's shop, it is probably 
connected to the rocks in the 
vicinity with the names of Aambeeld 
('anvil') and Blaasbalk ('bellows'). 
At first called Patensie Bay; the 
name Smitswinkel is encountered as 
early as 1744. 

Sneeuberg (C 3124-3224). Moun- 
tain range to the east, north and west 
of Graaff-Reinet. This name, 
Afrikaans for 'snow mountain', is 
probably translated from Khoekhoen 
Noagore and refers to its blanket of 
snow which sometimes lasts till the 
beginning of November. 



*Sodwana Bay (N 2732 DA). 
Indentation north of Jesser Point on 
the coast of Zululand, 120 km north 
of Richards Bay. The name is 
derived from Zulu and is said to 
mean 'the completely lonely one', or 
'the little one on its own'. 

*Soebatsfontein (C 3017 BA). Settle- 
ment 80 km south-west of Springbok 
and 48 km north-west of Kamies- 
kroon. The name, Afrikaans for 'beg- 
ging or pleading fountain', dates from 
an incident about 1898 in which 
Hendrik S(t)ievert, a farmhand, was 
murdered by San in spite of his 
begging for mercy. 

*Soekmekaar (T 2329 BD). Village 
some 65 km south-east of Louis 
Trichardt. Afrikaans for 'look for each 
other', the name has been explained in 
a variety of ways. 



Soetap (C 2820 DC). Khoekhoen 
name of Kakamas. It means 'ash 
river', referring to the grey colour of 
the soil. 

*Somerset East (C 3225 DA). Town 
at the foot of the Bosberg, 185 km 
north of Port Elizabeth. It was founded 
in 1825 and named after Lord Charles 
Henry Somerset (1767-1831), Gover- 
nor of the Cape Colony from 1814 to 
1826 and owner of Somerset Farm on 
which it was laid out. Municipal status 
was attained in February 1837. 

Somerset-Oos see Somerset East 



Somerset Strand (C 

Former name of Strand. 



3418 BB). 



Somerset- Wes see Somerset West 

*Somerset West (C 3418 BB). Town 
45 km south-east of Cape Town. It 
was founded in 1822 and named after 



Lord Charles Somerset (1767-1831), 
Governor of the Cape Colony from 
1814 to 1826. It is the oldest munici- 
pality in the country, having attained 
this status in January 1822. 

Sondagsrivier see Sundays River 

Sonderend Mountains (C 3419). 
Range extending east and west, 
parallel to the coast, forming the 
watershed between the Sonderend and 
Breede rivers. Afrikaans for 'without 
end', it takes its name from the river; 
see Riviersonderend. 

Sonkwasdrif (C 3318 BD). Ford in the 
Berg River, about 9 km northeast of 
Riebeek-Kasteel and 15 km south-west 
of Tulbagh. 'Sonquas ford', presum- 
ably after the Sonqua or San (Bush- 
men). 

Sonquas Drift see Sonkwasdrif 



Sordwana Bay see Sodwana Bay 

Southey Pass (C 3320 DC). Temp- 
orary name of Tradouw Pass; after 
Robert Southey, Magistrate of 
Swellendam from 1850 to 1859 and 
later Colonial Secretary. 

South Shepstone (N 3030 CB). 
Original name of Port Shepstone. 

*Soutpan (O 2826 C). Village 45 km 
west of Brandfort. Afrikaans for 'salt 
pan or depression', the name is derived 
from a large geographical feature of 
that type, on the slopes of which the 
Florisbad archaeological site is 
situated. 

Soutpansberg (T 2229). Mountain 
range extending about 130 km from the 
Nylstroom in the west to the Rooirand 
in the east, with Louis Trichardt at its 
southern foot, roughly in the middle of 
the range. Dutch for 'salt-pan 



mountain', the name refers to such a 
feature situated at its western base. 
Formerly it was known as Ijserberg, 
'iron mountain'. 

*Soutrivier (C 3420). River rising east 
of Caledon and flowing southeast past 
Protem. Meaning 'salt river', the name 
is a translation of Khoekhoen Cisiqua 
or of the later Oukamma, literally 'salt 
water', 'salt river'. 

Soweto (T 2628 AA). Complex of 
townships south-west of Johannesburg. 
The name is derived from South 
western townships. 

Spandau Kop (C 3224 BC). Hill south 
of Graaff-Reinet, banded with vertical 
cliffs near its summit. Said to have 
been named by a certain Werner after 
Spandau near Berlin, although the 
name is also connected with the 
Afrikaans word spantou, a hide 



thong or rope which holds the hind- 
legs of a cow while it is milked. It 
has also been suggested that the 
name is of Khoekhoen origin. 

Spekboom River (T 2430 CD). 
Stream formed by the confluence 
near Lydenburg of the Dorpsrivier 
and the Sterkspruit. It flows north to 
enter the Steelpoort River south of 
Burgersfort. Named after the suc- 
culent spekbome, literally 'bacon- 
trees' (Portulacaria afra) growing 
on its banks. 

Spektakelpas (C 2917 DA). 
Mountain pass east of the Buffels 
River, about 22 km west of 
Springbok. Afrikaans for 'spectacle 
pass', the name is said to refer to an 
incident in which an ox-wagon over- 
turned and its female passengers fell 
head over heels, causing a spectacle! 



The Khoekhoen name of the place is 
Hamgurakgubus. 

Spencer Bay (S 2514 DB). Inlet on 
the Atlantic coast between North 
Point and Dolphin Head, 110 km 
north-north-west of Luderitz. It was 
named Golfo de Sao Tome by 
Bartolomeu Dias on 21 December 
1487. The present name, given in 
the 19th century, possibly refers to 
Captain John Spence, who had fish- 
ing concessions along the coast. The 
diamond settlement founded in 1910 
and now a ghost town was named 
after the bay. 

Spioenkop (N 2829 CB). Hill 25 km 
south-west of Ladysmith; scene of a 
famous battle lasting from 17 to 24 
January 1900, in which British 
casualties numbered 1733, while the 
Boer forces suffered 50 dead and 
120 wounded. The name is AM- 



kaans and means 'spy hill'. The 
Zulu name is Ntabamnyama, 'black 
mountain'. 

Spitskoppies (S 2115 CC). Range 
of mountains or huge rocks of pink 
granite 40 km south-west of the 
Erongo Mountains and 56 km north- 
west of Usakos, consisting of the 
Great Spitskop, the Little Spitskop 
and the Pontok Rocks. Afrikaans for 
'pointed hillocks', the name is 
translated from Khoekhoen. 

Spoegrivier (C 3017 A-B). Town 
some 13 km west-north-west of Kar- 
kams and 46 km east of Hondeklip- 
baai. It takes its name from the 
non-perennial stream which rises 
north of it and extends south and 
then west to enter the Atlantic 
Ocean 20 km south-east of Honde- 
klipbaai. Afrikaans for 'spit river', 
the name is probably translated 



from Khoekhoen Kanoep, referring 
to a disease affecting cattle. 

*Springbok (C 2917 DB). Princi- 
pal town of the Namaqualand dis- 
trict, 565 km north of Cape Town. 
It was founded in 1862 as a copper- 
mining centre under the name 
Springbokfontein, administered by 
a village management board from 
1922 and became a municipality in 
1933. Translated from Khoekhoen 
Guchas, 'springbok' (Antidorcas 
spp.), the name was shortened in 
1911. 

Springbok Flats (T 2428). Feature- 
less plain around Warmbaths, 
extending to the Waterberg and 
Potgietersrus districts. Probably 
refers to an abundance of springbok 
here in former times. A fossilized 
skeleton found here in 1929 may 



represent an ancestor of the San, 
Khoekhoen and Sub-Saharan Bantu. 

*Springfontein (O 3025 BC). 
Town 15 km south-west of Bloem- 
fontein, 46 km east of Philippolis 
and 38 km north-west of Bethulie. 
It was laid out in 1904 on part of 
the farm Springfontein and attained 
municipal status in 1912. The name 
is Afrikaans for 'spring which 
jumps', 'jumping fountain', 

'artesian fountain'. 

*Springs (T 2628 AD). Town 
47 km east-south-east of Johannes- 
burg and 35 km north-north-east of 
Heidelberg. At first a coalmining 
town established in 1887, it experi- 
enced new life after the discovery 
of gold. It was laid out as a town- 
ship in 1904 under the name 
Springs, and became a municipality 
in 1912. Takes its name from the 



farm The Springs, surveyed in 1883 
and named after springs of water 
there. 

Stampriet (S 2418 AD). Village 
64 km north-east of Mariental and 
45 km south-east of Lidfontein. 
Originally Stamprietfontein or 
'stamp reed fountain', the name is 
translated from Khoekhoen Aams. 

*Standerton (T 2629 CC). Town 
on the Vaal River, 156 km south 
east of Johannesburg and 64 km south 
of Bethal. It was laid out in 1878 on 
the farm Grootverlangen and attained 
municipal status in 1903. Named after 
Commandant Adriaan H Stander 
(1817-1896), original owner of the 
farm. Standerskop, a hill west of the 
town, is also named after him. 

*Stanford (C 3419 CB). Village 
16 km east of Hermanus and 22 km 



north-east of Gansbaai. It was founded 
in 1857 on the farm Kleinrivier and 
named after Sir Robert Stanford, 
owner of the farm. 

*Stanger (N 2931 AD). Principal 
town of the Lower Tugela district, 
72 km north-east of Durban. It was 
founded in 1873, proclaimed a 
township in 1920 and became a 
municipality in 1949. Named after 
William Stanger (1811-1854), first 
Surveyor-General of Natal. The Zulu 
name of Stanger is said to be Dukuza, 
'secret place', 'place of concealment'. 
It was the site of the main village of 
the Zulu chief Shaka. 

Steelpoort River (T 2429-2529). 
Tributary of the Olifants River, rising 
near Wonderfontein and flowing north 
and north-east to their confluence. 
Afrikaans for 'steal pass river', the 
name may refer to the theft of tusks 



from an elephant shot by a certain 
Scholtz, by a Botha, after whom 
Bothashoek was named. Another 
explanation links the name to the theft 
of cattle by the Bapedi. 

*Steenberg (C 3418). Mountains 
extending north-west from Muizen- 
berg to the Constantiaberg. Dutch for 
'rock or stone mountain', the name is 
encountered as early as August 1657. 

Steenbras River (C 3418 BB): Rises 
in the Hottentots Holland Mountains 
and flows into False Bay 6 km east of 
Gordon's Bay. Named after a type of 
fish called steenbras, Dutch 
steenbrasem, 'musselcracker' (Petrus 
rupestrus). 

Stegi (Swa 2631 BD). Former name of 
Siteki. 

*Steinkopf (C 2917 BC). Town some 
45 km north-north-west of Springbok, 



in the Namaqualand district. Formerly 
known as Kookfontein, it was estab- 
lished as a mission station of the 
London Missionary Society, but was 
later taken over by the Rhenish Mis- 
sion. Named after the Reverend Dr 
Steinkopf, who visited England in 
1842. 

Stellaland (2624-2826). Small 
republic established in July 1882 on 
land given by the Koranna chief 
David Massouw Piet Taaibosch to 
Boer volunteers under Gerrit 
Jacobus van Niekerk because they 
assisted him in his struggle against 
the Batlhapin chief, Mankoroane 
Molehabanque. It was incorporated 
into Bechuanaland and the Bloem- 
hof district in 1884. Derived from 
Latin and Afrikaans, the name 
means 'star country'. It was coined 



because a comet was visible in 1882 
when the republic was founded. 

*Stellenbosch (C 3518 DD). Town 
in the Eerste River Valley, 48 km 
east of Cape Town. Named in 1679 
by Simon van der Stel after himself 
and the Wilde Bosch or 'wild forest' 
there. In 1685 the village was 
founded and in 1840 it became a 
municipality. Well known for its 
university, wine-farms and oak- 
trees. 

*Sterkspruit (Trsk 3027 CB). Town 
some 51 km south-east of Zastron, 
96 km north-east of Aliwal North, 
and 24 km from the Lesotho border. 
It takes its name from the Sterk- 
spruit, the watercourse on which it 
is situated. The name is Afrikaans 
and means 'strong stream'. 



*Sterkstroom (C 3126 DA). Village 
on the Hex River, at the southern 
foot of the Stormberg, 272 km 
north-west of East London. It was 
founded in 1875 and became a 
municipality in 1878. Afrikaans for 
'strong current or stream', the name 
refers to the Hex River. 

*Steynsburg (C 2125 BD). Town 
64 km south-west of Burgersdorp 
and 48 km north of Hofmeyr. It 
developed around the Dutch 
Reformed Church established in 
1872 and has been administered by a 
village management board since 
1874. Named after Douwe 
Gerbrandt Steyn, grandfather of 
President Paul Kruger. 

Steynsdorp (T 2630 BB). Ghost 
town near the Swaziland border, in 
the Carolina district. It was founded 
in 1885 and became the centre of the 



New Paarl gold-field but was aban- 
doned when the Witwatersrand 
gold-fields were discovered. At first 
called Painter's Camp, it was 
named Steynsburg in 1886, after 
Commandant J P Steyn of Lyden- 
burg. The name was then altered to 
Steynsdorp to avoid confusion with 
Steynsburg in the Cape. 

*Steynsrus (O 2727 DC). Town in 
the Lindley district, 44 km southeast 
of Kroonstad and 43 km north of 
Senekal. It was founded in 1910 and 
became a municipality in 1912. 
Named after Marthinus Theunis 
Steyn (1857-1916), last President of 
the Orange Free State. 

*Steytlerville (C 3324 AD). Town 
on the Groot River, 164 km north- 
west of Port Elizabeth and 90 km 
east of Willowmore. It was founded 
in 1876 on the farm Doorspoort and 



attained municipal status in 1891. 
Named after the Reverend Abraham 
Isaac Steytler (1840-1922), minister 
of the Dutch Reformed Church, and 
Moderator of the Cape synod from 
1909 to 1915. No liquor ever to be 
sold there. 

*Stilbaai see Still Bay 

*Stilfontein (T 2626 DD). Gold- 
mining town some 13 km east of 
Klerksdorp and 37 km south-west of 
Potchefstroom. It takes its name 
from the Stilfontein Gold Mine, 
which started production in 1952. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'still fountain', ie one which does 
not bubble or flow. 

*Still Bay (C 3421 AD). Seaside 
village and holiday resort 79 km 
south-east of Riversdale, at the 
estuary of the Kafferkuils River 



which forms the bay of the same 
name. The township was proclaimed 
in 1962 and attained municipal 
status in 1966. The name refers to 
the calmness of the water in the bay. 
The form Stilbaai is preferred for 
official purposes. 

Stinkfontein Mountains (C 2817 
C). Mountain range in the Richters- 
veld, extending north and south 
between Cornellsberg and Eksteen- 
fontein, 30 km west of Kotzeshoop. 
Afrikaans for 'smelly fountain 
(mountains)', the name is translated 
from Khoekhoen Ogas, literally 
'stinking spring'. 

Stockenstrom (C 3226 D). District 
of which Seymour is the principal 
town. It was named in 1844 after Sir 
Andries Stockenstrom (1792-1864), 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Cape 
Colony from 1836 to 1839. 



*Stompneusbaai see Stompneus Bay 

*Stompneus Bay (C 3217 DB). 
Village east of Shell Bay Point, 
7 km north-west of St Helena Bay 
and 20 km north of Vredenburg. 
Named after a type of fish, 
Chrysophrys globiceps. The form 
Stompneusbaai is preferred for 
official purposes. 

Stormberge (C 3126 B-3127). 
Mountain range extending east and 
west from Molteno and Sterkstroom 
in the west to south of Dordrecht. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'storm mountains'. 

*Stormsvlei (C 3420 AA). Town on 
the southern bank of the Rivier- 
sonderend, some 17 km south of 
Bonnievale and 50 km north of 
Bredasdorp. Of Afrikaans origin, the 
name means 'storm marsh'. 



*Strand (C 3418 BB). Town at the 
foot of the Hottentots Holland 
Mountains, on the north-eastern 
shore of False Bay, 48 km east- 
south-east of Cape Town. It was 
named Van Ryneveld's Town in 
1850 by D J van Ryneveld, 
Magistrate of Stellenbosch, who 
purchased the land, and subse- 
quently Hottentots Holland Strand, 
Somerset Strand and The Strand, 
the last in 1918, shortened to Strand 
in 1937. Municipal status was 
attained in June 1896. 

Strandfontein (C 3418 BA). 
Seaside resort 8 km east of Muizen- 
berg, on the northern shore of False 
Bay. It was laid out in 1962. 
Afrikaans for 'beach spring', the 
name is also borne by a seaside 
resort in the Vredendal district, 
south of the Olifants River Mouth. 



Strandveld (C 3419 AD-CB). 
Region consisting of a marine 
terrace, extending from the Klein- 
riviersvlei south-east along the 
shore of Walker Bay to north-east of 
Die Kelders. Afrikaans for 'coast 
field', the name refers to the sandy, 
calcareous soil. 

*Struisbaai see Struis Bay 

*Struis Bay (C 3420 CA). Bight some 
20 km wide between Struis Point and 
Northumberland Point, south of 
Bredasdorp and northeast of Cape 
Agulhas. Derived from Dutch Vogel 
Struijs Baay, 'ostrich bay', a name 
recorded in 1672, it was known to the 
Portuguese as Golfo das Agulhas. 
The form Struisbaai is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Strydenburg (C 2923 DC). Town 
55 km south-west of Hopetown and 



75 km north-north-west of Britstown. 
It was laid out in 1892 on the farm 
Roodepan and attained municipal 
status in 1914. Dutch for 'town of 
argument', the name refers to 
disagreement as to on which farm it 
should be situated. 

Strydpoort Mountains (T 2429 A-B). 
Mountain range extending some 
100 km, situated east of Potgietersrus 
and north of the Springbok Flats. 
Afrikaans for 'battle defile (moun- 
tains)', there is no certainty as to what 
gave rise to this name. 

Stryrivier (C 2917 AD-CB). Trib- 
utary of the Buffels River. It rises in 
the vicinity of the Harrasberge about 
30 km west-south-west of Steinkopf 
and flows south-west and south to join 
the Buffels at Bontkoei, 15 km north- 
west of Buffelsbank. The name, 
Afrikaans for 'argue river', 'battle 



river', is translated from Khoekhoen 
Noakchaob. 

Stuartstown (N 3030 AA). Former 
name of Ixopo. Named after M Stuart, 
Resident Magistrate of the Ixopo 
district, who was killed at the Battle of 
Ingogo in 1881. 

*Stutterheim (C 3227 CB). Town 
south-east of the Xolora Mountains, 
103 km north-west of East London 
and 107 km south-east of Queenstown. 
It was established in 1857 around the 
Bethel Mission and became a munici- 
pality in 1879. Named after Major- 
General Carl Gustav Richard von 
Stutterheim (1815-1871), Commander 
of the British-German Legion which 
built a fort there. 

Sudwala Caves (T 2530). Caverns 
35 km north-west of Nelspruit. Named 
after Sudwala, an induna of Prince 



Somquba, son of the Swazi king 
Sobhuza I. 

Sugar Loaf (C 3318 CD). Early name 
(from 1606 on) of Lion's Head. It was 
named thus after its shape, resembling 
the conical loaf in which sugar was 
formerly supplied to grocers and from 
which it was chipped for retail sale. 

Suikerbosrand (T 2628). Region 
consisting of three ranges of hills, 
situated some 25 km south of the Wit- 
watersrand range, extending north-east 
and south-west, in the vicinity of 
Heidelberg and Balfour. Afrikaans for 
'sugar-bush ridge', the name refers to 
the Protea species growing there. 

Sundays River (C 3325). Rises south 
of Middelburg in the Sneeuberg range 
and flows 373 km southwards past 
Graaff-Reinet and Jansenville, enter- 
ing Algoa Bay north of Port Elizabeth. 



The name is thought to be derived 
from the Dutch surname Zondagh; 
Sondag is Afrikaans for 'Sunday'. 
The Khoekhoen name was 
Nukakamma, 'grassy river'. 

Sundays River (N 2830). Tributary of 
the Tugela River. It rises southwest of 
Wasbank and flows south-east to enter 
the main stream 20 km south-west of 
Pomeroy. The name is a translation of 
Dutch Zondags Rivier, said to be 
named thus because a commando 
under the Voortrekker leader Andries 
Pretorius spent the Sunday of 
8 December 1838 resting there. 

*Sutherland (C 3220 DA). Town 
97 km north of Matjiesfontein and 
108 km south-west of Fraserburg. It 
was laid out in 1858 on the farm De 
List and attained municipal status in 
1884. Named after Henry Sutherland 
(1790-1879), minister of the Dutch 



Reformed Church at Worcester from 
1824 to 1859. Sutherland was the 
birthplace of the Afrikaans poets D C 
Esterhuyse, N P van Wyk Louw and 
W E G Louw. It is notorious as being 
the coldest place in the Republic of 
South Africa. 

Suurberge (C 3325 A-B). Mountain 
range extending east and west from 
south of Lake Mentz eastwards to west 
of Alicedale. Derived from Dutch 
Zuurbergen, the name means 'sour 
mountains' and refers to the Suurveld, 
after the type of grass growing there. 
The name is apparently translated 
from Khoekhoen Kurukuru. 

Suurveld (C 3326). Region between 
the Great Fish and Sundays rivers, 
approximating to the present Albany 
district. Also encountered in the Dutch 
form Zuurveld, this name is Afrikaans 
for 'sour veld', translated from Khoek- 



hoen Kurukuru, referring to the type of 
grass growing there. The name was 
changed to Albany by proclamation of 
4 January 1814. 

*Swaershoek (C 3225). Region extend- 
ing from the Grootvlakte northwards 
to the Cradockberg and westwards 
towards Pearston. Afrikaans for 
'brothers-in-law glen', the name refers 
to the limited number of families 
living there, all related to each other, 
namely Du Plessis, Erasmus, Jordaan 
and Malan. The Swaershoek Moun- 
tains (T 2428) were similarly named 
after the related Swanepoel, Eloff and 
Van Heerden families who lived there 
since 1868. 

*Swakopmund (S 2214 DA). Town 
and seaside resort at the mouth of the 
Swakop River, 40 km north of Walvis 
Bay and 378 km west of Windhoek. It 
developed from a military base 



established in 1893, was developed as 
a seaport and proclaimed a town in 
1909. The name is derived from Nama 
tsoa, 'posterior', xoub, 'excrement', 
referring to mud and debris along the 
river in times of flood. 

*Swartberg (C 3318 BA). Mountain 
some 10 km north of Moorreesburg. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'black mountain'; it is translated from 
Khoekhoen Noegareb. 

*Swartberg (C 3318-3323). Mountain 
range some 200 km long, extending 
from near Ladismith to Willowmore, 
situated between the Great and Little 
Karoo, and parallel to the Langeberg 
and Outeniqua Mountains. Afrikaans 
for 'black mountain'. This name is 
also borne by the mountain at 
Caledon; formerly it was known as" 
Toring van Babel, 'Tower of Babel'; 
now it is also known as Caledonberg. 



*Swartkops (C 3325 DC). Village on 
the Swartkops River, 11 km north of 
Port Elizabeth and 1,6 km from the 
Indian Ocean. Afrikaans for 'black 
hills', the name is said to refer to 
surrounding hillocks crested with dark 
shadows. 

Swartland (C 3318). Region approxi- 
mately corresponding to the Malmes- 
bury district as it was in 1779. First 
encountered in August 1701, the 
name, Afrikaans for 'black country' or 
'black land', does not refer to the 
colour of the soil, which is generally 
yellow, but to the renosterbossies and 
bakkerbossies growing there; these 
shrubs are greyish-black, and pitch 
black when wet. 

Swartlintjies River (C 3017 A-B). 
Non-perennial stream that rises north 
of Soebatsfontein and extends south- 
west to enter the Atlantic Ocean about 



5 km north of Hondeklipbaai. Ostensi- 
bly Afrikaans for 'black ribbon 
(river)', the name is a translation of 
Khoekhoen Noegare, 'black thong 
(river)'. 

*Swartrivier (C 3419 AB-AC). 
Tributary of the Bot River. It rises m 
the Swartberg north-east of Caledon 
and flows south-west to its confluence 
with the Bot about 4 km south of the 
town Botrivier. Afrikaans for 'black 
river', the name is translated from 
Khoekhoen Dogghakamma. 

*Swartruggens (T 2526 DA). Town 
56 km west of Rustenburg and 34 km 
north-west of Koster. It was founded 
in 1875 on the farm Brakfontein. 
Afrikaans for 'black ridges', it takes 
its name from a series of hills there, 
formerly known as Zwartruggens. 



*Swartvlei (C 3322 DD-3422 BB). 
Lake about 14 km east of Wilderness 
and 20 km west of Knysna. Afrikaans 
for 'black marsh', the name is a 
translation of Khoekhoen Noetse- 
kamma, 'black water'. 

*Swellendam (C 3420 AB). Town 
225 km east of Cape Town and 53 km 
west of Heidelberg. It developed 
around the drostdy established in 
1747, and attained municipal status in 
1904. Named in October 1747 after 
the Governor, Hendrik Swellengrebel 
(1700-1760), and his wife, Helena ten 
Damme. 

Sydney on Vaal (C 2824 AD). Village 
30 km north-west of Barkly West and 
several kilometres south of Delports- 
hoop. It was founded in 1902 and is 
variously said to be named after 
Sidney Mendelssohn, Director of the 
Vaal River Diamond and Exploration 



Company which owned the land, as 
well as after its situation on the Vaal 
River, and after Sydney Shippard, 
Acting Attorney of the Executive 
Council of Griqualand West in 1872. 

Synna (C 3319-3421). Khoekhoen 
name of the Breede River. It probably 
means 'river of fighting'; the reference 
is uncertain. 



Taaibosspruit (O 2826 D). Tributary 
of the Vet River. It rises west of 
Verkeerdevlei and flows north to enter 
the main stream about 10 km south of 
Theunissen. Named after Gert Taaibos, 
a Koranna chief who settled near the 
Korannaberg, later in the Witteberge, 
and who was killed near Ficksburg in a 
skirmish with Moshesh. 

Taba ka Ndoda (Cis 3227 CC). Moun- 
tain 27 km west-north-west of King 
William's Town. The name is Xhosa 
and means 'mountain of the man'; the 
reason for the name is uncertain. 

Tabankulu (Trsk 3029 CD). Village 
some 30 km east-south-east of Mount 
Frere and 50 km south-south-west of 
Kokstad. Of Xhosa origin, the name 
means 'large mountain'. The village 
was laid out in 1894. 



Table Bay (C 3318 CD). Inlet north of 
the Cape Peninsula, northeast of Table 
Mountain and Cape Town. Named 
Aguada da Saldanha in 1503, it was 
renamed Tafel Baaij by Joris van 
Spilbergen in 1601, by reason of Table 
Mountain, whereby it is recognizable. 
The English name has been used since 
about 1623. 

Table Mountain (C 3318 CD). Flat- 
topped mountain 1 113 m high at the 
foot of which Cape Town is situated, 
between Devil's Peak in the south-east 
and Lion's Head in the north-west. It 
was named Taboa do Cabo by the 
Portuguese admiral Antonio de Saldan- 
ha in 1503. The name appears as Ye 
Table about 1613. 

Taboa do Cabo (C 3318 CD). Former 
name of Table Mountain. Bestowed in 
1503 by Antonio de Saldanha, this 



Portuguese name means 'table cape or 
head'. 

Tafelbaai see Table Bay 

Tafelberg see Table Mountain 

Talana (N 2030 AB). Village 5 km 
east of Dundee on the route between 
Vryheid and Glencoe. The name is 
Zulu and means 'little shelf, referring 
to a flat-topped hill nearby, scene of a 
famous battle on 20 October 1899, 
between the Boers and the British. 

Tamata see Qamata 

Tamboekieland see Tembuland 

Tamboekievlei (C 3226 DA). For- 
mer name of Hertzog. 

Tambookieland see Tembuland 

Tandjiesberg (C 3224-3225). 
Range of peaks about 50 km east of 
Graaff-Reinet. Afrikaans for 'little 



teeth mountains', the name refers to 
the sharply toothed appearance of 
these peaks. 

Tankwarivier (C 3219-3220). 
Tributary of the Doring River. It 
rises to the north-west of the Klein- 
Roggeveld Mountains and flows 
northwest to join the Doring at 
Elandsvlei, about 30 km east-south- 
east of Wuppertal or 60 km north- 
east of Citrusdal. The name is said 
to be a variant of Sanqua or Sankwa, 
referring to the San or Bushmen. 

Tansberg see Gamsberg 

Tarka (C 3225-3226). Tributary of 
the Great Fish River, which it joins 
19 km south-east of Cradock. The 
name is of Khoekhoen origin and 
probably means 'place of many 
women'. The Xhosa name of this 



river is apparently Umncumuba, 
'willow-tree'. 

Tarkastad (C 3226 AB). Town 
61 km west of Queenstown, 79 km 
east-north-east of Cradock and 
76 km south-west of Sterkstroom. It 
was laid out in 1862 on the farm 
Boschfontein and became a munici- 
pality in 1883. Named after the 
Tarka River which flows past it. 

Taucoue (C 3320-3321). Khoekhoen 
name of the Groot River, which 
flows south and south-east from 
near Laingsburg to join the Gourits 
River 40 km south of Calitzdorp. Of 
Khoekhoen origin, it means 'buffalo 
country river'. 

Taung (Bop 2724 DB). Village 65 km 
north of Warrenton and 58 km east of 
Reivilo. The name is Tswana and 
means 'place of the lion', probably 



after a Barolong chief named Tau. 
Famous for the fossil skull found in 
1924 of the African ape-men, 
Australopithecinae. 

Teebus (C 3125 BC). Village some 
18 km south-west of Steynsburg and 
35 km north-north-west of Hofmeyr. 
Afrikaans for 'tea-caddy', this name is 
taken from that of a pointed hill; to the 
north of this hill is Koffiebus, 'coffee- 
caddy'. 

Teiqua (C 3325 CC). Khoekhoen 
name of the Gamtoos River. It means 
'cold day'; the reason for the name is 
uncertain. 

Teja-Tejane see Teyateyaneng 

Tekwini see Thekwini 

Telemachuskop (C 3126). Hill of 
2 080 m in the Stormberg range, about 
50 km north-west of Dordrecht, 12 km 



north-west of Jamestown. Probably 
named after Corporal Telemacus, a 
Khoekhoe who served in the Cape 
Mounted Rifles. 

*Tembisa (T 2628 AA). Township 
north of Kempton Park and south of 
Olifantsfontein. The name means 
'place of promise'. 

Tembuland (Trsk 3127). Region 
consisting of Tembuland Proper, 
Emigrant Tembuland and Bomvana- 
land, later the districts of Emjanyana, 
Engcobo, Mqanduli, Umtata, St 
Marks, Southeyville and Xalanga. So 
called because it was inhabited by the 
Tembu or Amatembu, a Xhosa people, 
formerly known as Tambookies or 
Tamboekies, for which reason the 
name of the region is also encountered 
as Tamboekieland and Tambookie- 
land. 



Tendeka see Omatendeka Mountains 

Terra das Trovoadas (C 3322-3323). 
Early Portuguese name of the Lang- 
kloof; it means 'land of thunder 
storms'. 

Terra de Sao Silvestre (S 2816 
CB). Coast along the Atlantic Ocean 
in the vicinity of the mouth of the 
Orange River. Named thus on 
31 December 1487 by members of 
an expedition sent by Bartolomeu 
Dias, after the saint on whose name- 
day it was passed. 

Terra do Natal (N 2729-3030). 
Early Portuguese name for the Pon- 
doland coast, subsequently transfer- 
red to the present Natal. Named thus 
in 1497 by the explorer Vasco da 
Gama. It means 'land of the birth', 
ie of Jesus Christ, because it was on 
25 December that he passed it. 



Terra dos Bramidos (C 2816 CB- 
DA). Early Portuguese name for the 
Atlantic coast south of the mouth of 
the Orange River. It means 'land of 
the thundering of the sea'. 

Terra dos Fumos (Moc 2632). 
Portuguese name for the coastal area 
between Kosi Bay and Maputo. It 
means 'land of the petty chiefs'. 

Teyateyaneng (Les 2927 BA). 
Town some 47 km north-east of 
Maseru and 58 km south-west of 
Ficksburg. It takes its name from the 
Teja-Tejane River which rises west 
of it and flows south-east to join the 
Southern Phutiatsana at Sefikeng. 
The name is said to mean 'the 
winding little river'. 

Thaba Bosigo (Les 2927 BC). 
Dialectic name of Thaba Bosiu. 



Thaba Bosiu (Les 2927 BC). 
Isolated, flat-topped hill 18 km east 
of Maseru. Venerated as the site 
where the Basuto nation was foun- 
ded and where Moshesh and other 
kings are buried. Chosen as a fort- 
ress by Moshesh in 1824, attacks by 
Amangwane, Batlokoa, British, 
Boer and Zulu forces were repulsed, 
owing to the impregnability of the 
sandstone cliffs encircling the 
summit, cleft only by six narrow 
defiles. The name means 'mountain 
of the night', referring to a belief 
that the mountain increases in size 
at night - a superstition encouraged 
by Moshesh, since it discouraged 
attacks by night. 

Thabana Ntlenyana (Les 2929). 
Highest mountain in the Drakens- 
berg, being 3 482 m, 40 km north- 
east of Himeville. The name is said 



to mean 'pretty little mountain'. 
The spelling Thabantshonyana is 
also encountered. 

*Thaba Nchu (Bop 2926 BB). 
Town 60 km west of Ladybrand and 
64 km east of Bloemfontein. It was 
established in 1893 and named after 
the mountain to the south-east. The 
name is Sotho and means 'black 
mountain'. 

Thaba Phatshwa (O 2927 AC). 
Mountain several kilometres south- 
west of the town Thaba Phatswa. 

Thaba Phatswa (O 2927 AC). Town 
some 30 km south-east of Thaba 
Nchu and 22 km north of Hob- 
house. It takes its name from the 
mountain a few kilometres to the 
south-west. Said to be of Tswana 
origin and to mean 'black with 
white spots'. 



Thaba Putsoa Range (Les 2927 D). 
Mountain range extending northeast 
and south-west, parallel to and east 
of the Makhaleng River, north-east 
of Mohale's Hoek. Of Sotho origin, 
the name is said to mean 'blue 
mountain'. 

*Thabatshweu (Trsk 3027 AD). 
Mountain some 10 km north-east of 
Sterkstroom. Of Xhosa origin, the 
name means 'white mountain'. 

Thaba Ya Sekhukhune (T 2429- 
2529). Mountain range about 60 km 
east of Marble Hall, north-west of 
the Steelpoort River. Named after 
Sekhukhune (? -1882), who became 
king of the Bapedi after the death 
of Sekwati in 1861. He fortified the 
mountain. 

Thabazimbi (T 2427 CB). Iron- 
mining town 130 km north of 



Rustenburg. It was laid out by Iscor 
on the farm Kwaggashoek and 
proclaimed in May 1953. The name 
means 'mountain of iron'. 

Tharakkamma (C 3118-3319). 
Khoekhoen name of the Olifants 
River. It means 'cutting-sedge 
river', after the serrated-edged 
Scirpus species growing in it. 

*The Berg (2430-3127). Popular 
name for the Drakensberg; berg is 
Afrikaans for 'mountain'. 

The Dargle (N 2930 A-C). Region 
between 16 and 32 km west of 
Howick. Takes its name from the 
Dargle Stream, a tributary of the 
Mgeni, which was probably so 
called by Thomas Fannin, an Irish- 
man who came to South Africa in 
1847, after a stream near Dublin in 
Ireland. 



The Friendly City (C 3325 DC). 
Popular name for Port Elizabeth. 

Thekwini (N 2930-2931). Zulu 
name for Durban. Primarily applied 
to Durban Bay, the name is said to 
mean either 'lagoon' or 'the one- 
testicled one', referring to the 
appearance of the bay. 

Theopolis (C 3326 DA). Former 
mission station of the London 
Missionary Society, established in 
1814 near the mouth of the Kasouga 
River by the Reverend J G Ulbricht 
but razed to the ground in 1851. 
Named by Sir George Cathcart, 
Governor of the Cape from 1811 to 
1814; it means 'city of God'. The 
name Theophilus still occurs for a 
settlement. 

*Theunissen (O 2826 BC). Town 
11 km north of the Vet River and 



102 km north-east of Bloemfontein. 
It was laid out in 1907 on the farms 
Smaldeel and a portion of Poortje, 
and attained municipal status in 
1912. At first known as Smaldeel, it 
was renamed Theunissen in 1907, 
after Commandant Helgaardt Theun- 
issen who obtained permission for 
its establishment. 

Thohoyandou (Ven 2230 CD). 
Capital of Venda. The name means 
'head of the elephant'. 

*Three Anchor Bay (C 3318 CD). 
Small anchorage in Table Bay. The 
name, first encountered in 1661, 
possibly refers to anchors securing 
chains stretched as defence across 
the bay. The form Drieankerbaai is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Tierberg see Tijgerberg 



Tijgerberg (C 3318 CD-DC). Range 
of hills north of the Cape Flats, 
north-east of Bellville, extending 
north and south for some 6 km. 
Derived from Dutch, it was referred 
to in 1657 as Gevlekte Luipaerts- 
berg, 'spotted leopard mountain'. 
Also encountered as Tierberg and 
Tygerberg, the name is said to refer 
to the patchy vegetation remini- 
scent of the colouring of a leopard 
(Afrikaans tier, Dutch tijger.) 

Toekomsrus (C 3322 CA). Town- 
ship near Oudtshoorn. The name is 
Afrikaans for 'future rest'. Since 
this township is the furthest of 
three, the colloquial name Blerrie- 
ver ('bloody far') has come into 
being. 

*Tongaat (N 2931 CA). Township 
in the district of Inanda, 45 km 
north of Durban and 6 km inland 



from the Indian Ocean. Established 
in 1945 and now centre of a sugar 
industry, it takes its name from the 
Tongati River. 

Tongaland (N 2632-2732). Region 
in the northernmost portion of 
Natal, bounded in the east by the 
Indian Ocean, in the west by the 
Pongolo River, in the south by 
KwaZulu, and in the north by the 
parallel of latitude from the 
confluence of the Pongolo and 
Maputa rivers to the Indian Ocean. 
Named after the amaTonga, also 
known as Ba-Tonga, Ba-Thonga 
and Tonga, said to mean 'people 
from the east', the region now 
forms part of the Ingwavuma 
district. 

Tongati (N 2930 CA). River which 
flows east past Tongaat and enters 
the Indian Ocean 5 km south-west 



of Ballito Bay and 10 km northeast 
of the mouth of the Mdloti River. 
The name, derived from Zulu, is 
said to mean 'it is important to us' 
or 'you are important because of 
us', referring to legends involving 
reaction to a denigrating remark in 
the first instance, and to Shaka's 
magnanimous view of a tribe he 
had just made subservient to him. 

Tonnesen Mountains (S 1813 AA- 
AB). In the Kaokoveld, situated in 
the valley of the dry Huarusib 
River. It was named after the 
German railway engineer T 
Tonnesen who accompanied Dr 
Georg Hartmann on his journey 
through the Kaokoveld in 1900. 

Toorkop (C 3321 AC). Highest 
peak of the Swartberg range, situ- 
ated 8 km north-west of Ladismith. 
Afrikaans for 'magic hill', it is said 



to be so called because it 'looks 
different when viewed from various 
angles'. 

*Toorwater (C 3323 AC). Ravine 
through which the Tarka River 
flows through the Swartberg, 48 km 
south-west of Willowmore. Afri- 
kaans for 'magic water', translated 
from Khoekhoen Cuighakamma, the 
name is said to refer to an incident 
in which a Khoekhoe man was 
drowned in a whirlpool. 

Tormentoso, Cabo 
see Cabo Tormentoso 

*Touws River (C 3320 AC). Town 
82 km north-east of Worcester and 
54 km west-south-west of Matjies- 
fontein. It was laid out in 1921 
around the railway station estab- 
lished in 1877 as Montagu Road but 
renamed Touws River in 1883. A 



village management board was insti- 
tuted in 1959 and a municipality in 
1962. Named after the river of the 
same name. The form Touwsrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

Touws River (C 3320-3321). Tribu- 
tary of the Buffels River, rising in 
the Matroosberg and flowing 
through the Worcester, Montagu and 
Ladismith districts to join the 
Buffels 29 km south of Ladismith. 
The name is derived from Khoek- 
hoen and means 'ash river', possibly 
after the Salsola aphylla or asbosse 
('ash-bushes') growing there, but 
more probably after the appearance 
of the soil. 

*Touwsrivier see Touws River 

Tradou Pass (C 3320 DC). Moun- 
tain pass across the Langeberg 
between Barrydale and Suurbraak. 



Following the old Tradouw Kloof, it 
was opened in October 1873 and 
named Southey Pass, but the name 
was not popular and fell into disuse. 
The name Tradou is derived from 
Khoekhoen taradaos, 'woman's 
pass'. 

Traka River (C 3322). Tributary of 
the Olifants River. It rises in the 
Prince Albert district, north of the 
Swartberg, and flows east and then 
south, joining the Olifants 8 km 
west of Barandas. The name is 
derived from Khoekhoen and means 
'women's river'. 

Transgariep (O 2725-2931). Former 
name for the area north of the Orange 
River, specifically that between the 
Orange and the Vaal. From Latin 
trans, 'across', and Khoekhoen Igarib, 
'river', for the Orange River. 



Transkei (Trsk 3028-3229). Indepen- 
dent state bounded by the Cape 
Province, the Indian Ocean, Natal and 
Lesotho. The name is derived from 
Latin trans, 'across', and Khoekhoen 
//khae, 'sand'; it is situated across or 
beyond the Great Kei River. 

Transvaal (T 2228-2731). Province of 
the Republic of South Africa, bounded 
by the Cape Province, Botswana, 
Zimbabwe, Mocambique, Swaziland, 
Natal and the Orange Free State. The 
name is derived from its situation 
across (Latin trans) the Vaal 
(Afrikaans for grey, translated from 
Khoekhoen /hai) River. 

*Trappe's Valley (C 3326 BD). 
Settlement about 10 km north-east of 
Bathurst. Named after Captain Charles 
Trappe who was Second in Command 
of the 72nd Regiment at Grahamstown 
in 1819. He was the founder of 



Bathurst and Provisional Magistrate in 
1820. 

Treurrivier (T 2430 DD). Tributary 
of the Blij derivier. 'River of sorrow', 
thus named in 1844 by members of 
Andries Potgieter's party while under 
a misapprehension that he and others, 
who had gone ahead to Delagoa Bay, 
had died. 

*Trichardt (T 2629 AC). Village 
34 km west of Bethal and 32 km west- 
south-west of Leandra, several 
kilometres north-east of Secunda. It 
originated as a settlement of the Dutch 
Reformed Church and was proclaimed 
in 1906. Named after Carolus 
Johannes Trichardt (1811-1901), son 
of the Voortrekker Louis Trichardt. 

*Troe-Troe (C 3118). Region north of 
the Doring River, north-west of the 
Olifants River and west of the Bokke- 



veld Mountains. Probably takes its 
name from the Troe-Troe River. 

Troe-Troe River (C 3118 D). Tribu- 
tary of the Olifants River. It rises 
between the Matsikamma Mountains 
and the Koebee Mountains and flows 
north-west, past Vanrhynsdorp, and 
then south-west and west to enter 
the main stream east of Vredendal. 
Derived from Khoekhoen, the name 
has been explained in a variety of 
ways but probably means 'battle 
river', after a skirmish or war in 
former times. 

*Trompsburg (O 3025 BB). Town 
122 km south-west of Bloemfontein 
and 56 km south-east of Philippolis. 
It was laid out in 1891 on the farm 
Middelwater and attained municipal 
status in 1902. Named after the 
owners of the farm, Jan and Basti- 
aan Tromp. It was at first called 



Jagersfontein Road, then Hamilton, 
in honour of Sir Hamilton John 
Goold-Adams (1858-1920), Lieute- 
nant-Governor of the Orange River 
Colony from 1901 to 1910. 

Tsao (C 3322 DD). Former name of 
the Karatara River. The Dutch Witte 
Rivier is an indirect translation of 
the Khoekhoen name; tsao means 
'ash' and refers to the whitish-grey 
soil. 

Tsarachaibes (S 2417 DB). Khoek- 
hoen name of Mariental. It means 
'dusty face', ie 'dusty plain'. 

Tshipise (T 2230 CA). Holiday 
resort 66 km south-east of Messina 
and 84 km north-east of Louis 
Trichardt. It was developed from 
1936. Formerly spelt Chipise, the 
name is said to be derived from chia 



fisu, 'burn', 'be hot', referring to the 
mineral springs at 65°C. 

*Tshirela (T 2627 DB). Former 
name of Boipatong. It has approxi- 
mately the same meaning, namely 
'place of shelter'. 

Tshitambo (T 2229). Peak in the 
Soutpansberg. Derived from Venda 
u tamba, 'to wash', the name means 
'place where one goes to wash', 
referring to the abundance of water. 

Tshwane (T 2528 CA). Northern 
Sotho name of Pretoria; said to 
mean 'small monkey' or to refer to 
the colour of a monkey, after the 
Apies River, Tshwane in Northern 
Sotho, which in turn was named 
after the son of Musi, an early 
Nguni chief. 

Tshwenyane (T 2526 AC). Northern 
Sotho name of the Enselsberg; it is 



said to mean 'place of little 
baboons'. 

*Tsitsa (Trsk 3028-3129). River 
which rises in the Drakensberg 
about 80 km west of Mount Frere 
and flows east and south-east to join 
the Mzimvubu 36 km south-east of 
Qumbu. Of Xhosa origin, the name 
is said to mean 'to trickle', 'to 
ooze', referring to the emanation on 
the lower slopes of rain and snow 
falling on the Drakensberg - an 
average of 1 150 mm per annum. 
Also encountered as iTsitsa. 

*Tsitsikamma (C 3323-3423). 
Region along the coast, south of the 
Tsitsikamma Mountains, between 
Plettenberg Bay and Humansdorp; 
according to some authorities 
extending as far west as George. 
The name has been said to mean 
'waters begin', an explanation borne 



out by the high rainfall and the 
occurrence of many rivers and 
streams. The region has given its 
name to the Tsitsikamma Mountains, 
the eastern continuation of the 
Outeniqua Mountains, and to the 
Tsitsikamma River. 

*Tsolo (Trsk 3128 BD). Village 
some 42 km south of Umtata and 
22 km south-west of Qumbu. The 
name, derived from Xhosa, is said to 
mean 'pointed', referring to the 
shape of hills there. 

*Tsomo (Trsk 3227 BB). Village 
45 km east of Qamata and 48 km 
west of Ndabakazi. Founded in 
1877, it originated as a military 
station known as Tsomo Post. The 
name is derived from that of the 
Tsomo River, on which it is 
situated, which in turn is said to be 



named after a Xhosa chief who lived 
where the bridge now stands. 

*Tsondab (S 2316-2416). Non- 
perennial watercourse which starts 
about 25 km north-east of Bullsport 
and extends south-west and swings 
north-west to enter the Tsondabvlei 
some 50 km south-west of Saagberg. 
The name is derived from Khoek- 
hoen and means 'sand road', 'sand 
path'. 

*Tsumeb (S 1917 BA). Town 
60 km north-west of Grootfontein 
and 68 km north-east of Otavi. It 
came into being after the discovery 
of copper by Francis Galton in 1851, 
being exploited after 1900. Munici- 
pal status was acquired in 1965. The 
name is said to be a Nama adapt- 
ation of Herero and has been 
explained as 'place of frogs' and 



'evil place', the latter because malaria 
was rife there in former times. 

*Tugela Ferry (N 2830 CB). Magis- 
tracy of the Msinga district. Named 
thus because a ferry once operated 
where the bridge now spans the Tugela 
River. 

Tugela River (N 2829-2931). Third 
most important river in South Africa. 
It rises on the eastern slopes of the 
Drakensberg about 20 km south-east 
of Witsieshoek, and flows some 
560 km east and east-south-east to 
enter the Indian Ocean 10 km north- 
east of Zinkwazi Beach. The name is 
derived from Zulu and means 'the 
startling one', 'the awesome one'. 

Tuinroete see Garden Route 

*Tulbagh (C 3319 AC). Town 130 km 
north-east of Cape Town and 56 km 
north-west of Worcester. It was laid 



out in 1795 and became a municipality 
in 1861. Named after Ryk Tulbagh 
(1699-1771), Governor at the Cape 
from 1751 to 1771. The region was 
formerly Land van Waveren; a portion 
was named Tulbagh by J W Janssens 
in 1804 as a district. 

*Tweeling (O 2728 DA). Town 40 km 
south of Frankfort and 37 km north- 
north-east of Reitz. Afrikaans for 
'twins', the name is derived from two 
similar hillocks nearby. 

*Twee Riviere (C 3323 DD). Town a 
few kilometres east-south-east of 
Joubertina. Afrikaans for 'two rivers', 
it takes its name from two rivers which 
rise in the Tsitsikamma Mountains to 
the south and flow through it. 

*Tweespruit (O 2927 AA). Town 
27 km east of Thaba Nchu and 18 km 
north of Hobhouse. Afrikaans for 'two 



streams', the name refers to the town's 
situation at the confluence of two 
streams. 

Twelve Apostles (C 3318 CD-3418 
AB). Range of peaks behind (south- 
west of) Table Mountain. The name is 
an approximation, since there are more 
than twelve peaks. These are named 
Blinkwater, Porcupine, Barrier, 
Valken, Kasteel, Postern, Wood, 
Spring, St Peter, St Paul, St John, 
Grove, St Luke, Judas, and 
Houtbaaihoek. 

Twelve Mile Stone (C 3318 DC). 

Former name of Bellville; it was given 
because of its distance 19,2 km from 
Cape Town, marked with a stone. 

*Twenty-Four Rivers (C 3318 BB- 
3319 AA). Tributary of the Berg River. 
It rises in a number of headwaters in 
the Great Winterhoek Mountains, 



which flow west to join the main 
stream; this stream flows south and 
then south-west to enter the Berg about 
7 km west of Saron. The name is 
presumably derived from the head- 
waters and tributaries. The form Vier- 
en-twintig Riviere is preferred for of- 
ficial purposes. 

Tygerberg see Tijgerberg 

*Tylden (C 3227 AA). Village 37 km 
south-east of Queenstown and 20 km 
north of Cathcart. Administered by a 
village management board. It was 
named after Captain Tylden of the 
Royal Engineers, officer in charge of a 
campaign against the Tambookies 
(Tembus) in 1851. 

*Tyume (Cis 3226 D). Tributary of the 
Keiskamma River. It rises near Hogs- 
back in the Amatole Mountains and 
flows south-west and south to enter the 



main stream some 15 km south-east of 
Alice. Of Xhosa origin, the name is 
said to mean 'place where someone 
was attacked'. 

*Tzaneen (T 2330 CC). Principal town 
of the Letaba district, 89 km south of 
Soekmekaar and 104 km east of 
Pietersburg. It was established in 1919 
and administered by a village council 
since 1939. A number of explanations 
of the name occur, for example that it is 
derived from dzana, 'dance'; from the 
tsana shrub, of which the bark is used 
for making baskets; from batsanene, 
'people of small villages'; that it means 
'in the basket' from its situation in a 
hollow, etc. Of Sotho origin, the name 
now seems to be accepted as meaning 
'place where people gathered'. 



u 

*Ubombo (N 2732 CA). Village about 
10 km north-east of Mkuze. It takes its 
name from the Ubombo (Lebombo) 
Mountain, on which it is situated. 
Derived from Zulu Lumbombo, 'high 
mountain ridge'. The Zulu name for 
this village is Obonjeni, 'on the big 
nose', ie 'ridge'. 

*Ugie (C 3128 AA). Town at the 
southern foot of the Drakensberg, 
21 km south-west of Maclear. It 
developed from a mission station at 
Gatberg, established in 1863 by 
William Murray and named Ugie by 
him, after the Ugie River in Scotland, 
where he had been born. The town was 
founded in 1885, and in 1916 a village 
management board was instituted. 

Uhlawe (N 2931 CA). Zulu name for 
Tongaat; it means 'place of gravel'. 



Uigantes (S 2617 AC). Khoekhoen 
name of Bethanien. It means 'place of 
the stony spring'; Klipfontein is thus a 
translation of Uigantes. 

*Uis (S 2114 BB). Tin-mining town 
129 km west of Omaruru and 193 km 
north-north-east of Swakopmund. The 
name is derived from Khoekhoen and 
means 'place of brackish water'. 

*Uitenhage (C 3325 CD). Town 34 km 
north-west of Port Elizabeth. It was 
founded on the loan-farm belonging to 
Elizabeth Scheepers on the Swartkops 
River and became a municipality in 
1841. The name is derived from that of 
the district formed in 1804 and named 
by the Governor, J W Janssens, in 
honour of J A Uitenhage de Mist 
(1749-1823), Commissioner-General 
from 1803 to 1804. 



Ukupopoza (T 2228-2229). Zulu name 
of the Limpopo River; said to mean 
'swiftly flowing'. 

*Ulco (C 2824 AC). Town some 15 km 
north-west of Delportshoop and 60 km 
west-south-west of Warrenton. The site 
of extensive limeworks. The name is 
derived from Union Lime Company. 

*Ulundi (N 2831 AD). Town on the 
north bank of the White Mfolozi 
River, some 13 km south-west of 
Mahlabatini and 51 km north of 
Melmoth. Site of the royal village of 
the Zulu, and of the final defeat of the 
Zulus by the British on 4 July 1879. 
The name is Zulu and means 'the high 
place'; it is also applied to the 
Drakensberg. 

*Umbilo see Mbilo 

*Umbogintwini (N 2930 BB). 
Holiday resort on the Indian Ocean, 



23 km south-west of Durban and 4 km 
north-east of Amanzimtoti. The name 
is an adaptation of Zulu Mbokodweni, 
'river of round grinding-stones'; the 
resort is named after the river which 
enters the sea there. 

*Umbumbulu (N 2930 DC). Town- 
ship 13 km south-west of Durban and 
19 km from the Indian Ocean. Derived 
from Zulu, the name is said to mean 
'place of the round knoll'. 

*Umdloti Beach (N 2931 CA). 
Holiday resort between Umhlanga 
Rocks and La Mercy, about 25 km 
north-east of Durban. It takes its name 
from the Mdloti River which enters 
the Indian Ocean to the north of it. 
Also encountered as Umhloti. 

Umfolozi see Mfolozi 

*Umgababa see Mgababa 



*Umgeni see Mgeni 

Umgungundlovu (N 2930 CB). Zulu 
name for Pietermaritzburg. It is said to 
mean 'place of rumbling of the ele- 
phant', referring to Dingane who, after 
killing Shaka, adopted the title of 'The 
Elephant' which Shaka had borne. 

Umhlali (N 2931 AC). Town 56 km 
north-north-east of Durban and 20 km 
south-west of Stanger. Of Zulu origin, 
the name is said to refer to wild 
orange-trees (Strychnos spinosa) 
growing there, or to mean 'resting- 
place', referring to Shaka' s sojourn 
there before going to Umzimkulu. It 
takes its name from the Mhlali Paver 
flowing past it. The form uMhlali has 
been approved. 

*Umhlanga Rocks (N 2931 CA). 
Seaside resort in the Inanda district, 
18 km north of Durban. Takes its 



name from the Mhlanga River; Zulu 
for 'river of reeds', which grow in the 
sluggish lower reaches. 

Umhloti see Mdloti 

Umhloti Beach see Umdloti Beach 

Umhlume (N 2931 CA-CC). Zulu 
name of Durban Bay; possibly derived 
from umhlume, a type of tree (Adania 
galpinii) resembling mangroves, 
which once hemmed the bay. 

*Umkomaas (N 3030 BB). Town and 
popular seaside resort at the mouth of 
the Umkomaas or Mkomazi River, 
50 km south-west of Durban. At first 
known as South Barrow, it was 
proclaimed in 1904. It takes its name 
from the Mkomazi River, Zulu for 
'whale-cow river'. 

Umlaas see Umlazi 



Umlalazi Nature Reserve (N 2831). 
Situated between the districts of 
Enseleni, Hlabisa, Mahlabatini and 
Nongoma, at the mouth of the Mlalazi 
River. Besides fine trees, including 
mangroves, it is rich in birdlife, and is 
the habitat of animals such as bush- 
pigs, crocodiles, duikers and reed- 
buck. Takes its name from the Mlalazi 
(formerly Umlalazi) River; Zulu for 
'sandstone river', 'whetting-stone 
river' . 

Umlalazi River see Mlalazi 

*Umlazi (N 2930 DD). Township 
18 km south-west of Durban centre, on 
the southern bank of the Umlazi 
(Mlazi) River, from which it takes its 
name; Zulu for 'whey river', from its 
colour and flavour. 

Umlazi River see Mlazi 



Umsunduze (N 2930 A-B). Tributary 
of the Mgeni River. It rises a few 
kilometres west of KwaDlozi and 
flows east past Pietermaritzburg to 
enter the main stream roughly 25 km 
east of that city. Derived from Zulu 
izundu, the name is said to refer to the 
Phoenix reclinata growing on its 
banks. 

*Umtata (Trsk 3128 DD). Capital of 
Transkei, 235 km north-east of East 
London and 104 km west of Port St 
Johns. It developed from a military 
post established in 1882 and became a 
municipality in November 1882. It 
was named after the Mtata River on 
which it is situated, said to refer to 
sneezewood trees (Pteroxylon inerme) 
growing on the banks. 

Umtata River see Mtata 



*Umtentweni (N 3030 CB). Seaside 
holiday resort several kilometres 
north-east of the mouth of the 
Mzimkulu River, north-east of Port 
Shepstone. It takes its name from the 
Mtentweni or Umtentweni River 
which enters the Indian Ocean there. 

Umtentweni River see Mtentweni 

Umvoti River see Mvoti 

Umzimkulu (Trsk 3029 BD). Town 
243 km north-east of Umtata and 
18 km south-west of Ixopo. It 
developed from a trading-post and was 
laid out in 1884. Takes its name from 
the Mzimkulu River on which it is 
situated; Xhosa for 'big place', 'large 
home', ie of the waters. The form 
uMzimkhulu has been approved. 

Umzimkulu River see Mzimkulu 

Umzimvubu River see Mzimvubu 



Umzindusi see Umzunduze 

Umzinto (N 3030 AB). Town 63 km 
south-west of Durban and 6 km from 
the Indian Ocean. It was proclaimed a 
township in 1950. The name is said 
to be derived from Zulu umenzi- 
wezinto, 'the kraal of achievement', 
'the place of things (accomplished)'. 
The form uMzinto has been 
approved. 

Umzinyati see Mzinyathi 

Umzumbe (N 3030 DA). Town 
some 5 km south-west of Hibber- 
dene, south of the mouth of the 
Mzumbe River, from which it takes 
its name; of Zulu origin, it has been 
explained as meaning 'the danger- 
ous river', 'the winding river' and 
'wild bean river'. The form 
uMzumbe has been approved. 



*Underberg (N 2929 CD). Village 
5 km south of Himeville and 91 km 
north-west of Ixopo. Administered 
by a health committee since 1937. 
The name is descriptive of its 
position under (at the foot of) the 
Drakensberg, popularly known as 
The Berg. 

Uniab (S 1913-2013). Non-perennial 
river which rises in Damaraland and 
extends south-west through the 
Namib to reach the Atlantic Ocean 
about 30 km north of Palgrave 
Point. The name is derived from 
Khoekhoen and means 'palm-tree 
river'. 

*Uniondale (C 3323 CA). Town 
11 km north of Avontuur and 92 km 
north-east of George. It was founded 
in 1865 by the amalgamation of two 
villages, Hopedale, established in 
1856, and Lyon, established in 



1860. Municipal status was attained 
in 1881. The name refers to the 
union of the two villages to form the 
town. 

Unumweni Castle (N 2829). Peak 
3 355 m high, south of Mont-aux- 
Sources. Climbed in June 1888 by A 
H and F R Stockers. The name is 
said to be derived from Zulu mweni, 
'fingers'. 

*Upington (C 2821 AC). Principal 
town of the Gordonia district, on the 
north bank of the Orange River, 
32 km north-east of Keimoes and 
194 km south-east of Olifantshoek. 
It developed from the mission 
station Olijvenhoutsdrift founded in 
1871, and became a municipality in 
1898. At first known as Olijven- 
houtsdrift, it was renamed in 1884 
after Sir Thomas Upington (1844- 
1898), Prime Minister of the Cape 



Colony from 1884 to 1886, who 
visited it in 1884. The Khoekhoen 
name of Upington is Kharaes. 

Urigab (S 2218 AD). Nama name of 
Witvlei. It means 'white marsh', so 
that the Afrikaans name is a direct 
translation. 

Urikubeb (S 2218 AD). Nama name 
of Witvlei. It means 'white marsh'; 
the Afrikaans name is a direct 
translation. Also encountered as 
Urikhuwis. 

Urinanib (S 2517-2518). Nama 
name of the Weissrand. Derived 
from lurilnanib, it means 'white 
ridge', so that the German name is a 
direct translation. 

*Usakos (S 2115 DC). Town 30 km 
west of Karibib and 150 km north- 
east of Swakopmund. It developed 
from workshops of a copper-mining 



company, was administered by a 
village management board from 
1927 and attained municipal status 
in 1948. The name is derived from 
Nama and probably means 'place 
which grabs the hoof, referring to 
the sticky yellow clay at the spring. 

Utago (T 2730 AC). Zulu name of 
the Wakkerstroom. The word utago 
is used for copper wire employed as 
ornament. As this wire is thin but 
strong, the stream is narrow but 
swift. An alternative explanation is 
that the name, also spelt Utaka, 
means 'awake', in which case the 
Afrikaans name may be a transla- 
tion. 

*Utrecht (N 2730 CB). Town some 
70 km north of Dundee and 42 km 
east-north-east of Newcastle. It was 
laid out in 1854 on the farm 
Schoonstroom, proclaimed a town- 



ship in 1904 and attained borough 
status in 1920. Named in March 
1856 after the city Utrecht in the 
Netherlands. 

Uvongo (N 3030 CD). Seaside 
resort 132 km south-west of Mar- 
gate. Constituted in August 1947, it 
was proclaimed a township in 1949 
and attained borough status in 
October 1954. Derived from Zulu 
ivungu, from the verb vungazela, the 
name means 'the place of a low, 
rumbling sound', referring to a 
waterfall 23 m high in the Uvongo 
or Vungu River, near the beach. 



Vaal Dam (T 2628-2728). Dam in 
the Vaal River, on the Transvaal- 
Orange Free State border, between 
Deneysville and Villiers. Built in 
1935 at a cost of R3 264 000. 
Supplies the Pretoria, Witwatersrand 
Vereeniging Complex. Takes its 
name from the Vaal River. 

Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme (C 

2724 D-2824 B). Irrigation scheme 
between Taung in the north and 
Warrenton in the south, between the 
Harts and Vaal rivers, from which it 
takes its name. 

Vaal River (2626-2923). Tributary 
of the Orange River. It rises near 
Klipstapel in the vicinity of Breyten 
and Lake Chrissie, and flows 
1 355 km south-westwards to join 
the Orange some 13 km west of 



Douglas. Afrikaans for 'grey river', 
referring to the muddy colour of the 
water, the name is translated from 
Khoekhoen Heigariep. 

Vaccas, Angra das 
see Angra das Vaccas 

Vagevuurskloof (C 2919). Region 
some 6 km due west of Pella, south 
of Pella se Berg. Afrikaans for 
'purgatory ravine', the name was 
given by the 18th century traveller 
Colonel R J Gordon in 1779, 
because it is strewn with quartz- 
stones which give off sparks at the 
slightest touch, and because 
Gordon's party traversed it with 
great difficulty. 

Val du Charron (C 3318 DB-3319 
CA). French name of Wamakersvlei. 
Said by some to be derived from the 
pursuit of wagon-building, and by 



others to be named after a French 
refugee named Charron. Also 
encountered as La Vallee de 
Charron. 

Vallei van 'n Duisend Heuwels 
see Valley of a Thousand Hills 

Vallei van Verlatenheid 
see Valley of Desolation 

Valley of a Thousand Hills (N 

2930 DA-DB). Region covering 
parts of the Camperdown, Ndwed- 
we, New Hanover, Pietermaritzburg 
and Pinetown districts. Formed 
through erosion by the Mgeni and 
its tributaries, it presents beautiful 
undulating scenery north-west of 
Durban, south-east of Wartburg and 
east of Pietermaritzburg. 

Valley of Desolation (C 3224 AD). 
Region some 5 km south-west of 
Graaff-Reinet, famous for basaltic 



columns 90 m to 100 m in height. An 
area of rugged beauty, it is a popular 
tourist attraction. 

Valley of Peel (C 3227 DA). Region 
between Kei Road to the northeast and 
Hanover to the south-west. Named 
after Sir Robert Peel, First Lord of the 
Treasury in 1834. Gave its name to 
Peelton, a station of the London 
Missionary Society. 

*Valsbaai see False Bay 

*Vals River (O 2727-2828). Tributary 
of the Vaal River. It rises in the 
Bethlehem district and flows north- 
west for 300 km to its confluence with 
the Vaal 16 km west of Bothaville. 
Afrikaans for 'false or treacherous 
river', the name is translated from 
Khoekhoen Enta, Nta, Entaap, and 
refers either to unexpected depths in 
the river-bed or to changes in its 



course in times of flood. The form 
Valsrivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Valsrivier see Vals River 

*Vanderbijlpark (T 2627 DB). Town 
on the Vaal River, 13 km west of 
Vereeniging and 65 km south-west of 
Johannesburg. Founded as a steel- 
producing town, it was proclaimed in 
1949 and attained municipal status in 
October 1952. Named after Dr 
Hendrik Johannes van der Bijl (1887- 
1948), first Chairman of Escom and 
founder of the South African Iron and 
Steel Industrial Corporation (Iscor), 
who had recommended the town's 
establishment. 

Vanderkloof (C 2924 DD). Village on 
the site of the P K le Roux Dam 
(formerly the Vanderkloof Dam), 9 km 
north-east of Petrusville. It was 



established to house the labour force 
constructing the dam. The name is 
derived from the surname of Petrus J 
van der Walt, and a ravine (Afrikaans 
kloof) in the vicinity. 

*Van Reenen (N 2829 AD). Village 
in the Drakensberg, near the Orange 
Free State border, some 32 km south- 
east of Harrismith and 82 km north- 
east of Ladysmith, at the top of Van 
Reenen's Pass. Named after Frans 
van Reenen (1816-1914), owner of 
the farm and planner of the route of 
the pass. 

Van Reenen's Pass (N 2829 AD). 
Mountain pass across the Drakens- 
berg, between Harrismith and Lady- 
smith. Constructed about 1856, it 
has recently been widenend. It is 
named after Frans van Reenen 
(1816-1914), former owner of a 



farm at its foot, who planned its 
route. 

*Vanrhynsdorp (C 3118 DA). 
Town 307 km north of Cape Town, 
23 km east of Vredendal and 80 km 
north of Clanwilliam. It was laid 
out in 1887 and attained municipal 
status in 1913. Named after Petrus 
Benjamin van Rhyn, owner of the 
farm on which it is situated and 
grandfather of Dr A J R van Rhyn, 
the politician. 

Van Sittert Mountains (C 2822). 
Name bestowed by the Reverend 
John Campbell of the London 
Missionary Society to the Lang- 
berg, in honour of Nicholas van 
Sittert, a statesman. 

Van Stadensriviermond (C 3325 
CC). Coastal resort about 15 km 
east of the mouth of the Gamtoos 



River and 10 km south of Van 
Stadensberg west of Port Elizabeth. 
Afrikaans for 'Van Staden's river 
mouth', it takes its name from its 
position. The river and the moun- 
tain are said to have been named 
after Marthinus van Staden, who 
owned a loan-farm there about 
1744. 

*Van Stadensrus (O 2730 AA). 
Settlement some 30 km south of 
Wepener and 35 km north-north- 
west of Zastron. It was laid out on 
the farm Mook in 1920 and 
proclaimed in 1925. Named after its 
founder, M H van Staden, who 
purchased the farm in 1908 and 
built the Egmeni or Egmont Dam 
nearby. 

*Van Wyksdorp (C 3321 CB). 
Village on the Groot River, some 
55 km south-east of Ladismith and 



66 km north-east of Riversdale. It 
was founded as a parish of the 
Dutch Reformed Church on the 
farm Buffelsfontein in 1904 and 
named after the Van Wyk family. 

*Van Wyksvlei (C 3021 BD). 
Village some 82 km north-west of 
Carnarvon and 157 km south-west 
of Prieska. It was founded in 1882 
and named after a farmer, Van Wyk. 
Well known for its wheat production 
and as an irrigation settlement. 

Vaqueiros, Bahia dos 
see Bahia dos Vaqueiros 

Vechtkop see Vegkop 

*Veertien Strome 
see Fourteen Streams 

Vegkop (O 2727 BD). Hill some 
22 km south of Heilbron and 25 km 
east-north-east of Edenville. 



Formerly Dutch Vechtkop, the name, 
Afrikaans for 'battle hill', refers to 
an attack by 6 000 Matabele on 
16 October 1836 on 35 Boers under 
Sarel Cilliers, in which 430 Mata- 
bele were slain as against two Boers 
dead and 14 wounded. 

*Velddrif (C 3218 CC). Fishing 
village on the Berg River, some 
35 km north-east of Saldanha and 
55 km west of Piketberg. The name 
is Afrikaans and presumably means 
'field-ford', 'ford in the veld'. 

Venda (Ven 2229-2330). Self- 
governing state south of the 
Limpopo River, west of the Kruger 
National Park, and north-east of 
Pietersburg. Formerly known as 
Vendaland, it is so called because the 
Venda or Bavenda inhabit it. The 
name is said to mean 'world' or 
'land'. 



*Ventersburg (O 2827 AA). Town 
50 km south of Kroonstad and 
52 km north of Winburg. It was laid 
out in 1872 on the farm Krom- 
fontein and proclaimed in 1876. 
Named after the owner of the farm, 
the Voortrekker P A Venter. It was 
the scene of fighting during the 
Basotho Wars of 1858 and 1865, 
and was destroyed by British forces 
during the Second Anglo-Boer War. 

*Ventersdorp (T 2626 BD). Town 
55 km north-west of Potchefstroom 
and 143 km west of Johannesburg. It 
was founded in 1866 on the farm 
Roodepoort and proclaimed a town 
in June 1887. Named after Johannes 
Venter, owner of the farm. 

*Venterstad (C 3025 DD). Town 
40 km south-east of NorvaPs Pont and 
60 km north-west of Burgersdorp. It 
was laid out in 1875 and attained 



municipal status in 1895. Named after 
the owner of the land on which it was 
established, Johannes J T Venter. 

*Vereeniging (T 2627 DB). Industrial 
town on the Vaal River, some 50 km 
south of Johannesburg. It came into 
being following the discovery of coal, 
was established on the farms Klip- 
plaatsdrift and Leeuwkuil in 1882, 
proclaimed a town in 1892 and became 
a municipality in 1912. Dutch for 
'association', the name is derived from 
that of the company De Zuid- 
Afrikaansche en Oranje Vrijstaatsche 
Kolen- en Miner alen-Mijn Vereenig- 
ing. 

Verhuellpolis (O 3025 BD). Former 
name of Bethulie. It was given by the 
Reverend J P Pellissier of the French 
Missionary Society in 1835, in honour 
of Admiral Verhuell, first President of 
the Society. 



*Verkeerdevlei (O 2826 DD). Town 
39 km south-east of Brandfort. Afri- 
kaans for 'wrong marsh', the name 
probably refers to an east-west flow of 
water in an area where the direction is 
normally west-east. 

*Verkykerskop (O 2729 CD). Village 
some 35 km east-south-east of Warden 
and 40 km south-west of Memel. 
Afrikaans for 'spy hill', literally 'far- 
looker's hill', the name appears to have 
been taken over from Tafelkop, a hill 
2 153 m high to the south-west of it. 

*Verlorevlei (C 3218). River in the 
Piketberg district, at the mouth of 
which the village of Elands Bay is 
situated, while on its upper course is 
the village of Redelinghuys. The name 
is Afrikaans for 'lost marsh or valley'; 
the Dutch form Verloren Valleij is 
encountered in 1724. It probably refers 
to the way the waters lose themselves 



in the reeds. Other names encounted 
are Cleyne Oliphantsrivier of Zeekoe 
Vallei (1685) and Zand Rivier (1862). 
The Khoekhoen name was Quaecoma. 

*Verneukpan (C 2921 CC). Flat, level 
pan 56 km long and more than 10 km 
wide, some 80 km south of Kenhardt. 
Afrikaans for 'cheat or deceive pan', 
'depression of deception', the name 
refers either to mirages or to the false 
impression of a lake created by the ex- 
panse of shallow water after rains. 
Famous for Sir Malcolm Campbell's 
unsuccessful attempt to break the land 
speed record of 372 km/h in his 
Bluebird on 20 March 1929 when he 
reached a speed of 351 km/h. 

Versfeldpasberg (C 3218 DD). Plateau 
on the Piketberg, named after J P E 
Versfeld who built a pass to the 
summit after 1876 when he bought the 
farm Langeberg. 



*Verulam (N 2931 CA). Principal 
town of the district of Inanda, 31 km 
north of Durban. Founded as a Metho- 
dist settlement in 1850, it was 
proclaimed a township in 1882. 
Named after the Earl of Verulam, 
under whose patronage these settlers 
were brought to South Africa from St 
Albans near the ancient Verulam in 
England. 

*Verwoerdburg (T 2528 CC). Town 
10 km south of Pretoria. It was formed 
by the consolidation of the townships 
Clubview, Eldoraigne, Irene, Kloofsig, 
Lyttelton and portions of farms, and 
acquired municipal status in 1964. 
Several townships were subsequently 
added. Named in 1967 after Hendrik 
Frensch Verwoerd (1901-1966), Prime 
Minister of the Republic of South 
Africa from 1958 to 1966. 



*Vet River (C 3421 A). Tributary of 
the Kafferkuils River. It rises near 
Aasvoelkrans in the Langeberg and 
flows south-east to join the main 
stream several kilometres south-east of 
Riversdale. Afrikaans for 'fat (river)', 
the name is translated from Khoek- 
hoen Gauka. The form Vetrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

*Vet River (O 2725-2826). Tributary 
of the Vaal River. It rises in the Thaba 
Nchu, Senekal and Marquard districts 
and flows 242 km westwards to enter 
the Vaal some 6 km south-east of 
Bloemhof. Afrikaans for 'fat river', 
the name is said to be a translation of 
Khoekhoen Gy Koub, 'large fat'. The 
form Vetrivier is preferred for official 
purposes. 

*Vetrivier see Vet River 



Vhembe (T 2228-2229). Venda 
name of the Limpopo River. Said to 
mean 'the gatherer', or 'river that 
digs deep down'. 

Victoria East (Cis 3226). District of 
which Alice is the principal town. It 
is bounded by the Amatole Moun- 
tains, the Tyume River, the Great 
Fish River and the Kat River. 
Named after Queen Victoria, it was 
proclaimed in December 1847. 

Victoria-Oos see Victoria East 

Victoria-Wes see Victoria West 

*Victoria West (C 3123 AC). Town 
13 km north-west of Hutchinson and 
88 km west of Richmond. It was laid 
out on the farm Zeekoegat in 1844 
and became a municipality in 1858. 
Named Victoria in August 1844 
after the Queen of England, the 
suffix West was added in December 



1855 to distinguish it from the 
district in the Eastern Province. 

*Vier-en-twintig Riviere 
see Twenty-four Rivers 

*Viljoensdrif (O 2627 DB). Coal- 
mining village 8 km south of 
Vereeniging. It takes its name from 
the ford (Afrikaans drif) which was 
closed to ox-wagons by President 
Paul Kruger in 1895 to prevent 
goods reaching the Witwatersrand, 
thus forcing peple to use the 
Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railroad. 
Named after the owner of the place, 
J H Viljoen, who established a ferry 
in 1857. 

*Viljoenshof (C 3419 DA). Village 
some 45 km south-west of Bredas- 
dorp, to the south of Elim. At first 
called Wolfgat; the name was 
changed to Viljoenshof in honour of 



D J Viljoen, Dutch Reformed mini- 
ster of Bredasdorp from 1904 to 
1934. 

*Viljoenskroon (O 2726 BB). Town 
60 km north-west of Kroonstad. It 
was laid out on the farm Mahems- 
kuil in 1921 and attained municipal 
status in 1925. Named after J J 
Viljoen, owner of the- farm, and his 
horse, Kroon. 

Viljoen's Pass (C 3419 AA). 
Mountain pass between Grabouw 
and Villiersdorp, it crosses the 
Groenland Mountains and follows 
the ravine cut by the Palmiet River 
through the Nieuwberg Mountains. 
It was named early in the 20th 
century after the pioneer of the 
Elgin apple industry, Sir Antonie 
Gysbert Viljoen (1858-1918). 



*Villiers (O 2728 BA). Town on the 
Vaal River, 120 km south-east of 
Johannesburg and 88 km north-west 
of Warden. It was established on the 
farms Grootdraai and Pearson 
Valley in 1882, proclaimed in 1891, 
and became a municipality in 1917. 
Named after the owner of the farms, 
L B de Villiers. 

*Villiersdorp (C 3319 CD). Town 
32 km north-west of Caledon and 
52 km south-west of Worcester. It 
was founded in 1844 on the farm 
Radyn and became a municipality in 
1901. Named after its founder, 
Field-Cornet Pieter Hendrik de 
Villiers. The only moskonfyt factory 
in the world is situated here. 

*Virginia (O 2526 BB). Goldmin- 
ing town on the Sand River, 143 km 
north-west of Bloemfontein. It was 
laid out in 1954 and is administered 



by a village management board. The 
name was carved on a boulder on 
the farm Merriespruit by two Ameri- 
can surveyors in 1890, and was sub- 
sequently taken over by the railway 
siding in 1892 and by the town. 
Here is situated the largest sulphuric 
acid plant in the Southern Hemis- 
phere, producing 350 tons per day. 

Visbaai see Fish Bay 

*Vishoek see Fish Hoek 

*Visrivier see Fish River 

Visrivier see Great Fish River 

*Vivo (T 2329 AB). Village in a gap 
between the Blouberg and Sout- 
pansberg, some 72 km west of Louis 
Trichardt. The name is thought to be 
derived from Sotho phefo, 'cold 
wind', though it has been stated that 
the hills resemble the spelling of 



'Vivo' when seen from a certain 
angle. 

Vlaggemans Hoogte (C 3318 CD). 
Former name of Kloof Nek, the saddle 
linking Table Bay and Lion's Head. 
'Flagman's height', after two 
signallers whose hut was situated there 
and who manned the signal station on 
top of Lion's Head. 

*Vleesbaai (C 3421 BD). Inlet on the 
coast of the Indian Ocean, south-west 
of Mossel Bay. Formerly known as 
Angra das Vaccas, it was given the 
name Vleeschbaai in 1601 by Paulus 
van Caerden because here he could 
obtain cattle from the Khoekhoen; the 
name means 'flesh bay'. 

Voel River (C 3225-3325). Tributary 
of the Sundays River. It rises in the 
Tandjiesberg north of Pearston and 
flows south to enter the Sundays at 



Lake Mentz 13 km east of Waterford. 
Afrikaans for 'bird river', the name is 
translated from Khoekhoen Canniga; 
literally 'abounding in birds'. 

*Voelvlei (C 3319 AC). Body of water 
several kilometres south of Gouda and 
some 22 km west of Ceres. Derived 
from Dutch Vogelvalleij , the name 
means 'bird marsh' and refers to the 
abundance of waterfowl encountered 
there. 

*Volksrust (T 2729 DD). Town near 
the Natal border, 240 km southeast of 
Johannesburg, 53 km north of New- 
castle and 80 km southeast of Stander- 
ton. It was laid out in 1888 on the 
farms Boschpad Drift, Rooibult or 
Llanwarne, Verkyk and Zandfontein, 
and proclaimed in 1889. Municipal 
status was attained in 1904. The name 
is Dutch for 'people's rest' and 
probably refers to the burghers resting 



there after the Battle of Majuba on 
27 February 1881. 

Voltas, Angra das 
see Angra das Voltas 

*Voortrekkerhoogte (T 2528 CC). 
Military centre 10 km south-west of 
Pretoria. Founded in 1900 as head- 
quarters of the British Commander-in- 
Chief, Lord Roberts, it was named 
Roberts Heights after him. In 1938 it 
was renamed Voortrekkerhoogte, 
'Voortrekker height', to commemorate 
the centenary of the Great Trek. 

*Vosburg (C 3022 DB). Town 
100 km north-north-west of Victoria 
West, 70 km west of Britstown and 
94 km north-east of Carnarvon. It 
was founded in 1895 and became a 
municipality in 1897. Named after 
the Vos family, who owned the farm 
on which it was laid out. 



*Vrede (O 2729 AC). Town 60 km 
south of Standerton and 216 km 
south-east of Johannesburg. It was 
founded on the farm Krynauwslust 
in 1863 and proclaimed a town in 
June 1879. The name is Afrikaans 
for 'peace', and refers to the 
settlement of a dispute over the 
proposed site of the town. 

*Vredefort (O 2727 AB). Town 
15 km south-west of Parys and 
76 km north-north-east of Kroon- 
stad. It was laid out on the farm 
Vischgat in 1876, proclaimed in 
1881 and became a municipality in 
1890. Literally 'fort of peace', the 
origin of the name is unknown. 

*Vredenburg (C 3217 DD). Town 
165 km north-north-west of Cape 
Town and 11 km north-north-east of 
Saldanha. It was laid out in 1883 
and attained municipal status in 



1932. The name, meaning 'town of 
peace', was given in 1875; prior to 
that date the village bore the name 
of Procesfontein, 'lawsuit fountain'. 

Vredenburg (T 2429 AA). Original 
name of Potgietersrus, bestowed at 
its foundation in 1852. The name 
means 'town of peace', referring to 
a reconciliation between the Voor- 
trekker leaders Andries Pretorius 
and Hendrik Potgieter. 

*Vredendal (C 3118 CB). Town 
19 km south-east of Lutzville and 
26 km west of Vanrhynsdorp. It 
developed from the Olifants River 
Irrigation Scheme and was laid out 
in 1933, attaining municipal status 
in 1963. Dutch for 'dale of peace', 
the name is derived from that of an 
old farm. 



*Vryburg (C 2624 DC). Town 
153 km south-west of Mafikeng and 
205 km north of Kimberley. It was 
founded in 1883 as the capital of the 
Republic of Stellaland and attained 
municipal status in 1896. The 
citizens of the republic styled 
themselves free citizens or burghers, 
vryburgers in Dutch, from which 
term the name of the town was 
derived. 

*Vryheid (N 2730 DD). Town 
415 km north of Durban and 75 km 
north-east of Dundee. It was 
established as capital of the New 
Republic on 12 November 1884, 
attained the status of township in 
1903 and became a borough in 1912. 
Afrikaans for 'freedom', the name 
refers to the freedom Lucas Meyer 
and his followers hoped their 
republic would bring. 



Vrywilligersrus (C 2525 DD). 
Former name of Rooigrond. It is 
Afrikaans and means 'volunteers' 
rest'; the ground was ceded by 
Tswana chiefs in the 1880s to Boer 
volunteers under Adriaan de la Rey. 

Vuna (N 2731-2831). 'Tributary of 
the Black Mfolozi, flowing south on 
the western side of Nongoma to the 
confluence at Dayeni. Derived from 
Zulu, the name is said to mean 'the 
harvester', because the river often 
washes away the crops. 

Vungu (N 3030 CC). River which 
rises near KwaGamalakhe and flows 
south-east to enter the Indian Ocean 
at Uvongo. Said to be derived from 
Zulu imvungu, 'murmuring sound', 
'the growling one', referring to the 
waterfall at the lagoon. Formerly 
spelt Uvongo. 



Vuurberg (C 3318 CD). Highest 
point on Robben Island. Afrikaans 
for 'fire mountain', the name refers 
to signal-fires made here in the early 
days of the Dutch East India 
Company to indicate the arrival at 
night of ships in Table Bay. 

Vuurdoodberg (C 2818 CD). 
Mountain near Goodhouse, south of 
Ramansdrif on the bank of the 
Orange River. Translated from 
Khoekhoen /Ae//os, this Afrikaans 
name means 'fire-death mountain', 
from the rapidity with which the last 
rays of the sun fade from it. 



w 

*Waenhuiskrans (C 3420 CA). 
Seaside village on Marcus Bay, 
24 km south-east of Bredasdorp. 
Afrikaans for 'barn or coach-house 
cliff, the name refers to a large sea- 
cave in the vicinity. The name 
Arniston has been applied to the 
village by an estate agency, but it 
has no official status. 

Wagon Hill (N 2829 CB). Near 
Ladysmith; scene of a number of 
engagements during the Anglo-Boer 
War, notably at the time of the Siege 
of Ladysmith from November 1899 
to February 1900. Named for its 
shape. Known in Afrikaans as Plat- 
rand, 'flat ridge'. 

*Wakkerstroom (T 2730 AC). 
Town on the Natal border, 27 km 
east of Volksrust and 56 km south- 



east of Amersfoort. It was laid out 
on the farm Gryshoek, proclaimed in 
1859, and administered by a village 
council from 1910. Originally 
named Marthinus-Wesselstroom, it 
became known as Wesselstroom and 
then Wakkerstroom, 'awake stream', 
'lively stream', after the river, 
which also gave its name to the 
district, namely the Mzinyati. 

Walker Bay (C 3419 A-C). Bay 
between Mudge Point and Danger 
Point, into which the Klein River 
flows, and on the shore of which 
Hermanus, Gansbaai and Die 
Kelders are situated. Named after a 
Mr Walker who was a Master in the 
Royal Navy, and who discovered it 
prior to 1833. 

*Walvisbaai see Walvis Bay 



*Walvis Bay (S 2214 CD). Inlet on 
the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of 
the Kuiseb River, south of Swakop- 
mund and north of Sandwich Bay. 
Named Golfo de Santa Maria da 
Conceicao by Bartolomeu Dias on 
8 December 1487, it was later 
known as Golfo da Baleia or 'bay of 
whales' by the Portuguese. This is 
also the meaning of the present 
Dutch-Afrikaans name. Variant 
spellings include Waalvisch, Waal- 
wich, Walefish, Walfish, Walvisch, 
Walwish, and Woolwich. 

*Walvis Bay (S 2214 CD). Town at 
the mouth of the Kuiseb River, 
29 km south of Swakopmund and 
407 km west-south-west of Wind- 
hoek. It was administered by a 
village management board from 
1925 and by a municipal council 
from 1931. Takes its name from the 



bay on which it is situated. The 
form Walvisbaai is preferred for 
official purposes. 

*Warden (O 2723 BA). Town 
56 km north of Harrismith and 
106 km south-south-east of Villiers. 
It was laid out on the farm Rietvlei 
in 1912, proclaimed in 1913, and 
attained municipal status in 1920. 
Said to be named after Charles 
Frederick Warden, landdrost of 
Harrismith from 1884 to 1900. 

Warmbad (S 2818 BD). Town 
84 km north of Goodhouse and 
50 km south of Karasburg. It 
developed from a mission station 
founded by the Albrecht brothers in 
1805, was destroyed in 1811 and 
reopened in 1818 by Robert Moffat. 
A village management board was 
instituted in 1925. Known to the 
Khoekhoen as /Ai//gams, 'hot 



water', the place was named 
Warmbad, Afrikaans for 'hot bath', 
after the hot springs there. Other 
names borne by the place were 
Blijde Uitkomst and Nisbet Bath. 

*Warmbad see Warmbaths 

*Warmbaths (T 2428 CD). Town 
100 km north of Pretoria. It was 
laid out in 1882 on the farms Het 
Bad, Noodshulp, Roodepoort and 
Turfbult, and attained municipal 
status in 1932. The town was 
proclaimed as Hartingsburg in 
1882 but renamed Warmbad in 
1920. Afrikaans for 'hot bath', the 
name refers to a hot spring there; 
the place was also known as Het 
Bad ('the bath') and Badplaats 
('place of the bath'). The form 
Warmbad is preferred for official 
purposes. 



Warm Bokkeveld (C 3319). Re- 
gion situated north of the Hex River 
Mountains, with Ceres as principal 
town. The name is Afrikaans for 
'hot buck-veld'; it was so called to 
distinguish it from the Cold 
Bokkeveld. 

*Warmwaterberg (C 3320 D). 
Mountain range north of the Lange- 
berg, between Barrydale and Ladi- 
smith. Afrikaans for 'hot water 
mountain', the name refers to hot 
springs at its base which have been 
medicinally exploited. 

*Warner Beach (N 3030 BB). 
Seaside resort on the Indian Ocean, 
31 km south-west of Durban, between 
Amanzimtoti and Doonside. It was 
founded about 1910 and named after T 
A Warner, who surveyed it. 



*Warrenton (C 2824 BB). Town on 
the Vaal River, 70 km north of Kim- 
berley. It was laid out on the farm 
Grasbult in 1884 and became a 
municipality in 1948. Named after Sir 
Charles Warren (1840-1927), soldier 
and archaeologist, who was appointed 
in 1877 to deal with land allocations 
and mineral rights in Griqualand West. 

*Wartburg (N 2930 BC). Village 
27 km north-east of Pietermaritzburg 
and 50 km south of Greytown. 
Administered by a health committee 
since 1950, it was named after the 
castle in Saxony where Martin Luther 
translated the Bible into German. 

*Wasbank (N 2830 AC). Village on 
the Wasbank River, 25 km southwest 
of Dundee. Takes its name from the 
Wasbank River. 



Wasbank River (N 2830 A-C). Tribu- 
tary of the Sundays River. It rises west 
of Glencoe and flows mainly south to 
enter the Sundays some 30 km west of 
Pomeroy. Afrikaans for 'washing- 
ledge river', the name is said to refer 
to the large amount of washing done 
there. The occurrence of a Wasbank- 
spruit further north, west of Utrecht, 
poses the question whether the 
existence of rock slabs suitable for 
washing did not give rise to the name. 
The Zulu name is Busi, 'the dominant 
one'. 

Waterberg (S 2017 A-C). Plateau 
64 km long and 15 km wide, in the 
Otjiwarongo district. The name, 
Afrikaans for 'water mountain', refers 
to the numerous springs in the slopes. 
It has given its name to the settlement 
Waterberg some 64 km east of Otjiwa- 



rongo, which is known in Herero as 
Otjozondjupa, 'place of the gourds'. 

Waterberge (T 2427-2428). Mountain 
range extending roughly east and west, 
between Potgietersrus and Thaba- 
zimbi. The name is Afrikaans and 
means 'water mountain', referring to 
the hot and cold mineral springs there, 
and to the abundance of water in 
general; the Nyl, Palala and Pongola 
rivers rise in this range. 

*Waterval-Boven (T 2530 CB). 
Town 262 km east of Pretoria and 
14 km by road north-east of 
Machadodorp. It developed from a 
railway supply depot established on 
the farm Doornhoek in 1895 and has 
been administered by a health 
committee since October 1898. The 
name, Dutch for 'above the water- 
fall', refers to the situation of the 
town above falls in the Elands 



River. Similarly Waterval Onder is 
below the waterfall. 

Waterval River (T 2628-2629). 
Tributary of the Vaal River. It rises 
near Leslie and flows south-west to 
the confluence 25 km south of 
Greylingstad. Afrikaans for 'water- 
fall (river)', the name refers to a fall 
of 12 m at the confluence. 

Watervals River (T 2430 C-2530 
A). Tributary of the Steelpoort 
River. It rises some 32 km south- 
west of Lydenburg and flows north- 
wards to its confluence with the 
main stream south of Burgersfort. 
The name is Afrikaans and means 
'waterfalls river'. 

*Waveren see Land van Waveren 

*Weenen (N 2830 CC). Town on 
the Bushmans River, 35 km north- 
east of Estcourt and 30 km east- 



south-east of Colenso. It was laid 
out in April 1838 and has been 
administered by a town board since 
1910. The name, Dutch for 'weep- 
ing', refers to the massacre by Zulus 
in February 1838 of 182 Voortrek- 
kers in the neighbourhood after the 
murder of Retief and his party by 
Dingane (Dingaan). 

Weeskind (C 3018 AC). Granite 
peak in the Kamiesberg, just south 
of Boegoeberg and some 8 km 
south-south-west of Leliefontein. 
Afrikaans for 'orphan', the name 
refers to its solitary situation. 

Weissrand (S 2517-2518). Plateau 
up to 80 km wide, extending 300 km 
from near Mariental to Gibeon, and 
presenting a long line of cliffs when 
viewed from the west. German for 
'white ridge', the name is probably 
translated from Khoekhoen Urina- 



nib. Some sources indicate it as 
extending parallel to and east of the 
road between Gibeon and Asab. 

*Welkom (O 2726 DC). Gold- 
mining town 158 km north-east of 
Bloemfontein and 66 km south-west 
of Kroonstad. It was laid out on the 
farm Welkom and proclaimed in 
July 1948, and became a munici- 
pality in January 1961. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'welcome'. Its 
growth was so rapid that it is the 
second largest town in the Orange 
Free State. 

*Wellington (C 3319 CA). Town 
72 km north-east of Cape Town and 
13 km north of Paarl. It was estab- 
lished in 1840 and became a munici- 
pality in 1873. Named by Governor 
Sir George Napier after the Duke of 
Wellington, who defeated Napoleon 
at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. 



The town is well known as an 
education centre. Prior to 1838 the 
place was known as Wagenmakers 
Valley. 

*Welwitschia (S 2014 BD). Former 
name of Khorixas. It was laid out in 
1954 and attained a village manage- 
ment board in 1957. Named after the 
Welwitschia bainesii, the only South 
African representative of the order 
of Gnetales. This plant in turn takes 
its name from the Austrian botanist 
who discovered it, Friedrich Martin 
Josef Welwitsch (1807-1872). 

*Wepener (O 2927 CA). Town near 
the Lesotho border, 127 km south- 
east of Bloemfontein and 69 km 
north of Zastron. It was established 
as a buffer against the Basotho, 
acquired a village management 
board in 1875 and attained munici- 
pal status in 1904. Named after 



Lourens Jacobus (Louw) Wepe- 
ner,(1812-1865), who was killed on 
15 August 1865 in the storming of 
Thaba Bosigo. 

*Wesley (Cis 3327 AD). Village on 
the Twecu, a tributary of the Chal- 
umna River, 69 km south of King 
William's Town. Founded by 
William Shaw of the Wesleyan 
Missionary Society in 1823, it was 
probably named after the founder of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church, 
John Wesley. 

*Wesselsbron (O 2726 CD). Town 
32 km east of Hoopstad and 48 km 
north-west of Welkom. It was laid 
out in 1920 and became a munici- 
pality in 1936. Named after 
Commandant Cornells J Wessels 
who was in command of the Siege 
of Kimberley from 13 October 1899 



to 12 February 1900. Bron is Afrikaans 
for 'source', 'spring'. 

Westelike Provinsie 
see Western Province 

Western Province (C 3318-3520). 
Colloquial term for the Western Cape 
Province. In June 1827 the Secretary of 
State, General Bourke, determined that 
this region would incorporate the 
districts of the Cape, Stellenbosch, 
Swellendam (including Caledon), and 
Worcester (including Clanwilliam, the 
Nuweveld and Tulbagh). 

*Westminster (O 2927 AA). Village 
98 km east of Bloemfontein and 40 km 
west of Ladybrand. It was founded 
after the Second Anglo-Boer War 
(1899-1902) by the Duke of West- 
minster to settle British ex-soldiers, and 
named after him. 



*Westonaria (T 2627 BC). Town 
some 45 km west of Johannesburg and 
18 km south of Randfontein. It was 
formed in 1948 by the amalgamation of 
the townships Venterspost, proclaimed 
in 1937, and Westonaria, proclaimed in 
1938. At first called Venterspost; the 
name was changed to Westonaria when 
municipal status was attained in 1952. 
The name is a homophone of 'western 
area', after the township developing 
company Western Areas Ltd. 

*Westville (N 2930 DD). Town some 
10 km west-north-west of Durban and 
6 km east of Pinetown. It developed 
from a settlement of German immi- 
grants who arrived in 1948, and was 
proclaimed a borough in 1956. Named 
after Martin West, the first Lieutenant- 
Governor of Natal, in 1845. 

*Weza (N 3029 CB). Village some 
20 km west of Harding and 50 km east 



of Kokstad. It takes its name from the 
Weza River, a northern tributary of the 
Mtamvuna. Of Zulu origin, the name is 
said to mean 'to cause to cross over'. 

*White River (T 2531 AC). Town 
26 km north-east of Nelspruit and 
37 km south-west of the Numbi gate to 
the Kruger National Park. It has been 
administered by a village council since 
1937. It takes its name from the river 
nearby. The form Witrivier is 
preferred for official purposes. 

White's Villa (C 3322 CD). Former 
name of Blanco. It was given in 1847 
after Henry Fancourt White, an 
engineer engaged in the construction 
of the Montagu Pass between 1844 
and 1847. 

*Whittlesea (Cis 3226 BB). Village 
37 km south of Queenstown. It was 
founded in 1849 and became a defence 



outpost in the Frontier War of 1850- 
1853. Named after Whittlesea in 
Cambridgeshire, birthplace of Sir 
Harry Smith (1787-1860), Governor of 
the Cape Colony from 1847 to 1852. 

WUge River (O 2728-2829). Tributary 
of the Vaal River. It rises in the 
Harrismith district, on the western 
slopes of the Drakensberg, and flows 
400 km to enter the Vaal48 km north- 
west of Frankfort. The name is 
Afrikaans for 'willow (river)'. 

*Wilge River (T 2529-2629). 
Tributary of the Olifants River. It rises 
in the vicinity of Devon and Leslie, 
and flows north, north-east and east to 
join the Olifants 32 km north of Wit- 
bank. The name is Afrikaans for 
'willow (river)'. The form Wilgerivier 
is preferred for official purposes. 

*Wilgerivier see Wilge River 



Willem Pretorius Game Reserve (O 

2827 AC). On the Allemanskraal 
Dam, 32 km north of Winburg and 
160 km north-east of Bloemfontein. 
Named after Senator Willem Pretorius, 
member of the Orange Free State 
Executive Committee, who was instru- 
mental in its establishment. 

*Willem Pretoriuswildtuin 

see Willem Pretorius Game Reserve 

*Williston (C 3120 BD). Town 
103 km north-east of Calvinia and 
140 km south-west of Carnarvon. It 
developed from the Rhenish mission 
station Amandelboom established in 
1845, and became a municipality in 
1881. At first known as Amandel- 
boom, it was renamed in 1919 after 
Colonel Hampden Willis, Colonial 
Secretary in 1883. 



*Willowmore (C 3323 AD). Town 
140 km north-east of Knysna and 
117 km south-west of Aberdeen. It 
was laid out in 1862 on the farm 
The Willows. It is uncertain whether 
the name is derived from this farm 
name and that of its owner, William 
Moore, or from the maiden name of 
Petronella Catharina Lehmkuhl and 
a willow-tree near her house. 

*Willowvale (Trsk 3228 AD). Town 
in Galekaland, 32 km southeast of 
Idutywa. It was established as a 
military post in 1879 and so named 
because of its situation on a stream 
with willow trees on its banks. 

*Winburg (0 2827 CA). Town 
116 km north-east of Bloemfontein 
and 51 km south-south-west of 
Ventersburg. It was laid out on the 
farm Waaifontein in 1841 and 
became a municipality in 1872. The 



name, originally spelt Wenburg, 
means 'town of winning'; it may 
refer to a military victory over the 
Matabele at Mosega on 17 January 
1837, or to the triumph of the 
protagonists of Waaifontein as site 
of the town. 

Wind Hill (C 3318 CD). Early name 
of Devil's Peak. Bestowed because 
of the violent winds which appear to 
blow downwards from its summit. 

*Windhoek (S 2217 CA). Capital of 
South-West Africa/Namibia, 378 km 
east of Swakopmund and 224 km 
east of Gobabis. It developed from a 
military post established in 1890, 
became a municipality in 1909 and 
attained city status in October 1965. 
Named /Ail/gams by the Nama and 
Otjomuise by the Herero, the place 
was also known as Queen Ade- 
laide's Bath, Elberfeld and Concor- 



diaville. The name Windhoek, 
Afrikaans for 'wind corner', is poss- 
ibly an adaptation of Winterhoek, 
near Tulbagh in the Cape; Jonker 
Afrikaner, who first used the name 
Windhoek, came from there. 

Windsor (N 2829 DD). Former 
name of Ladysmith, given after a 
trader, George Windsor. 

*Windsorton (C 2824 BC). Village 
on the Vaal River, 50 km northeast 
of Barkly West and 40 km south- 
west of Warrenton. It was founded 
in 1869 as a diamond-diggers' camp 
and is administered by a village 
management board. At first known 
as Hebron, it was renamed after P E 
Windsor who was instrumental in its 
development. The Khoekhoen name 
is Chaib, 'place of the kudu'. 



Windy City (C 3325 DC). Popular 
name of Port Elizabeth. Prevailing 
winds have caused pine-trees on the 
shore to lean permanently at an 
angle. 

Winterberge (C 3226 A). Mountain 
range extending east and west, about 
halfway between Tarkastad in the 
north and Bedford, Adelaide and 
Fort Beaufort in the south. Afri- 
kaans for 'winter mountain', the 
name is derived from the climate in 
that season, when the peaks are 
covered with snow for three months. 
Also known as Thaba Yamoya, 
'mountain of wind'. 

Winterhoek Mountains (C 3324- 
3325). These consist of the Great 
Winterhoek Mountains with Cocks- 
comb as highest peak, north-west of 
Uitenhage, and the Little Winter- 
hoek Mountains north of Steytler- 



ville, Kleinpoort and Kirkwood. The 
name, Afrikaans for 'winter corner 
or glen', is derived from the loftiest 
peaks being snow-covered in winter. 

*Winterton (N 2829 DC). Village 
on the Little Tugela River, 19 km 
east-south-east of Bergville and 
48 km south-west of Ladysmith. It 
was laid out in 1905 and has been 
administered by a health committee 
since 1947. Originally called 
Springfield, it was renamed in 1910 
in honour of the Secretary for 
Agriculture in Natal, H D Winter. 

*Witbank (T 2529 CC). Coal- 
mining and industrial town 115 km 
east of Pretoria and 100 km east- 
north-east of Springs. It was laid out 
on the farm Swartbos in 1903 and 
became a municipality in 1910. The 
name is Afrikaans for 'white sill or 
slab' and refers to an outcrop of 



light-coloured rock near the present 
railway-station. Twentytwo collie- 
ries nearby produce two-thirds of 
South Africa's coal. 

Witberg (C 3320 A). Mountain 
range extending east and west 
between Touwsrivier and Laings- 
burg, south of Matjiesfontein. For- 
merly Witteberge, this Afrikaans 
name, meaning 'white mountain', is 
translated from Khoekhoen Gaikou. 

*Witrivier see White River 

Witsenberg (C 3319 AA-AD). 
Mountain range extending north and 
south, east of Tulbagh and north- 
west of Ceres. Named in 1699 by 
W A van der Stel after a friend, 
Nicolaes Witsen, a Director of the 
Dutch East India Company and 
thirteen times Mayor of Amsterdam. 



*Witsieshoek (O 2828 DB). Reserve 
north-east of Lesotho and northwest 
of the Bergville district. Named 
after Oetse, also Witsie and Wetsi, a 
Makholoko chief who lived there 
from 1839 to 1856. Now named 
Phuthaditjhaba, it is in the homeland 
of Qua Qua. 

Witteberge see Witberg 

*Witvlei (S 2218 AD). Village on 
the White Nossob River, 50 km west 
of Gobabis and 178 km north-east of 
Windhoek. It developed from a 
German military station established 
in 1898 and has been administered 
by a village management board 
since 1952. The name, Afrikaans for 
'white marsh', is a translation of 
Nama !Uri!khuwis. The Herero 
name is Omataura. 



Witwatersrand (T 2627). Region 
originally extending roughly from 
Springs in the east to Randfontein in 
the west, thus corresponding to the 
concentration of gold-mining and 
industrial activities. After the 
discovery of gold near Klerksdorp 
and Potchefstroom in the south- 
west, and Evander in the east, the 
term was extended to include these 
areas. Afrikaans for 'white waters 
ridge', the name was first applied to 
the watershed between the Vaal and 
Limpopo rivers, and later extended. 
The name has been used since about 
1856. 

Wlotzkas Baken (S 2214 AD). 
Holiday resort on the Atlantic 
Ocean, 32 km north of Swakopmund 
and 42 km south-east of Henties 
Bay. It developed from 1936 and is 
occupied only during the summer 



holiday season. Named after a 
fisherman called Wlotzka and a 
survey beacon on the coast. 

Wodehouse (C 3126-3127). District 
of which Dordrecht is the principal 
town. It is situated along the north- 
eastern slopes of the Stormberg range. 
Proclaimed in 1871, it is named after 
Sir Philip Wodehouse (1811-1887), 
Governor of the Cape Colony from 
1862 to 1870. 

Wolfgat (C 3419 DA). Former name 
of Viljoenshof. Afrikaans for 'wolf- 
hole', it probably refers to hyena 
(Crocuta crocuta), often wolf in 
Afrikaans. 

*Wolkberg (T 2330 CA). Mountain in 
the Drakensberg, 25 km southwest of 
Tzaneen. Afrikaans for 'cloud moun- 
tain', the name refers to the fact that 
the summit is often covered in cloud. 



*Wolmaransstad (T 2725 AB). Town 
245 km south-west of Johannesburg 
and 56 km north-east of Bloemhof. It 
was laid out on the farms Rooderand 
and Vlakfontein in 1888, and 
proclaimed a town in 1891. Named 
after Jacobus M A Wolmarans, then 
member of the Executive Council. 

*Wolseley (C 3319 AC). Town some 
14 km south-south-east of Tulbagh 
and 17 km south-west of Ceres. It was 
established on the farm Goedgevonden 
in 1875 and attained municipal status 
in 1955. Named after Sir Garnet 
Joseph Wolseley (1833-1913), Com- 
mander of the British forces in the 
Zulu War in 1879; prior to that it was 
known as Ceres Road. 

*Wooldridge (Cis 3327 AB). Village 
16 km east of Peddie. It developed 
from a settlement of the German 
Legion. Named after Colonel J W 



Wooldridge who was an officer under 
Baron von Stutterheim. 

*Worcester (C 3319 CB). Town in 
the Breede River Valley, 121 km east- 
north-east of Cape Town and 52 km 
north-west of Robertson. It was estab- 
lished on the farms Langerug and 
Roodewal in 1820 and became a 
municipality in 1842. Named by Lord 
Charles Somerset, then Governor of 
the Cape, after his brother, the 
Marquis of Worcester. Famous for its 
winter sports, including skiing, and 
for its schools for the blind and 
deaf. 

*Wuppertal (C 3219 AC). Mission 
village 72 km south-east of Clan- 
william. It was established in 
January 1830 as a farm of the 
Rhenish Missionary Society and 
named after the valley (German 
Ta/)of the Wupper River in 



Germany, site of the Rhenish 
Mission Institute at Barmen. 



Xabane (Trsk 3128 BC). Tributary 
of the Mtata. It rises about 8 km 
south-west of Tsolo and flows south 
to enter the main stream just above 
the Mtata Dam north-west of 
Umtata. The name is said to be 
derived from Nguni ukuxabana, 'to 
quarrel', referring to fights arising 
over cattle-raiding. 

*Xalanga (Trsk 3127). District of 
which Cala is the principal town, 
bounded by the districts of Indwe, 
Elliot, Engcobo, St Marks and Glen 
Grey. The name is derived from 
Xhosa ixalanga, 'vultures', which 
occur in large numbers; an 
alternative explanation is that a hill 
there resembles a vulture about to 

fly- 



Xobho (N 3030 AA-AB). Tributary 
of the Nhlavini River. It rises near 
Ixopo and flows east to join the 
main stream at Dawn Valley, some 
16 km north of Highflats. Derived 
from Zulu, the name is said either to 
mean 'marsh' or to be an onomato- 
poeic rendering of the sound made 
by a hoof being pulled free of the 
sticky mud or squelchy marsh. Also 
encountered as Xobo and Ixopo. 

Xobo see Xobho and Ixopo 

Xuka River (Trsk 3127-3128). 
Tributary of the Mbashe. It rises 
east of Cala and south of Elliot, and 
flows south-east to enter the Mbashe 
about 30 km east of Engcobo. The 
name is said to be derived from 
Xhosa xukuxa, 'gargle', referring to 
the sound of water gurgling over 
stones. 



*Xuxuwa (C 3226 C-D). Tributary 
of the Kat River. It rises west of 
Fort Beaufort and flows south-east 
to join the main stream near the 
Ciskei border. Also spelt Xoxo, Xu- 
Xuwe and Klu Klu (x being a click 
similar in sound to kl), the name 
refers to a former chief injured in a 
skirmish, an incident which led to 
the 1835 War. The name is said to 
mean 'frog' or 'toad'. 



Yellowwoods River (Cis 3227 CB- 
CD). Tributary of the Buffalo River. 
It rises north-west of Kei Road and 
flows mainly south past King 
William's Town to join the main 
stream east of Zwelitsha. Named 
after the yellowwood trees 
(Podocarpus sp.) growing on its 
banks. The Khoekhoen name of this 
river is encountered as Kameka and 
Kamka, adapted in Xhosa as z- 
Ncemera. 

Ysselstein Bay see Simon's Bay 

Ysterfontein (C 3218 BA). Fishing 
village in the Malmesbury district, 
23 km west of Darling and 98 km 
north of Cape Town. The name is 
Afrikaans and means 'iron foun- 
tain', referring to a fountain in the 
ironstone formation there. 



Ystervarkpunt (C 3421 BC). 
Promontory on the southern Cape 
coast, 15 km west-south-west of 
Gouritsmond and 25 km south-east 
of Albertinia. The name, Afrikaans 
for 'porcupine point', at first Dutch 
Yzervark Punt, is derived from the 
porcupine (Hystrix africae-australis). 

Yzervark Punt see Ystervarkpunt 



Zakrivier see Sak River 

*Zastron (O 3027 AC). Town at the 
foot of the Aasvoelberg, 200 km 
south-east of Bloemfontein and 72 km 
south of Wepener. It was founded on 
the farm Verliesfontein in 1876 and 
named after Johanna Siberia Brand, 
nee Zastron, wife of President Brand 
of the Orange Free State. 

*Zebediela (T 2429). Alternative 
(older) name of the Nkumpi, it gave its 
name to a famous citrus estate. Said to 
be derived from the nickname of Chief 
Mamukebe, who was friendly towards 
white settlers at a time of general 
hostility, and to mean 'diplomat' or 
'peacemaker'. Another derivation is 
'the one who conceals', referring to 
cattle-rustlers who sought refuge in his 
village. 



Zebra Mountains (S 1713 AB). Range 
extending north-west and south-east 
for about 48 km, situated between the 
Kunene, Omuhonga and Otjitanga 
rivers in Kaokoland. Named after its 
striped appearance caused by ironstone 
ridges alternating with declivities in 
which pale-coloured vegetation 
occurs. 

*Zeerust (T 2526 CA). Principal town 
of the Marico district, 67 km north- 
east of Mafikeng and 102 km west- 
north-west of Koster. It was laid out in 
1867 on the farm Hazenjacht, formerly 
Sebatlani, proclaimed a town in 
October 1880 and acquired municipal 
status in 1936. The name is derived 
from Coetzee-Rust, 'Coetzee's rest', 
after the owner of the farm, Diederik J 
Coetzee. 

Zikhali's Horn (N 2829 CC). Former 
name for Cathedral Peak; named after 



an Ngwanene chief who lived at its 
base. 

*Zinkwazi (N 2931 B-D). River 
which flows past Darnell and enters 
the Indian Ocean at Zinkwazi Beach 
some 10 km south-west of Tugela 
Mouth. Derived from Zulu nkwazi, 
'fish-eagle' (Haliaetus vocifer), which 
nest in great numbers at the lagoon at 
the mouth of this river. 

*Zoar (C 3321 AD). Village and 
mission station 21 km east of 
Ladismith. It was founded by the 
South African Missionary Society 
on the farm Elandsfontein in 1817 
and named after Zoar on the Red 
Sea, mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 
14:2-8). The name at first meant 
'insignificance', but when Lot fled 
thither from Sodom, it acquired the 
meaning of 'refuge', 'haven'. 



Zoeloeland see Zululand 

Zotsha (N 3030 CD). River which 
flows east-south-east to enter the 
Indian Ocean at Izotsha, some 7 km 
south-west of the mouth of the 
Mzimkulu River. Of Zulu origin, the 
name is said to be derived either 
from that of a tribe which lived 
there in former times, or after huts 
built on its banks. 

Zoutpansberg see Soutpansberg 

Zululand (N 2730-2931). Historical 
region north of the Tugela River 
from its mouth to its confluence 
with the Mzinyati, and thence to its 
source in the Drakensberg. Named 
after the Zulu people who inhabit it. 
The name Zulu, said to be derived 
from that of an early chief, is 
believed to mean 'heaven'. The 



name of KwaZulu will have the 
same origin. 

Zuurveld see Suurveld 

Zwartland see Swartland 

Zwartruggens see Swartruggens 

*Zwelitsha (Cis 3227 CD). Capital 
of the Ciskei, about 9 km southeast 
of King William's Town. The name 
is Xhosa and means 'new world', 
'new land'. 



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Driving along the national road, who has not wondered at the 
eerie portent ol the signpost to Moordenaarspoort, or con- 
sidered the intriguing possibilities of Pampoenkraal or Hotazal? 
How many people know that the name ' Arniston', ol the seaside 
vi I lage onlheCape coast, has no official status, and that its real 
name is Waenhuiskrans? 

In Hi is highly readable and entertaining book Peter Raper 
tak es u s o n a fasc i n ati ng | o u rn ey of t h e h i g hways a n d by ways of 
Southern Africa, sharing with us Ihe origins ol the names of 
towns and villages, mountains and rivers Whether you are a 
motorist, an adventurer or merely an armchair traveller, this 
book has a multitude of facts and details that will amuse and 
interest you 

iged alphabetically for quick and easy reference, this is 
much more than a reference book It may be dipped Into or read 
from cover to cover and It contains a wealth of social , linguistic 
storical information. 




DR PETER RAPER is currenlly head of Ihe O 
Centre of the Human Sciences Resea> 
is also the South African representative I 
Group ot Experts on Geographical Mames (UNGEG 

,nson among co 
n of geographical names 



T f 





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